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Full text of "Compute! Magazine Issue 057"

Reflections Of A Game Designer: Author Michael Crichton 



$2.95 
February 
1985 
Issue 57 
Vol. 7, No. 2 

S3.50 Canada 

02193 

ISSN 019d-347X © 



COMPiTTE! 

The Leading Magazine Of Home, Educational, And Recreational Computing 

Special Games Issue 

Reody-To-Use Software 
For Commodore 64. VIC-20. Atari, Apple, IBM 



Advanced Sound Effects 
On The Commodore 64 

Plus/Term 
Modem Program 
For 64 & VIC-20 

Adding Sound Effects 
To Atari 



Acrobat: 

Exciting Animated 
Game For 64, VIC, 
Atari 



The New Atari: 
COiVlPUTE! Interviews^ ( 

Sigmund Hartmann ^ x » 



71486"02193' 



02 




RITEMAN R64. 

IT MAKES THE RIGHT 

IMPRESSION! 

Super impressive performanceii^gper imprareTve reliability. THrlliteman R64 is the portable dot matrix impact 

printeffdr-people who want to make the right impression! 
Plug and software compatible with the Commodore 64' ^ it's ready to run without any set-up hassles. 
It even has a secohid parallel port and comes with Epson** software so it can be used with many other 

personal computer systems. 
And the R64 prints at a healthy 120 cps with t rue descenders . . .on cut paper or continuous computer paper. 
Compact, hard-working, and backed by a full one-year warranty . The Riteman R64. Call toll free for the dealer 
or dep artmenrstore nearest you: Toll Free number (800) 824-3044 (outside Calif.), (800) 421-2S51 (in Calif.). 



ITI 








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Check out these impressive specs - 




PRINT METHOD hnpaci Dot Mife 

SOFTWARE COHPATiBILrrY (1) Cammwtort Mi- r 

(Z) mmm plus, epson mx e. 

TVpe3C+ 

(lee printing msde 2) 

PRINTING MODE (1) HevBRod, Eqiandid and comliinallon 

P) Nomial, Expanded, Compressed, 
Itsllcs, Dttubis Strike, Emphasized, 
Underline, Super/Subscripts and 
CombinatiDn 

CHARACTER MATRIX 9x9 

CHARACTER TYPES ASCII 96 

Italics 96 

Seml-gfaphlct 32 

Conmodorg Graphic 64 

PRiHT SPEED 120 CPS 

LWHS) SPEED 100 m 

THBOaCH PUT SPEED G3 LPM 

COPY Mgiital + 2 



-5 

essed 132 * ^H 

led 40 m 

e«8ed Expanded G6 m 



OFCOIUMNS Normal 

Comjiressed 
Eit^ded 
Comprised I 
< UNESPACIKG Tffi". W, 7/72". N/72'", W218" 

• PAPER FEED Friction Feed 

Sprsckel Feed 

• PAPER WIDTH Cut Paper 4 - 9" 

Roll Paper 4-9" 

FaitfoM Paper 9Vk" 

• RIBBON UFE 1 nilillon ctiaracten * ' ■""" '"'P''<"'> 

• INKED RIBBON Exclusive Castette Ribbon (Black) 

• HEADUFE 100 million characters 

• INTERFACE Serial (Commodore) 

Parallel (Centronics) 

• SIZE 2 7/8" (H) X 10 9^6" (D| X 14" (W) 

• WEIGHT .,. 11 lbs. 

• WARRANTY ::,;.,.... 1 ^r (Parts and labofl 

• ACCESSORY FfiMef CaSle (Commodore) 

• OPTION Tnwtor Un!t 



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Airport Business Center 431 N. Oak St. Inglewoo 




'Commodore and Commodore 64, MPS^SOI, 803, VIC 1525, are registered trademarks ol 
Commodore Business Machines, Inc. 

"Epson and Epson MX-80 are registered trademarks of Epson America Corp. 



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Speil expertly 1000 of the most misspelled 
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ages 6 - 12 / 2 diskS: $49.95 



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Add 675 new words to your vocabulary - 
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increase your reading speed and improve 
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For your Apple, IBM or commodore 64. 
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Apple. IBM and Commobore 64 are trademarks raapsclively of Apple Compulars, Inc., InternaKonal Business Machines Corp,, and Commodore Business Machines. Inc. 




INTRODUCING NEW KODAK DISKETTES. 



For as long as anyone can remember, the 
world has trusted Kodak film to capture its 
memories. Now the world can trust legend- 
ary Kodak quality to capture its computer 
data. 

Introducing Kodak diskettes. And the 
beginning of a new legend. 

We know you expect nothing less than 
extraordinary performance from a Kodak 
product. We didn't disappoint you. 

These remarkable new diskettes 
are so thoroughly tested, they're cer- 
tified error-free. 

Every Kodak diskette has 
a highly burnished head 
surface for optimum 
read 'Write accuracy. 
And every standard 
diskette is made to 

© Eastman Kodak Company, 1984 




withstand 4Vi million passes before significant 
wear occurs. 

With accuracy and durability like that, we 
can offer this no-questions-asked replace- 
ment policy: 

This KODAK Diskette will be free from man' 
ufacturing defects , or we will replace it. 

Kodak diskettes for home and business PC 
use are available in standard 8- and 5V4-inch 
formats, high-density 5V4-inch diskettes, and 
3V2-inch micro diskettes in our 
HD 600 Series. 

New Kodak diskettes. Be- 
cause the only thing that can 
follow a legend is another 
legend. 



KODAK. 

The name says it all. 



A Printer For All Reasons 

Search For The Best High Quality Graphic Printer 



If you have been looking very long, you have 
probably discovered that there are Just too 
many claims and counterclaims In the printer 
market today. There are printers that have 
some of the features you want, but do not have 
others. Some features you probably don't care 
about; others are vitally important to you. We 
understand. In fact, not long ago. we were In 
the same position. Deluged by claims and 
counterclaims. Overburdened by rows and 
rows of specifications, we decided to separate 
all the facts — prove or disprove all the claims 
to our own satisfaction. So we bought printers. 
We tiought samples of all major brands and 
tested them. 

Our Objective Was Simple 

We wanted to find that printer which had all 
the features you could want and yet be sold 
directly to you at the lowest price. We wanted 
to give our customers the best printer on the 
market today at a bargain price. 

The Results Are In 

The search is over. We hae reduced the fteld to 
a single printer that meets all our goals (and 
more). The printer Is the GF-550 from 
Seikosha, a division of Seiko. We ran this 
printer through our battery of tests and it 
came out shining. This printer can do it all. 
Standard draft printing up to a resfjectable 
(and honest) 86 characters per second, and 
with a very readable 9 (horirontal) by 8 (ver- 
tical) character matrix. At this rate, you will get 
an average 30 line letter printed in only 28 
seconds. 

TILQ" Mode 

One of our highest concerns was about print 
quality and leadability. The GP-550 has a print 
mode termed Dear Letter Quality printing (PILQ 
mode). This Is where the GP-SSO outshines all 
the competition. Hands downl The character 
matrix in PiljQ mode Is a very dense 9 (horizon- 
tal) by 16 (vertical). This equates to 14,4O0 ad- 
dressable dots per square inch. How were talk- 
ing quality printing. You can even do graphics 
in the high resolution mode. The results are 
the t>est we've ever seen. Tlie only other 
printers currently available having resolution 
this high go for $500 and more without the in- 
terface or cable needed to hook up to your 
computer. 

Features That Won't Quit 

with the GP-550 your computer can now print 
40, 48, 68, 80, 96, or 136 characters per line. 
You can print in AMY of 18 font styles. You not 
only have the standard Pica, Elite, Condensed 
and Italics, but also true Superscripts and 
Subscripts, never again will you have to worry 
about how to print H^O or X^. This fantastic 
machine will do It automatically, through easy 
software commands right from your keyboard. 
All fonts have true descenders. 

One of the fonts we like best Is "Proportional" 
because it looks most like typesetting. The 
spacing for thin characters like "i" and "i" are 
given less space which "tightens" the word 
making reading easier and faster. This is only 
one example of the careful planning put into 
the GP-550, 




Do you sometimes want to emphasize a word? 
It's easy. Just use bold (double strike) to make 
the words stand out. Or. if you wish to be even 
more emphatic, underline the words. Or do 
both. You may also wish to 'headline" a title. 
Each basic font has a corresponding elongated 
(double-wide) version. You can combine any of 
these modes to make the variation almost 
endless. [>o you wnat to express something 
that you can't do with words? Use graphics with 
your text — even on the same line. 

You can now do virtually any line spacing you 
want. You may select 6, 8, 7'h or 12 lines per 
Inch. PLUS you have variable line spacing of 
1,2 lines per Inch to infinity (no space at all) 
and 97 other softwai^ selectable settings in 
between. You control line spacing on a dot-by- 
dot basis. If you've ever had a letter or other 
document that was Just a few lines loo long to 
(It 3 page, you can see how handy this feature 
is. Simply reduce the line spacing slightly and 
,,, VGILAl The letter now fits on one page. 

Forms? Yes! 
Your Letterhead? Of Course! 

Do you print forms? rto problem. This unit will 
do them all. Any form up to 10 Inches wide. 
The tractors are adjustable from 4'A to 10 In- 
ches, Yes you can also use single sheets. Plain 
typing paper, your letEerhed, short memo 
forms, anything you choose. Any size under 
10 " in width. Multiple copies? Absolutelyl Put 
forms or Individual sheets with carbons (up to 
3 deep), and the last copy will be as readable as 
the (irst. Spread sheets with many columns? Of 
coursel Just go to condensed mode printing 
and print a full 136 columns wide, forget ex- 
pensive wide-carriage printers and changing to 
wide carriage paper. You can no do it all on a 
standard H'h" page. 

Consistent Print Quality 

Most printers have a continuous loop ribbon 
cartridge or a single spool ribbon which gives 
nice dark printing when new, but quickly starts 
to fade after a while. To keep the printers' out- 
put looking consistently dark, the ribbons 
must be changed more often than Is healthy 
for the pocketbok. The GP-550 solves this 
problem completely by using a replaceable, in- 
expensive ink cassette which is separately 
replaceable from the actual ribbon. It keeps 



the ribbon loaded with Ink at all times. You only 
replace the ribbon when it truly wears out, not 
when it starts to run low on ink. Just another 
example of the superb engineering applied to 
the GP-550. (When you finally do wear out your 
ribbon, replacement cost is only $10.95. Ink 
cassette replacement cost is only $5.95, both 
postpaid.) 

The Best Part 

When shopping for a quality printer with all 
these features, you could expect to pay around 
$500 or more, flot any morel We have done 
our homework. You don't have to worry about 
Interfaces or cables. Everything is Included. 
You need absolutely nothing else to start prin- 
ting — Just add paper. 

no Risk Offer 

We give you a 15-day satisfaction guarantee. If 
you are not completely satisfied for any reason 
wc will refund the full purchase price. A l-year 
warranty is Included with your printer. 

The Bottom Dollar 

CF-i50A Standurd FaralM (No Catilc) $249.95 

CP-SSOCD Commodore (Direcl Connectl *259.95 

Cr-S50AT Atari (DirKtConnect) ,..,.$259.95 

CFSSOAF Apple II or lie iDirecl Connectl $299.95 

CP-550PC IBM PC & Compatables (/Yo Cablel...$259.95 

CP-5SOTI TI99/4A fDirecl Connectl $299.95 

Prices * Auailability Subject to CItange. CALL!" 

-Shipping Is $8.00 - UPS within the continen- 
tal USA. If you are In a hurry, UPS Blue (second 
day air) Is $18.00. Canada, Alaska. Mexico are 
$25,00 (air). Other foreign Is $60,00 (air). 
California residents add 6% tax. These are 
cash prices - VISA and MC add 3% to total. We 
ship the next business day on money orders, 
cashiers' checks, and charge cards. A 14-day 
clearing period Is required for checks. 

TO ORDER CALL TOLL FREE 

1-(800| 962-5800 USA 
OR 1-(800l 962-3800 CAUF. 

or send payment to: 

APROPOS TECHNOLOGY 

1071 -A Avenida Acaso 
Camarillo, CA 93010 

Technical Info: 1-(805) 482-3604 

©19S4 APROPOS TECHNOLOGY 



February 1985 Vol. 7, No. 2 



FEATURES 



30 The New Atari: Q & A With Sigmund Hartmann 

Tom li. Halfhill and Selby Boteman 

38 Fame Gomes Kathy Yokoi 

44 Mici^oel Crichton: Refiections Of A New Designer Kotlny Yal<al 

48 Birtin Of A Computer Game SInaron Darlirig 




REVIEWS 



72 Dinosaurs M. C. Ware 

73 The Syn Series For Atari Arthur Leyenberger 

82 PC'Write Word Processor For PC & PCjr Sheldon Leemon 



COLUMNS AND DEPARTMENTS 



6 The Editor's Notes Robert Lock 

10 Readers' Feedback The Editors and Readers of COMPUTE! 

105 The Beginner's Page Tom R. Haifhiii 

1 17 Programming The Tl: Programming Without A Math Background 

C. Regenc 

121 Machine Language: Multipiication, Port 2 Jim Buttertield 

134 Computers And Society David D. Thornburg 

136 IBM Personal Computing: Inside King's Quest Donald B. Trivette 

139 INSIGHT: Atari Bill Wilkinson 

143 Telecomputing Today Arlan R, Levitan 



THE JOURNAL 



56 

88 

109 

112 

123 

126 
129 



145 
148 

151 
152 
160 



Acrobat Peter Rizzuto 

Plus/Term For VIC 8<. 64 Gregg Peele 

Adding Sound Effects To Atari Matt Giwer 

How TurboTape Works 

Harrie De Ceukelaire, Ottis Cowper, and Charles Brannon 

IBM Rebound: All Machine Language Game For PC & PCjr 

Chris Metcalf and Marc Sugiyama 

Apple Bowling Champ Joseph Ganci 

Advanced Sound Effects On The 64 Philip I, Nelson 



COMPUTEI's Guide To Typing In Programs 

MLX Machine Language Entry Program For 

Commodore 64 And ViC-20 

CAPUTE! Modifications Or Corrections To Previous Articles 

News & Products 

Advertisers Index 



TOLL FREE Subscription Order Line 
800-334-0868 (in NC 919-275-9809) 



NOTE: $e« page 145 
before typing In 
progromt. 



--^!S?^:£h^, 



AP/64 

AT 
PC/PCjr 



Tl 






PC/PCjr 
AT 



AT/64/VS 

V/64 

AT 

64 

PC/PCjr 
AP 
64 




AP Apple. Mac Mocintosh; 
AT Atari, V VlC-20, 64 
Commodore 64. +4 Com- 
modore Plus/4. 16 Com- 
modore 16, P PET/CBM, Tl 
Texas Instruments, PC IBM 
PC, PCjr IBM PCjr. CC Radio 
Shock Color Computer. 
"Ail or several of the above. 



COMPUTEI The Journal for Progressive Compuling (USPS: 537250) is published monthly hv 
COMPUTE! Publications, inc., P.O Box 3406, Greensboro, NC 27403 USA. Phone; (919) 275-9809. 
Editorial Offices are located at 324 West Wendover Avenue. Greensboro. NC 27408. Domestic 
Subscriptions; 12 issues, S24. Send subscriprion orders or change of address (P.O. form 3579) to 
COMPUTEI Magazine, P.O. Box 914, Farmingdale, NY 11737. Second class postage paid at 
Greensboro, NC 27403 and additional mailing offices. Entire contents cDp\'right © 1984 by 
COMPUTE! Publications, Inc. All rights reserved, ISSN 0194-3S7X. 



COMPUTE! Publicationsjnc,^ 

One of the ABC Publishing Companies: 
ABC Publishing, President, Robert G. Burton 

1330 Avenue of The Amencas. t^ew Vort<, rstew Vort( 10019 



EDITORS NOTES 



Senior Editor Richard Mansfield 
speculates on the perfect computer 
in this month's guest editorial. 
— Robert Lock, Editor in Chief. 



Configure, in your mind, the 
ideal computer. Forget about 
cost or the limitations of current 
technology. What would the ul- 
timate thinking machine be able 
to do? What would it be like? 

For example, everyone 
seems to agree that a perfect 
automobile would combine the 
safety of trains with the speed 
and ease of planes and the free- 
dom and low cost of cars. 

In fact, ideal things are gen- 
erally safe, fast, easy to use, ver- 
satile, and cheap. On our planet, 
many things already qualify: 
light, water, electricity, TV, 
some kinds of love, to name a 
few. Not, however, computers, 
Not yet, anyway. 

If we imagine the qualities 
of the perfect computer, the first 
thing that comes to mind is that 
it should be easy to use, but we 
have to be careful with this one. 
What you might find easy to 
use might perplex or annoy me. 

For example, "user- 
friendly" is a selling point, a 
current fad, among computer 
manufacturers. Ads are filled 
with pop-up menus, windoiving, 
icons, and mouse devices — all 
ways to make computing possi- 
ble for nontypists and seductive 
to noncomputerists. For those of 
us who have learned to type or 



to program, however, things like 
this can sometimes just get in 
the way. It's far easier, for many 
people, to simply type LOAD 
"PROGRAM" than it is to move 
a mouse to a menu, pull down 
the disk menu, move to the pro- 
gram name, move the mouse up 
to the word LOAD, etc. 

Perhaps all these features 
are efforts to make computing 
easier to learn as distinct from 
easier to use. But as more peo- 
ple find themselves comfortable 
working with computers, maybe 
icons and such won't be as de- 
sirable as they now seem. 

But what would be the easi- 
est computer to use? Probably 
one which could communicate 
in English. 

The second quality, safety, 
is related to ease of use. In com- 
putirig, a safe environment pre- 
vents you from making serious 
mistakes like erasing an entire 
disk by accident. Current com- 
puters are fairly safe in this re- 
spect. But, again, some software 
goes too far. You can get very 
frustrated with a program which 
says ARE YOU SURE?, and then, 
after you tvpe YES, responds 
with ARE YOU REALLY SURE? 

The safest computer would 
be able to grasp the context and 
intent of your actions. If you 
have been reformatting a num- 
ber of new disks, it should real- 
ize that and dispense with ARE 
YOU SURE? for each one. Such 
a computer would have, in ef- 
fect, common sense. 



Speed, in computing, also 
means more than it first appears 
to. In many ways, even the 
most limited computers are now 
far faster than humans. But a 
truly quick computer would 
have the same qualities as a 
quick person: a fast brain with a 
large memory. Speed, in this 
sense, promotes versatility and 
power. 

In some ways, the current 
trend toward integrated soft- 
ware is an effort in this direc- 
tion. The larger, faster personal 
computers are combining word 
processing, data base manage- 
ment, telecommunications, 
spreadsheets, etc., into one huge 
program. It's quite impressive 
when you can ask your word 
processor to look over a letter, 
spend a couple of seconds veri- 
fying all the spelling, and then 
mail the letter for you over a 
modem. 

So, the perfect computer 
would speak English, have com- 
mon sense, and be brilliant and 
versatile. Depending on your 
personal predilections, such an 
entity might be indistinguish- 
able from Einstein or Agatha 
Christie: It would have all of 
their good qualities and none of 
the bad; it would be honest, pa- 
tient, always there. An ideal 
intellectual companion, a silicon 
and plastic angel. 



6 COMPUT£l February 1985 



meet the mi( 
spikemaster; 
protector of 
computers^ ^ 



The mighty SpikeMaster Surge 
Suppressor comes to the rescue of your 
computer, helping to protect against 
power line surges that can create havoc 
with your hardware and your programs. 
Lightning can ruin your entire computer 
system. Smaller unexpected power dis- 
turbances (even from hair dryers, for in- 
stance) can create errors, erase memory, 
damage sensitive electronic devices. 

Your computer needs the 
mighty SpikeMaster. to provide the 
protection that built-in safeguards 
seldom offer. ^ - 

SPIKEMASTER IS TOPRATED. 

In high voltage tests 
conducted by an independent ^ 

testing laboratorx'. ^ ^ 

SpikeMaster beat the other \| 
leading brandsf WTiile the t 

others exploded. SpikeMaster ] 
stood up to repeated surges , 
of up to 6000 volts. F 

It's the best ^ 

insurance for your ; /■ 

computer investment. y^^'-' 

and the tests prove it. '^ 

There's a UL listed 
model, reasonably priced, , 

that's exactly right for your , 

computer. See your computer 
dealer for SpikeMaster Surge 
Suppressors by Discwasherf - 




'Test data available upon request 




discwasher. 






C1985 fJiscwashcr ■"'=^ 

ADtVrSIONOFINTWNATIONAlJENSEN INC. 




iurge Suppressor 



1407 Nortb Providence Road 
Columbia. MO 65205 
(314)449-0941 



^ 



Publisher 

Editor In Chle* 

DMectOf ol AdminUlrallon 



Gary C? mgersoB 
Rooert C, Lock 
Alices WoJfe 



Senior Edilor 

Monoging Editor 

Editor COMPUTE! 

Production Director 

pj-oductlon EdDo: 

Editor. COMPUlErs GAZEHE 

Technical Editor 

Assistant TectinicQl Edilora 

Program Edffor 

Fedturfii £dlior 

Atsiitom Editors 

Feature Writer 

Research Assistant 

Progiramrntr>g Supervisor 

Assistanf PjogrammJng Supervisor 

EcJItorioJ Programmers 

${jbmlssior^s Pe viewer 
Proorommlng Aislstonli 

Copy Editort 

Prootreaders 

Executive Assistant 
Adminlslrotlve Asslirants 

AMociofe f dtiors 



Contrltjutlf^ EdHOf 



r^ctrard Mansfield 

Kothieer) Martinek 

Tom (? Holfhili 

Tony f?oberts 

Gail Cowper 

Larvre EPco 

OttS r Cowper 

John Krouso. Geofpe MiHer 

Choftes &foarv3n 

Sety Botemon 

Todd rtwriOiCk. PhihO M&tson 

KotriK YOfcOl 

Sharon Darling 

Ptitnck Pamai 

Gregg Peefe 

Tm Victor. Kevin Mykytyn. Kevin 

Morfm, Rob Terre!! 

Mdik "uttle 

Davia f rwoAce. Doi/io Hensiev, 

Su sort Doss 

JiKjrJta Lewis, Joan llouJeau. 

Ann Davies 

Ethel Sitver, Dwigtit Smith, Marty 

Selby 

Susan Young 

Vichi v'ennings, JjJio Fleming. Jris 

Bfdo)<s, Jan Kieltow 

Jim Ekittflffieid. Toronto. Conoda 

Horvojf iserrron. Greenstjoro. IMC 

Fred O'Kx^ciio. 

21 17 Carter Road, S.W. 

Rocnc5lko,VA 24015 

DavKj ThombuTQ. P.O. Box 1317. 

LOS AJtos. CA 9dQ22 

Bfl Wiftinson 



COMPUTE Is Book Divjslon 
Editor 

Assistant Editors 
Assistant Iv1anaglr>g Editor 
Administrative A$s)»ioni 

Director, Bootes Sales h 

Marketlr>g 

Assistant 



Steptien Lewy 

Gregg Kener. J. BJffxe Lombert 

ftandOl Fosnw 

louro MocFodden 

Jonice Fory. DeDDie fl'Dy 

Steve Voyofzis 
Carol Dickerson 



Production Markdger 

Art & Des)gn OkeciOf 

Assistant Editor, Art & Design 

ivlechanlcol Arl Superviior 

ArttsU 

Typesetftrhg 

Illustrator 



Irmo Swain 

Janice Fory 

Lee Noel 

De Potter 

Lesi»e Jessup, Lorry Suffivon 

Terry Cash, Carole I>jn1on 

Horry Blar 



DIrectm- o! AdverTlting Soiet 
Assist onl Advertising Manager 
Production CoordJnalOit 
Production Assistant 
Soles AssEslont 



Ken Vifcodorcf 
BoruMe Vc*enlino 
Patti Stokej 
Joyce Morgo 
Kathleen Honfon 



Promotion N^inagfrr 
Promcllon Asiistonr 



NfiTxJyK Kjtche* 
Caio*r>e CkjiH 



Clicukitton Manoger Cherries Post 

AssJsfont C^rculatlan MonogeiT Patty Jon.es 

Singfe Copy Sales Supervisor Fran Lyons 
Futrtllmenl Subscription 

Supervisor Jill Pcpe 



Customer Service Moooger 

Dealer Soie$ Supen/l»or 

AiSistonis 

thdlvjduat Order Supervisor 

Aul4tan)s 



Mall Room Coordinator 
Warel>oiise Morrager 
Staff 



Data Processing Manager 
Assistant 



teon Stoke* 
CrimCoin 



Vice President. Finance Si 

Planning 

Director, finance * Plonnlnfl 

Accountant 

Ftnonclol AriiOlyi) 

Stafl 



PouJ J Megiitrfo 

n Steven vetier 

Rotsen L &eon 

Keren K Ftogatikl 

Jona Wigg'S, Dote Roberts 



Credit Monoger 
Staff 



Barry L- Beck 

Linda MiUer, Donz Hall, Anne 
Ferguson. Pcit Ftiiter. Suson Booth, 
Sybil Agee, Mary WoOttell 



Purchasing Manager 
Assistant 



Greg L Smtri 

ArViO HOfrtS 



Robert C Lock, Crwt Executtve Oftcec 

Gary U. Ingenol. PreuOenI 

Fta(ji J Mogftota. vte PresKtent. Ftftonce ord PiQnr*>o 

Deb4 t^osh. Executrve Auistant 



Coming In Future Issues 

SpeedScript 3.0 For 
Commodore 64, VIC-20, 
Atari, And Apple 

What's New In Computer 
Video 

VIC Compactor: Squeeze 
Big Programs 
Into A Little VfC 

Bearmath For IBM PC/PCjr 

The New Computers 
At The Winter Consumer 
Eiectronics Show 

Tiny BASIC Compiler 



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You bought a computer to cultivate your kids'ininds. 
Mate sure itls beting fruit, not growing vegetables. 



faitroducing a whole crop of Leaniing 
Adventure games from Sfrimiaker. 

Wtien it comes to cultivating adventurous 
young minds, the connputer's potential is 
endless. 

Unfortunately, the search for software 
that makes the most of that potential has 
been end less. too. 

That is. until Spinnaker created the 
Learning Adventure Series. A unique collec- 
tion of games that reward curiosity with 



CfK)tti: 



tf^i 



It's new! 

PRESIDENT'S 

CHOICE.^" 

Welcome to the White House 
you're the President of the 
United States! Make the rigtlt 
decisions and you'll win 
re-election. Ages 13-Adult. 



hours of adventure and learning. So the 
time kids spend with our games will help 
them develop valuable skills. Instead of just 
tired thumbs. 

But what really makes our Learning 
Adventure games unique -educational value 
aside - is how much fun they are. Which isn't 
too surprising when you consider you can 
do things like bargain with aliens, search a 
haunted house, or build your own railroad 
empire. 



It's new! 

ROCK'N' RHYTHM.™ 

It's your own recording studio, 
complete with instruments and 
equipment. Play and record 
existing music, or experiment 
with your own melodies and 
rhythms. Ages 10-Aduit. 




In fact our games are so much fun, kids 
will really enjoy developing some very impor- 
tant skills. Deductive reasoning, note taking, 
and problem solving, for instance. 

So. if you're in the market for software 
that will truly cultivate young minds, pick the 
Spinnaker Learning Adventure Series. 

It's the best way to be sure your search 
will be fruitful. 

Spinnaker Learning Adventure games are available 
for Apple.* Atari.'' IBM* and Commodore 64 '" home 
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You're in charge of an old-time 
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on how well you run it. But either 
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We make learning fun. 



Disks for: IBM {PRESIDENT'S CHOICE). 
Atari and Commodore 64 
(ROCK 'N' RHVTHM and TRAINS). 



1 and Atan are registered irademarte of Intemational Business Machine Corp. and Atari. Inc. Commodore M is a trademart of Commodore Eiectionics Ltd. « 1 984. SpinnaKer Software CotT>. All rights reserved. 



READERS' FEEDBACK 

The Editors ond Reoders of COMPUTE! 



Do You Need Two Disk Drives? 

I have a T1-99/4A and an Amdek color monitor. 
I'm planning to buy a second computer, but I'm 
confused about the advertising for two disk 
drives. Why do you need two disk drives? 

Natalia Macedo 

For manif home computer users, one disk drive is 
sufficient. Two drives are, however, useful in sev- 
eral ways. For example, if you do a lot of disk copy- 
ing you won't have to keep swapping the disks back 
and forth. 

Some software packages, particularly business 
programs, require two disk drives. An example 
would be a data base manager which holds the pro- 
gram disk in one drive and the data disk in the 
other. Similarly, if you do a lot of programming, you 
can use two drives to hold your system disk and ' 
utilities. Some compilers and assemblers also require 
or work much faster with two drives. 

Many writers prefer dual-disk systems for word 
processing because they can periodically save back- 
ups on separate disks for safety. In general you can 
live with one and live very zvell with two. 

What Is DOS? 

I'm going to buy a disk drive, and different 
brands of drives have a different DOS. What ex- 
actly is DOS? 

Ricky Gibbs 

DOS (usually pronounced to rhyme with "moss") 
stands for Disk Operating System. Basically, this is 
a program which allows the computer to work with 
a disk drive. On most computers, DOS lets you save 
and load files, vieto disk directories (lists of files 
stored on disks), rename files, erase files, copy files 
from one disk to another, copy entire disks, format 
blank disks (prepare them for use), and other 
functions. 

There are many different types of DOS for dif- 
ferent computers, and they're usually incompatible 
with each other. It's important that you use the 
proper DOS for your computer, disk drive, and sys- 
tem configuration. Fortunately, most disk drives (or 

10 COMPUTE! February 1985 



computers with built-in disk drives) already include 
the proper DOS. 

Usually DOS comes on a disk that must be in- 
serted in the disk drive before you turn on the com- 
puter. It loads automatically when the power is 
switched on. This process is called booting up. An 
exception is Commodore DOS, which is stored in 
Read Only Memory (ROM) chips within the disk 
drive itself. Commodore DOS is available whenever 
the computer and disk drive are powered up. 

There are many versions of DOS even for the 
same computer. As revisions, corrections, and up- 
dates are made, new versions of DOS are released, 
usually denoted by different numbers. Examples are 
Atari DOS 1 (the original version), DOS 2.0S (im- 
proved single-density), and DOS 3 (enhanced den- 
sity); PC-DOS 1.1 (the original version), DOS 2.0 
(with improvements added for hard disks), and DOS 
2.1 (modified for the PCjr); Apple DOS 3.3 (orig- 
inally intended for the Apple II and 11+) and ' 
ProDOS (introduced with the Apple lie and lie); 
and so on. Commodore DOS is harder to modify 
since it's embedded in ROM chips, but unofficial 
updates are usually made when new models of disk 
drives are introduced. 

In addition to the DOS versions released by 
computer manufacturers, there are also custom ver- 
sions of DOS sold by independent companies for 
certain computers. Examples are OS/A+ DOS for 
Atari computers, CP/M-86 for IBM computers, and 
CP/M-80 for nutnerous personal computers. Some- 
times a custom DOS is compatible with the manu- 
facturer's DOS, and sometimes it requires extra 
hardware (such as a CP/M board). 

The disk drive you buy for your computer will 
probably come with the right DOS for your system. 
If it doesn't, the dealer can recommend the proper 
DOS or a compatible custom DOS. 

The Great Commodore 
Save/Replace Debate 

I have a Commodore 64 and a 1541 disk drive. 
Recently 1 saved a program on a disk and later 
saved another program on the same disk. When I 



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tried to load the first program, I was surprised to 
get the second instead! What happened? How 
can I get my first program back? 

Jason Stearns 

Assuming there's no mysierious hardware error, it's 
possible that you saved the second program ivith the 
save/replace command (5AVF "@0:fileuame",8). 
When you precede a filename with the at sign {@), 
the computer first saves the new file with the same 
filename before erasing the old file. The purpose of 
save/replace is to make it easier to update files on a 
disk in one step. (Some computers do this 
automatically.) 

The save/replace command is a controversial 
subject among some Commodore users. For years it's 
been rumored that save/replace contains a bug 
which can scramble programs and disks, but it's un- 
predictable and therefore very difficult to confirm. 
Usually it seems to happen when you are using a 
disk with less than 100 blocks free. We recently lost 
a file after using save/replace and spent hours try- 
ing unsuccessfully to duplicate the error. 

One programmer, convinced that save/replace 
xoorks, has offered a reward to anyone zvho can 
prove otherwise. COMPUTE!, hoioever, has concluded 
that where there's smoke, there might be fire; man- 
gled disks can be so frustrating, lost files can be so 
difficult to replace, we don't think the added 
convenience of save /replace is worth the risk. 

To be safe, avoid using save/replace. Instead, 
save the program with a different filename, maybe 
with a .V2 extender (for version 2). The next file can 
be .V3, etc. Then rename the file after you have a 
final debugged version and delete all the early 
versions. 

Your first program was probably still recorded 
on the disk after it seemed to disappear, but to re- 
cover it you would need a disk editor utility. Such a 
utility lets you read the directory map and change 
the byte which signifies a deleted file. However, 
even this works only when you haven't saved any 
other files on the disk in the meantime. It's also 
easy to destroy other files if you aren't sure how to 
use the utility. 

It's a good practice to always save copies of im- 
portant programs and data files on backup disks 
which are stored away from your main disks. If you 
upgraded to disk from tape, you can also save back- 
ups on your old cassettes. 



BASIC Translations 

I recently bought a Timex Sinclair 2068 computer 
and was disappointed when 1 could not find any 
software. I even tried typing in Atari and Com- 
modore programs from COMPUTE!, but was un- 
successful. What should I do? 

Wagih Mando 

12 COMPUTEI February 19B5 



You'll have to stick to relatively generic BASIC pro- 
grams — those that have few or no PEEKs, POKEs, 
graphics, or sound commands (which are nearly al- 
ways machine-specific). You could, of course, trans- 
late the sound and graphics commands of other 
computers into the corresponding Sinclair BASIC 
statements, but this can be difficult, especially if 
you're not familiar with the other program and 
computer. 

Programs written for earlier models of Sinclair 
computers should translate fairly easily for the 
2068— but again, avoid programs with many PEEKs, 
POKEs, and machine language subroutines. Natu- 
rally, these programs won't take advantage of the 
2068's neio features, including color graphics. 

COMPUTE! has not published any programs for 
Sinclair computers for quite a while, but copies of 
Creating Arcade Games on the Timex Sinclair are 
still available from COMPUTE! Books. Although it's 
aimed primarily at users of the Sinclair ZX-81 and 
TS-1000, some of it would apply to your 2068. 



Atari Amnesia 

I recently bought an Atari 800XL which claims to 
have 64K, but which seems to have only 48K 
user memory. The other 16K supposedly is avail- 
able only with certain software programs. Which 
ones? I am also having trouble with the memory 
test. The other day I bought a game requiring at 
least 48K. I tried to load it on my 1050 disk 
drive, but the picture is distorted. I tried again, 
but got the same results. So I tried the memory 
test by holding down the OPTION key while 
turning on the computer. The ROM checks 
green. So does all my RAM, up to 44K. I checked 
it again, still 44K. What do I do? 

Steve Whitlow 

It sounds like your computer is behaving normally, 
but the softioare may not be compatible with the 
800XL. Check with the dealer who sold you the pro- 
gram or with the softiuare publisher. Some programs 
designed for the older Atari computers have trouble 
running on the newer XL machines because of 
changes in the computer's operating system. The 
fault still lies with the software, though, because 
from the beginning Atari made it clear that pro- 
grammers should follow certain rules to insure 
compatibility with future models. 

One solution might be to obtain a translation 
disk which, in effect, temporarily converts your XL 
into an older-model Atari 800. The disks are avail- 
able from Atari for a nominal fee and from some in- 
dependent companies. 

The memory discrepancies you discovered are 
unrelated to the software problem. The Atari 800XL 
does indeed have 64K of Random Access Memory 
(RAM), but as with the Commodore 64 and 64K Apple 



IF YOU CAN FIND A BETTER 
WORD PROCESSOR OR DATA BASE SYSTEM 

WE'LL BUY IT FOR YOU. 




Outrageous offer? Not 
really. For your Commo- 
dore 64, we're putting our 
money where our mouth 
is, becaiise the Timeworks 
Word Writer and Time- 
works Data Manager 2 
are so complete — so ex- 
tremely easy to use, we 
think nothing beats them 
at any price. (Our suggest- 
ed retail prices are: $49.95 
lor Word Writer. S49.95 for 
Data Manager 2.) 

Word Writer 

This menu-driven system includes: 

A program which can be used by itself (stand- 
alone), or interfaced with Timeworks' Data Manager 
or Data Manager 2, enabling you to maintain and 
print out name and address lists, create individu- 
alized form letters automatically, and produce 
customized reports up to 20 columns wide, which 
can be incorporated into any text produced by the 
Word Writer 

Two plastic keyboard overlays which place 
the word processing commands directly onto 
the keyboard. 

A full screen format (up to 80 characters) which 
simplifies your text entry and editing, 

All the essential features — plus some exclusive 
Timeworks extras — making this system completely 
functional for most home & business requirements. 

Data Manager 2 

This system includes: 

A menu-driven program that easily lets you store 
information on a wide variety of subjects — from 
general name and address lists, to research data. 
This program will also calculate and store any 
corresponding numerical data. 

Quick access to important infonmotion. Items can 
be easily retrteved and printed by category, name, 
index code, date range, amount range, or any 
category of information stored in the system. 




Timeworks exclusive X-Search,™ X-Sort™ and 
X-Chart™ features allow you to easily cross-search 
any of the categories. Or arrange your stored items 
in Increasing or decreasing order, alphabetically, 
numerically or by date. Break down statistical infor- 
mation by up to ten indexed categories of your 
choice — and graphically 
review your results. 

Arithmetic calculation 
of your mathematical 
data is possible, allowing 
you to perform Payroll cal- 
culation, cost estimates 
and more. Data Man- 
ager 2 also produces the 
Sum, Average and Stan- 
dard Deviation of statis- 
tical data entered into the 
system, along with Fre- 
cjuency Charts. 

When interfaced together, these programs: 

Generate customized data reports, which can be 
incorporated into any written text produced. 

Individually address and print form letters 
automatically 

Print your name and address file onto standard 
mailing labels. 

Transfer and print text information onto labels 
and tags. 

Calculated numerical data from column to 
column, giving these programs spread-sheet 
capabilities, 

So, if you con find anything better simply send us 
your Word Writer or your Data Manager 2, your 
pcnd receipt and the name of the program you want, 
along with your check or money order for any price 
diflerenoe. If ifs avcolable. well buy it for youf* 

Now at your favorite dealer Or contact Time- 
works, Inc., PO. Box 321, Deeriield, IL 60015. Phone 
312-948-9200. 




SOFTWARE WITH SUBSTANCE. 




'■Now lor the small pnnt. Oiler applies to Contiinodore only, wilh moxiinum suggested retail prices ol S125-QO each lor any exchanged program. 

Oiler expires 45 days after date ol your punchase- 
■Registersd Tlademarlc ol Commodore Computer Systems © 1983 TlmewDrks, Inc. All rtghls reserved. 



If you want to be in pictures. 




it's more fun in color 




PCJcColorPaiiit works wilh 
a rriouset so the power to 
draw incredible color 
picIui-f'sisriKlil in 



Follow the >«llow brick road 
It sounds easy enough. But try 
"painting" on most computers and you'll 
have to settle for black-and-white 
pavement 

That's why IBM has just introduced 
PQVColorPaint-a S99* cartridge 
program that lets you paint with PQV. 
In living, sparkling color. 

It's sophisticated, 
yet extremely 
easy to use. 
(It works with 
a friendly little 
mouse.^ > So you 
can sit right down 
and paint just about 
anything you can think. 
Whether you're an artist or 
an accountant 

With PCjr ColorPaint you can work 
with 16 coloi^— 4 at a time— over 2,700 
combinations of colors altogether. And 
there are all kinds of shortcuts to help 
you put together lines, shapes, patterns, 
even different size and style lettering. 

Which makes it easy to draw and 
paint illustrations, charts, graphs, 
diagrams, whatever. For serious 
business. Or just a bit of funny business. 
Of course, PCjr Coloi Paint is only one 
program in a library of software that's 
growing by leaps 
and bounds. 




PCjr now runs over a thousand of the 
best diskette pi^ograms that run on the 
IBM PC. Plus powerful new cartridge 
programs, like Lotus"l-2-3" and 
Managing \bui' Money"" by financial 
expert Andrew 
Tobias. 

And for allof its 
power, it costs less 
than 81,000* 
without monitor. 

PCjr and PCjr 
CoIoiPaint are 
both available now 
at authorized 
IBM PCjr dealers 
and IBM Product 
Centers. 

Go see how well they work together. 
And draw your own conclusions. 

For the name of the store nearest you, 
calIl-800-IBM-PCJR In Alaska and 
Hawaii, call 1-800-447-0890. T^^ =#' 



More computer for your money. 


See how PC/f compares 


wilh Mher computers a! its price. 


Memofy 


Softwm 


Usei Memory (RAMI 


Runs over 1,000 


128Ka (expand- 


programs written 


able to 512KB) 


lortlielBM PC 


Permanent Memory 


Runs bott^ diskette and 


(ROM): 64KB 


cartridge programs 




Display 


Dishette Drive 


40- and 80-column 


Double-Sided. 


Resolution: 


double density 


4-COlOr: 


Capacity 360KB 


640hi200v 


Processor 

16-bil 8088 


16- color: 
320hi200v 




Eipandabilily 


Keyboanj 


Open architecture 


Typewriler-slyle 


Optional 128KB 


Detached: cordless 


Memory Expansion 




Attachmenl(s) 


Warranty 


13 ports for add-ons. 


l-year limited 


including built-in 


warranly 


sefialinlerface 




IBM PCjr 

Growing by leaps and bounds. 



B M Product Center prices. Computer price does not include monitor 
tAyailabiefrom manutaclurers otner than IBM. 
1-2-3 and Lotus are trademarks of Lotus Development Corporation. 
Managing Your Money is a trademark of MEGA. 
Little Tramp character licensed by Bubbles Inc., s. a . 



He, not all of this RAM is immediately accessible. 
All these computers use 6502-family chips for their 
Central Processing Units (CPUs). The 6502 is lim- 
ited to accessing, or addressing, a total of 64K of 
memory at a time. Part of this 64K must be allo- 
cated for internal programs necessary to operate the 
computer. This includes the operating system and 
BASIC language. 

The Atari operating system, stored in Read 
Only Memory (ROM), requires lOK of space. Addi- 
tional ROM space is used for the international 
character set and self-test routines. BASIC, when 
selected, uses a little over 8K of space. The 
input/output chips need 2K of address space, since 
they are controlled as if they were memory loca- 
tions. This leaves less than iOK of RAM lohen using 
BASIC. Roughly the same amount of memory is 
available for BASIC on a Commodore 64 or 64K 
Apple He. 

If you switch off BASIC in your 800XL (equiva- 
lent to unplugging the BASIC cartridge on the older 
Atari 400, 800, and 1200XL computers), 48K of 
RAM is directly addressable. To switch off BASIC, 
hold down the OPTION button when poivering up. 

Don't think you're being misled by the 64K 
RAM claim; it's there, but it takes some special 
programming to access it. Not many commercial 
programs take advantage of this extra memory, 
though, because they xvould not be compatible with 
the large number of older SOOs still in use. 

If you have some programming experience, you 
can reach this additional memory with your oivn 
programs. The PIA chip in your Atari, used for the 
two joystick ports, also helps control memory map- 
ping and other special XL functions. These functions 
are controlled with memory location 54017 (PORTB, 
$D301), formerly used on the 400/800 to read joy- 
stick ports 3 and 4, which are omitted on the XL 
models. (Incidentally, if you try to read the shadow 
registers for joysticks 3 and 4, or use STICK(2) or 



Bit 


Bit 


Decimal Function 


Position 


Value 


Equival 


lent 











Disable operating system 
ROM, enable RAM from 
$CO0O to SFFFF. 





1 


I 


Enable OS ROM (default). 


1 








Disable built-in BASIC ROM. 


1 


1 


2 


BASIC off, RAM on at 
$A00O-$BFFF. 


2 








Turn on LED #1. 


2 


1 


4 


Turn off LED #1. 


3 








Turn on LED #2. 


3 


1 


s 


Turn off LED #2. 


4-6 


- 


- 


Not presently used. 


7 








Enable self-test ROM. 


7 

m 


1 


128 


Disable self-test ROM, enable 
RAM at $S000-$57FF (default 
after power-up complete). 



STICK(3) in BASIC, the values returned will be 
those of joystick ports 2 and 2.) The eight bits at 
$D301 control eight functions (see chart). 

Add up the decimal values of the functions you 
want to enable or disable, then store the sum into 
location 54017. Of course, you would not want to 
turn off BASIC or the operating system ivith a 
POKE from BASIC (without a language, operating 
system, or controlling program, the computer loould 
be reduced to a prism of pure memory with nothing 
to remember). Feel free to flicker the LEDs (found 
only on the 1200XL) from BASIC, but memory map- 
ping should always be done with a machine lan- 
guage program. 

With both BASIC and the operating system dis- 
abled, there is free RAM from $A000 to SFFFF, 16K 
of additional RAM space. Well, almost 16K. The 
computer is pretty useless without its video and 
input /output chips, so they are kept active from 
SDOOO to SD7FF, leaving this 2K of RAM 
inaccessible. 

If you're going to tackle the job of accessing all 
of the Atari's hidden RAM, there's another consid- 
eration, too. The video chip generates a non- 
maskable interrupt (NMI) every 1/60 second so that 
the operating system can update screen variables. 
This NMI cannot be disabled, so if the operating 
system is out to lunch when the interrupt happeits, 
the 6502 tries to make an indirect jump through the 
NMI vector at $FFFA, finds nothing of value there, 
and crashes. So before you switch out the RAM, 
write the address of a nominally functional NMI 
routine into $FFFA and SFFFB-^his can simply 
point to an RTI (return from interrupt) so that NMIs 
will be ignored. 

Remember also that with the operating system 
and interrupts disabled, you caniwt make use of any 
of the shadow registers for input /output. You must 
store directly into the hardware locations. And 
naturally, you have to reenable the operating system 
to call routines like CIO (Central Input /Output). 

Using The Commodore Wedge In 
Your Programs 

Many people incorrectly state that DOS 5.1 
commands don't work in program mode. The 
commands not only work, but can be used to do 
some things which would be difficult or impos- 
sible to do from BASIC, It's only necessary to en- 
close the operand in quotes. For instance: 
lO(a"lO" 

20@"$" 

This will initialize the disk drive and list the 
disk directory without disturbing the program in 
memory. Other possible uses for the Wedge in 
program mode exist. 

Dave Palmer 



16 COMPUTE! February 1985 




Get the jump on the weather- 
man by accurately forecasting 
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The beautiful princess is held 
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Thanks for sharing the information. It's also helpful 
to begin your program with a loader routine that in- 
stalls DOS 5.1 so you don't have to remember to 
load the Wedge each time. In addition, this keeps 
other people loho may use your program from 
complaining about the inexplicable crashes they 
may encounter othenvise. Make sure DOS 5.1 is on 
the same disk as your loader routine. 

Tl POKE? 

I own a TI-99/4A and would like to know if 
there is an equivalent for POKE in TI BASIC or 
TI Extended BASIC. 

Paul Parks 

There is no equivalent for POKE or PEEK in stan- 
dard TI BASIC. This is one example of how TI 
BASIC differs considerably from other personal com- 
puter BASICS. The language desigjters may have felt 
that PEEK and POKE commands — which allozv pro- 
grammers to examine and modify individual mem- 
ory locations — were somehow risky tools to put in 
the hands of inexperienced programmers. Of course, 
many inexperienced programmers progress beyond 
that stage and would find uses for these commands. 
Constructing a blockade betioeen the programmer 
and the lower levels of the machine can severely 
limit a user's control. 

Fortunately, TVs Extended BASIC does provide 
an equivalent for POKE, the CALL LOAD state- 
ment. For example, to place the value 100 in loca- 
tion 20000, you'd use CALL LOAD(20000,100). The 
equivalent to PEEK is CALL PEEK. To place the 
value from location 20000 into the variable X, you'd 
use CALL PEEK(200000,X). 

Remember that memory for the video display is 
maintained separately from the microprocessor {and, 
without expansion, BASIC programs are actually 
stored in the video memory area), so CALL LOAD 
and CALL PEEK give you access only to the proces- 
sor memory or to any attached expansion memory. 
The ROM in the Mini Memory cartridge also pro- 
vides for CALL LOAD and CALL PEEK, and in 
addition provides CALL POKEV and CALL PEEKV, 
which allou:' you to store and retrieve data from 
video memory. 

TI also supplies an impressive library of built- 
in subroutines that accomplish many of the things 
that PEEK and POKE are used for on other comput- 
ers. For example, to read the TI joysticks, you can 
type: 

100 CALL JOYST(l,X,Y) 

Other valuable features are CALL CHAR, 
RESEQUENCE, and NUMBER. These provide built- 
in character redefinition, renumbering, and auto- 
matic line-numbering utilities. 



18 COMPUTE! February 1985 



Apple Shape Tables 

I have an Apple 11+ and have been trying to fig- 
ure out shape tables. How do the data numbers 
affect a shape? How do the numbers in the 
DRAW and XDRAW commands make a shape? 

Tony Steele 

Shape tables can appear very confusing, but they 
are extremely useful, though in some cases it may 
be easier to draw complicated figures with HPLOT. 

Basically, a shape table contains plotting vec- 
tors to draw a figure. Each vector describes the 
movement necessary to draw the object. 

Let's try constructing a shape table to draw a 
square to see how it all gets done. The first step is 
to draw the shape on a piece of paper. 




Now you must convert the figure to coded plot- 
ting vectors. Vector codes are rmmbers between 
and 7 which correspond to a direction of movement, 
and each byte of a shape defiriition can hold as 
many as three vectors. The task now is to reduce 
the shape to a series of vectors, then place these 
vectors into memory, where they can be used to 
draw shapes. 

Pick a starting point on the figure you watit to 
code. For our square, we'll start at the bottom-left 
corner. Make a list of the directions required to 
draw the shape. Be sure you include all movements 
necessary, even those not actually drawn on the 
screen. 

Starting at the bottom-left corner, we need 
these vectors to draw our square: 



Vector 


Plot 


up 


yes 


right 


yes 


down 


yes 


left 


yes 



Now use this table to write the proper binary 
code next to each vector: 



Action Binary Code Decimal Code 

move up without plotting 000 

move right without plotting 001 1 

move down without plotting 
move left without plotting 
move up with plotting 
move right with plotting 
move down with plotting 
move left with plotting 



010 


2 


oil 


3 


100 


4 


101 


5 


110 


6 


111 


7 




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You should now have a table that looks like 
this: 
Vector 



Plot 



Code 



up 


yes 


100 


right 


yes 


101 


down 


yes 


110 


left 


yes 


111 



The Apple stores information in memory in 
bytes of eight-bit binary numbers. Usually two, and 
sometimes three, plotting vectors can be stored in a 
specific memory address. A memory byte can be 
thought of as: 



7 6 


5 4 3 


2 1 


A 


B 


C 



There are a few rules to follow when packing 
binary codes into memory: 

1. All bytes are read from right to left. 

2. When all remaining sections of a byte contain 
zeros, the rest of the byte loill be ignored. 

3. Only a move instruction may be placed in section 
A of a byte. 

Now refer to your table and place the binary 
code for the first vector into section C of the first 
byte, and place the binary code of the second vector 
into section B of the byte. 

In section A of each byte, a zero always means 
no movement and no plotting, and a zero value will 
be ignored by BASIC. The only legal vectors in sec- 
tion A are right, left, and dozon without plotting. 
No other plotting vectors are allowed in section A. 

The byte should now look like this: 



7 6 


5 4 3 


2 1 


A 



B 
1 1 


C 

1 



Notice that the vector for move right with plot- 
ting was not placed into section A. Start filling in 
the next byte with the remaining values. 



7 6 


5 4 3 


2 1 


A 






B 
1 1 
1 1 1 



C 
1 

1 1 





This is the table for drawing the square. After 
each byte has been filled in, set the last byte to zero. 
This signals BASIC that the end of the shape table 
has been reached. 

Divide the byte into two four-bit portions 



(nybbles) and convert the nybbles to hexadecimal 

numbers: 



Binary 




Hex 


10 
11 



110 
1110 



2 C 

3 E 





The only information needed to complete the 
shape table is the Shape Table Directory, which 
contains the number of shape definitions in the 
table and luhich points to a starting location for 
each shape. 

The first byte of^ the shape table contains the 
number of shape definitions. The second byte is un- 
used, and starting with the third byte, a table of in- 
dices to the starting addresses of each shape 
definition is stored. This value is the offset that 
must be added to the starting address of the table td 
obtain the starting address of a specific shape. 

Using the example of our square, we'll store the 
shape table starting at $1F00. The completed shape 
table looks like this: 





F 
F 1 
F 2 


1 -^ 

> Directory 
4^^ 




F 3 







F 4 
F 5 


3 ^ J^ Shape Definition 




F 6 


^ 



This shape table may be stored in memory using 
the monitor, or by POKEing the values from a table 
of DATA. The starting address of the shape table 
must be stored in memory location $E8. Again, you 
can place it there with the monitor, or by entering 
the following in immediate mode: 

POKE 232,0 
POKE 233,31 

That completes the shape table, and you're 
ready to save the table and DRAW, XDRAW, ROT, 
or SCALE to your heart's content. 

Atari Self-Loading Tapes 

I have tried to load a machine language cassette 
tape by holding down the START button while 
turning the machine on, waiting for the beep, 
and hitting RETURN. The program starts loading 
into the machine, but I get a BOOT ERROR mes- 
sage. Why? What is the proper way to do this? 

Geoffrey C. Bennett 

Two possibilities exist. The most obvious explana- 
tion is that your tape is defective. But it is more 
likely that you have a disk drive attached and 
turned on. After the tape is successfully loaded, the 
Atari then tries to boot the disk drive. With no disk 
in the drive, you get the BOOT ERROR. Turn off 



20 COMPUTEI Februorv 1966 



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Incomplete, yes. 
But it's not just because 
we're always bringing 
out new stories in the 
Infocom interactive fic- 
tion collection. Nor is it 
simply due to the fact 
that with ail the writing 
and re-writing, honing 
and perfecting that we 
put into every one of 
our stories, our work is 
seemingly never done. 

The real reason is: an 
hifocom work of fiction 
can never be complete until you 
become a part of it 








In CUTTHROATSr the plo: 
involves a motley band of 
hardbitten salts who get wind 
of a shipwreclc hd^in with 
sunken treasure near the 
remote island where you live. 
In exchanRe for your diving 
skills, they offer you a piece 
of the aaior. Your challenge : 
Survive them, the perils of 
the deep, and escape with 
the treasure and your life. 
Good luck! 



THE HITCHHIKER'S 
GUIDE TO THE GALAXY^ 
by Dougias Adams is the 
most mind-boggling story 
we've ever published. In the 
pereonof Arthur Dent, you'll 
chortle as your planet is 
demolished. You'll yelp with 
laughter as your life is 
threatened by a galaxy of 
horrors. Your sides will 
positively split as you search 
the universe far. . . well, 
you'll find out. Maybe, 



In SUSPECT" our rtewest 
mystery thriller, you're a 
reporter who gets the scoop 
on the society event of the 
year— the murderof a 
Maryland Blue Blood at a 
fancy costume ball. Great! 
Except you're the prime 
suspect. .And if you can't 
find the real killer, your 
next b>'-line could be Ln the 
obituaries. 



with surprising twists, unique 
characters (many of whom 
You see, as hard as we work at possess extraordinarily developed inside a story. Get one from 



you have hundreds, even 
thousands of alternatives 
at every step. In fact, an 
Infocom interactive story 
is roughly the length of 
a short novel in content, 
but because you're 
actively engaged in the 
plot, your adventure 
can last for weeks and 
months. 

In other words, only 
you can complete the 
works of Infocom, Inc. 
Because they're stories 
that grow out of your imagination. 
Find out what it's like to get 



perfecting our stories, we always personalities), and original, logical, Infocom. Because with Infocom's 



leave out one essential element 
the main character. And that's 
where you enter in. 

Once you've got Infocom's 
interactive fiction in your 
computer, you experience 
something akin to waking up 
inside a novel. You find yourself 
at the center of an exciting plot 
that continually challenges you 



often hilarious puzzles. Communi- 
cation is carried on in the same 
way as it is in a novel- in prose. 
And interaction is easy- you type 
in full English sentences. 

But there is this key diflFer- 
ence between our tales and 
conventional novels: Infocom's 
interactive fiction is active, not 
passive. The course of events is 
shaped by the actions you choose 
to take. And you enjoy enormous 
freedom in your choice of actions - 



interactive fiction, there's room 
for you on every disk. 

inpocoiK 

Infocom, Inc., 55 Wheeler Street, Cambridge. MA 02138 

For yoLr: Apple U, Atari. Commodore 64, CP/MB". DECmate. 
DEC Raintxjw. DEC RT-U, IB.M PC and PCjr. KAVPRO II. 
MS-DOS 2.a' NEC APC. NEC PC-8000. Osborne. Tandy 3000. 
Tl Prafeasional.Tl 99/4A.TRS-80 Models I and 111. 
•Use the IBM PC version for your Compaq, and the MS-DOS 2.0 
version for your Wang or Mindset. 

CUTTHROATS and SUSPECT are trademarks of Infocom, Inc. 
THE HITCHHIKER'S GUIDE TO THE GALAXY is a trademark 
of Douglas Adams. 



the drive or disconnect it when you load a boot 
tape. 

Also, many machine language programs on boot 
tapes zoon't zoork zLuth the BASIC cartridge plugged 
in. Try removing BASIC before loading the tape into 
Atari'400, 800, and 1200XL computers. On a 600X1 
or 800XL, you can disable the built-in BASIC by 
holding dozen the OPTION button. (Therefore, }o 
auto-boot with a 600XL or 800XL, you ivould 
simultaneously hold doivn OPTION and START 
while switching on the computer.) 



Simultaneous Commodore Graphics 
And Text 

I'm writing an adventure game and would like to 
mix text with graphics. Is there any wav I can di- 
vide the screen to leave four lines at the bottom 
for text? 

Peter Goldstein 

You didn't mention which computer you're writing 
your game on, but loe'll assume it's the Commodore 
64. The Apple, Atari, IBM, and TI have this 
capability built into BASIC and require no special 
programming. 

On the 64, the best way to divide the screen 

into tiuo (or more) parts is to use a programming 
technique called a raster interrupt. Raster inter- 
rupts take advantage of the sequential nature of a 
video image. The image is painted on the screen by 
a cathode-ray beam which ahoays begins at the top- 
left corner and szceeps across the screen left to 
right. When the beam reaches the right edge of the 
screen, it's turned off for a split second and returned 
to the left side of the screen. Then the beam is 
dropped doivn one line and the process is repeated. 
When it finally reaches the boltom-right corner of 
the screen, it's switched off again and returned to 
the starting position at the upper-left corner. The 
entire cycle repeats 60 times a second. 

On the Commodore 64, you can determine 
zvhich horizontal line the beam is currently scan- 
ning by reading the raster register at location 
$D012 (53266). With this information in hand, you 
can zvrite a program to interrupt the process so you 
can insert a fezv lines of text or change screen 
colors. 

However, this takes some advanced program- 
ming. The raster interrupt can't be accessed directly 
from BASIC, because BASIC must be turned off to 
insert a vector to your interrupt routine. 

Here's a demonstration program lohich loads a 
machine language routine into memory and alloivs 
you to change screen colors and split the screen. To 
use this routine in your own programs, simply 
change lines 20 through 50 to define the variables 
to suit your needs. 

lA COMPUTE! February 1985 



10 GOSUB130 :rem 117 

20 INPUT "SELECT TOP SCREEN COLOR: ";A 

:reiii 222 
30 INPUT "SELECT BOTTOM SCREEN COLOR: ";B 

:reiti 194 
40 PRINT"WHAT ROW FOR SCREEN DIVISION?" 

; rem 172 
50 INPUTC:IFC<10RC>23THENPRINT"VA.HD RANG 
E IS 0-23 [2 SPACES } RE-ENTER ":GOTO40 

:rem 140 
60 SYS49152 : rem 106 

70 POKE829,A:REM SET TOP SCREEN COLOR 

:rera 226 
80 POKE830,B:REM SET BOTTOM SCREEN COLOR 

:reni 190 

90 POKE831,21: REM TOP SCREEN UPPERCASE/G 

RAPHICS :rem 188 

100 POKEa32,23 :REM BOTTOM SCREEN LOWER CA 

SE ;rein 70 

110 POKE828, 50+C*8:REM SET DIVIDING POINT 

:rern 166 
120 STOP irem 217 

130 CK=0:FORI=49152TO49247:READA:CK=CK+A: 
POKEI,A:NEXT:IFCK=10244THENRETURN 

; rem 180 
140 PRINT" {RVS3 ERROR IN DATA STATEMENTS": 
STOP :rem 59 

150 DATA120,169,127,141,13,220 : rem 231 
160 DATA169, 1,141, 26, 208, 173 : rem 145 
170 DATA60,3,141,18,20B,169 : rem 96 
180 DATA27,141,17,208,169,34 : rem 151 
190 DATA141,20,3,169,192,141 : rem 141 
200 DATA21,3,88,96,173,18 :rem 1 

210 DATA20a,205,60,3,208,28 : rem 87 
220 DATA169, 0,141, 18, 208, 173 : rem 142 
230 DATA64,3,141,24,208,173 :rem 89 
240 DATA62,3,141,33,208,169 : rem 93 
250 DATA1,141,25,208,104,16B :rem 137 
260 DATA104,170,104,64,173,60 : rem 187 
270 DATA3,141,18,208,173,61 : rem 93 
280 DATA3„141, 33, 208, 173,63 : rem 93 
290 DATA3, 141, 24, 208, 169,1 : rem 43 

300 DATA141,25,208,76,49,234 : rem 147 

Tor a thorough discussion on using raster inter- 
rupts, see "Split Screens" and "Son of Split Screens" 
by Jim Butterfield in COMPUTEl's First Book of 
Commodore 64. 



Atari Modem Update 

Your reply to Paul S. Reyes in the November 
1984 "Readers' Feedback" column does not ap- 
pear to be very timely or accurate. The modem 
currently offered by Atari is the model 1030 
direct-connect, autodial, autoanswer modem. If 
your statement "the Atari modem comes with its 
own software, but is not compatible with other 
modem software" is about the 1030, you are 
incorrect. 

Versions of Jim Steinbrecher's AMODEM 
4.8, a public domain program, have been specifi- 
cally written for use with the Atari 835 and 1030 
modems, as well as modems connected through 
the Atari 850 Interface Module. The version 1 
have is called RMODEM and is available on 
many bulletin boards and from the CompuServe 



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Information Service. RMODEM can be compiled, 
and it provides a 22K buffer that can be dumped 
to your disk drive or printer. 

The Atari 1030 modem has been advertised 
by a national chain store on sale at $69.96. At 
that price it is certainly a best buy. 

Note that the Atari 1030 modem uses the T: 
handler as opposed to the R: handler for the 850 
Interface Module. Both handlers are supported 
by RMODEM. 

Howard Stebbins 

Thanks for this additional information. COMPUTE! 

stands by its answer, though, since many Atari 
owners may lack the programming skill to modify 
modem programs using the R: device that were 
written before the introduction of the 1030. In fact, 
the JTERM Atari terminal program published in last 
month's issue of COMPUTE! was written for moderns 
which use the R: device, not the T: device. 

Apple Joystick To Keys Conversion 

I use an Apple 11+ for games and educational 
programming, and v^^ould like to change games 
which require a paddle to keyboard input. How 
can I do this? 

Michael Weaver 

Applesoft BASIC has a very handy statement (POL) 
for reading the value of the game controller, and 
you can also read the keyboard buffer to see which 
key is being pressed (although it's not as handy). 
The GET statement can read the keyboard, too, but 
it halts the program while waiting for input. 
To convert a program from using a game 
controller to the keyboard, find all the routines 
which read PDl, then change those routines to read 
the keyboard buffer instead. Try using this 
subroutine: 



10 
20 

-10 
50 
60 
70 
80 
90 
1 00 
1 10 



A = 

B = 

I F 

D = 

I F 

I F 

I F 

I F 
IF 
GOTO 



PEEK 
PEEK 



A 
A 
D 
D 
D 
D 



128 
■ 128 
: 65 THEN 
■■ 68 THEN 

87 THEN 

88 THEN 

= 32 THEN 
10 



- 16384) 

- 16368) 
THEN 10 



PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 



RIGHT" 
LEFT" 
UP" 
DOWN" 
"F I RE ! " 



This checks for the ASCII values of the A, D, 

W, X, and space bar, and ignores all other keys. 
Line 10 reads the keyboard and line 20 resets the 
keyboard to await the next keypress. Line 40 eval- 
uates A to see if a key was pressed. If bit 7 is set 
(the value of A is greater that 128), then a key was 
pressed. Line 50 translates the value of A to an 
ASCII value, and lines 60 through 110 evaluate the 
key pressed. Of course, these lines could be changed 
to read any keys, and values could be included to 

26 COMPUTEI Febmary 1985 



check for diagonal movement (the Q, E, C, and Z 
keys). 

Be advised, hoivever, that Apple paddles are 
resistive, so they return numeric variables that do 
not correspond directly to directions. The keyboard 
routine presented above provides for reading direc- 
tions and is thus not a perfect replacement for an 
Apple paddle. 



Faulty Math? 

I have a Commodore 64, and there seems to be 
an error of some kind in the math logic. If you 
raise the number 5 to the power of 7 (PRINT 
5t7), you get the result of 78125.0001, which is 
incorrect. 

I have found this error with other numbers, 
and although these amounts are small, I'm afraid 
there are others which I haven't found yet which 
are causing errors in math programs. Could you 
tell me what causes this? 

Bill Briggs 

You have come across the phenomenon known as 
rounding error. Most home computers use the bi- 
nary system for mathematical calculations. While 
some fractional numbers translate easily to binary, 
some do not. The same' is true of decimal number- 
ing, the system we're used to. The fraction 1/3 
translates into 33 percent (after rounding off all 
those extra threes). And three times 33 percent 
comes to 99 percent. The result is off by 1 percent. 
You will never be able to translate 1/3 into a 
perfect percentage in decimal. And your computer 
will never be exactly accurate when it uses certain 
functions in binary. But how do fractions occur 
ivhen raising one whole number to the power of an- 
other whole number? 

If you were trying to do the expression you 
mentioned on paper, you'd write 5X5X5X5 
X 5 X 5 X 5. However, the computer uses a more 
sophisticated mathematical formula to avoid having 
to perform the repeated multiplications. To see how 
it works, try entering the following line in direct 
mode: 

PRINT EXP(7 * LOG{5» 

Notice that this gives the same answer as PRINT 
5T7. It's the fractions involved in evaluating the 
logarithm (LOG) and exponential (EXP) functions 
that lead to the rounding error. Other functions that 
suffer the same problem for a similar re*ason are 
SIN, COS, TAN, ATN, and SQR. 

For a thorough discussion on rounding errors, 
see "De-Bugging BASIC, Part 2," in the February 
1985 issue of our sister publication, COMPUTEl's 
GAZETTE. 






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Jason Meudt 

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microprocessor. Therefore, an Apple emulator for 
the 64 xoould end up costing almost as much as an 
Apple purchased outright. 

There's also a possible legal complication. Apple 
has been very aggressive in bringing lawsuits 
against vendors zcho market products xoith ROMs 
that Apple feels are close copies of its own operat- 
ing system. For example, Apple successfully fought a 
long legal battle with the makers of the Franklin 
Ace computer. Since the emulator would have to 
provide an operating system that closely resembled 
Apple's, it's quite possible that the manufacturer 
would end up in court. 

Moreover, new programs for the 64 have been 
published or released commercially on almost a 
daily basis since the 64 was introduced. By now 
most of the original Apple library has been trans- 
lated for the 64, zoith enhancements to take advan- 
tage of the 64 's more advanced sound and graphics 
capabilities. Thus, much of the original impetus for 
the development of an emulator has dwindled. In 
fact, with the booming library of original software 
for the 64, a 64 emulator for the Apple might prove 
more popular. 

Nevertheless, one Apple emulator is currently 
being advertised in COMPUTE!, though at this xvri't- 
ing it is not yet available. Mimic Systems Inc., 1112 
Fort St., Fl. 6M, Victoria, B.C., Canada V8V 4V2, 
has announced an Apple emulator and plans to 
have it ready for the Winter Consumer Electronics 
Show in January, with sales to begin early in 1985. 
Mimic's current price estimate is around'$600. For 
comparison, the Apple lie is presently available for 
about $800. 



Tl Rounding Routine 

Here's a routine for TI-99/4A users that will 
round off decimal points to any desired place. 

Bill Gardella 



10 
1 1 

12 
13 

1 4 
1 

16 
17 
18 
19 
20 

2 1 
2 2 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 



N = 

D«=STR*(C) 

N = N-i-l 

E*=SEG* (D*, N, 1 ) 

IF E*="" TMPM -: 

IF E* 




THEN 250 

THEN l: 



10 IF E*< >" . " THEN 1 

10 E« = SEG* {D«, 1 , M + 2> 

F*=SEG* CD«, N+3, 1 ) 

10 IF F«=" " THEN 200 

•0 G = VAL<F*) 



•0 



G=VAL<F$) 

10 H = VAL(E*) 

IF G<5 THEN 230 

H=H+.01 

C = H 

GOTO 270 

H=yAL(D*) 

C = H 

REM Rest of program from here o 
n . 



Thanks for shari7ig the technique. 



28 COMPUTE! February' 1 985 



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The New Atari 

With Sigmund Hartmann 
President Of Atari Software 

Tom R, Halfhill, Editor, and Selby Bateman. Features Editor 



Sigmund Hartmann was 
born in Germany, educated 
in Belgium and the United 
States, and is one of the few 
people who have worked for 
the volatile Jack Tramiel 
three times — twice at Com- 
modore, and now at Atari. 
Before joining Commodore 
for the first time, Hartmann 
worked at TRW, a major 
high-technology corporation. 
His first stint at Commodore 
as general manager didn't 
gel, so he returned to TRW. 
In all, he spent 18 years at 
TRW, working as an en- 
gineering manager for 
NASA space projects and 
running a division which 
included hundreds of engineers and programmers. In 1983, 
Hartmann rejoined Commodore to head Tramiel's newly 
formed software division. But in early 1984, after a manage- 
ment dispute, Tramiel shocked the industry by leaving the 
company he had founded in the 1950s and buying Atari — 
ironically, a firm he had nearly destroyed in the home com- 
puter price war of 1982-83. Several top executives and en- 
gineers loyal to Tramiel left Commodore in the months 
afterward and followed their former boss to Atari. In late 
1984, Hartmann crossed over, too, taking command of the 
remnants of Atari's software division. 




Sigmund Hartmann 



COMPUTE! caught up with 
Hartmann in November at the 
COMDEX/Fal! computer show in 
Las Vegas soon after his move. 
Hartmann ivas accompanied by 
two of Tramiel's sons, who now 
hold top positions at Atari. Al- 
though Hartmann had just begun 
to immerse himself in the hercu- 
lean task of rebuildijjg Atari, he 
agreed to discuss the company's 
future plans and the nexo comput- 
ers it hopes to introduce at the 
Winter Consumer Electronics 
Show (CES) in January. It was al- 
most two months before CES, and 
Hartmann had few technical de- 
tails, but he ivas willing to sit 
down for 20 minutes and sketch 
out the most important points in 
his heavy European accent. 

Atari is pegging its comeback 
on the release of three neiv ma- 
chines in the first half of 19S5: a 
128K RAM, upward-compatible 
version of the existing 800XL; a 
powerful 16/32-bit computer built 
around the Motorola 68000 
microprocessor found in the Apple 
Macintosh; and a superpowerful, 
full 32-bit machine with perhaps 
as much as lOOOK of RAM (one 
megabyte). All loill be mass- 
marketed, and the tatter two are 



30 COMPUTEI Februaiy 1965 



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targeted to cost less than $1,000. 

At least one of the advanced 
computers also loill feature a nezv 
operating system licensed from 
Digital Research— CP/M-86K— 
and Digital Research's GEM 
(Graphics Environmerit Manager). 
GEM shields users from the op- 
erating system with icons, pull- 
down menus, and a mouse 
controller, as on the Macintosh. 
fCOMPUTE! will have more details 
on the new computers and operat- 
ing systems after CES.) 

One week before this inter- 
view, Atari had slashed prices on 
its existing hardware and software 
to boost Christmas sales and raise 
much needed cash. List prices 
(before dealer discounts) were cut 
to about $120 for the 64K 800X1 
and $199 for the 1050 disk drive. 
Prices of other peripherals and 
software were substantially re- 
duced, too. 

Although this interview was 
conducted in a limited amount of 
time, Hartmann's comments re- 
veal much about his own plans 
and Jack Tramiel's new direction 
for Atari. 



QSA- 



Hartmann: Can I give you a 
preview of why I joined the 
company? The major reason 1 
joined Atari is because, knowing 
Jack, working for him — this is 
my third time with Jack — and 
knowing the type of individual 
he is — that he is a successful in- 
dividual — I joined a team of 
people which I worked with 
previously. And those people 
are the ones who took Commo- 
dore to one billion dollars. So if 
you are a smart guy, what you 
do is you join that team, the 
winning team, and now you 
take the new company up to a 
billion-plus. We learned a few 
things and we should do better 
than a billion dollars, for cer- 
tain. So that is one of the major 
reasons, and Jack and I were al- 
ways close. Plus the timing was 
right. And that's why I took the 
job. 

32 COMPUTE! February 1985 



Since I am heading soft- 
ware worldwide for Atari, which 
includes AtariSoft, the strategy 
is to continue to sell software 
for non-Atari products. So we 
want to continue to sell all types 
of software packages for the PC, 
for the Apple, for the Commo- 
dore, for every machine. In ad- 
dition to that, we will also sell, 
under AtariSoft, peripherals 
which are non-Atari peripherals. 
So we are going to be totally in 
the business of selling software 
products but also peripheral 
products and accessories for 
non-Atari machines. 

C!: What kind of peripherals 
might that include? 

Hartmann: Printers, disk drives, 
etc, OK? So that is the strategy 
which we are going to follow. 
In addition to that, if you look 
in the past of the Atari Corpora- 
tion, the old Atari, the main em- 
phasis was to be recognized as a 
game company. We definitely 
want to change that. We are 
definitely going to be and will 
be a microcomputer company. 
And if you look up microcom- 
puter, it says you've got to have 
the computer technology, 
you've got to have software 
with it, and you've got to have 
peripherals. We are going to 
concentrate on all those three 
areas. 

In terms of the existing ma- 
chine, we have an 800XL ma- 
chine which you've heard 
about. That 800XL was cost- 
reduced. Because of the way we 
cost-reduced it and eliminated 
some of the components, we 
had an opportunity to increase 
the reliability of it, so we cost- 
reduced it and maintained 
compatibility. And as you know, 
when you reduce parts in a 
piece of equipment, the reliabil- 
ity goes up. What we did is we 
took some of the components 
and made them a gate array. 
Gate arrays are more reliable 
types of devices, OK? So we re- 
duced the price to below $120 — 
I think you know that. But in 



addition to that, we geared up 
our manufacturing to produce a 
few hundred thousand or more 
a month. So it's going into high 
production. And there is no in- 
tention of phasing that machine 
out. It's going to be going on for 
quite a long period of time. So 
it's going to be huge for the 
after-market. 

From what I can see, with 
our new pricing structure, we 
are already seeing a trend that 
people are buying it. They're 
buying our disk drives, which 
we reduced the price also now, 
which is below some other com- 
pany which we are competing 
with. So Jack did what he said 
he would do. He started the 
trend of moving the company to 
where it is going to be a 
superprofitable company. 

C!: Those are very attractive 
prices and you've answered a 
lot of questions for people. 

Hartmann: But in addition to 
that, we are also coming out 
with another 800 machine 
which will have 128K of RAM, 
which is really what you need, 
OK? 

C!: Will that be compatible with 
the older Atari computers? 

Hartmann: It's going to be 
upward-compatible totally with 
the 800XL machines. We're going 
to stick with a consistent ca- 
pability in terms of compatibil- 
ity. We do not want to lose that 
software base out there, 

C!: What other improvements 
will this machine have? 

Hartmann: There are other ones 
but I cannot tell you now, , . . 
The big thing is to give you 
more memory. 

C!; What is the price going to be? 

Hartmann: It will be probably 
just a little higher, but I do not 
know now. It's like the philoso- 
phy of Jack Tramiel is to make 
certain that the end-user gets 
tremendous value for his 
money. So the price is going to 




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be way low in comparison to 
our competition, for example. 

C!: Is there going to be a differ- 
ent name for this? 

Hartmann: Yeah, we'll have a 
name for it, but right now we 
don't have anything. At CES 
we'll have a name to identify it. 

So much for what I call the 
low-end machine, except for 
one other thing. In terms of the 
software for the 800XL, what 
I'm looking for — and I did dis- 
cuss a lot of this with third- 
party software developers — I'm 
hoping we are going to come 
out with a whole slew of third- 
party software pieces, but the 
major emphasis being placed 
not on recreational or game 
software, but productivity soft- 
ware and educational software. 
Because as I pointed out before, 
if you look at Atari in the old 
days, it was mainly recognized 
as a game [company] and they 
had some excellent game soft- 
ware. I'm pushing the pendu- 
lum that other way — education, 
productivity software. And still 
do games and recreational soft- 
ware. But the best we can buy 
we can get. I'd rather have less 
and have quality. 

Another very important 
emphasis which Jack is placing 
on all of his guys is quaUty. He 
feels that quality comes first for 
a very simple reason. We didn't 
start this company to be there 
for one year, go public, and 
then get out. We are here for 
the long haul, and in order to 
take it up to the billions which 
we want to take it, you need to 
establish yourself as a quality 
house. So Jack is really tough 
on everyone. He wants to make 
sure we do not ship a product 
which does not meet the highest 
quality standard. Very impor- 
tant. And that goes true with 
software, peripherals, and so on. 
And that is so much for the 
SOO-series machines. 

Now, let's go up to new 
products. Jack announced that 
we would have two machines 

34 COMPUTE! February 1985 



Q&A- 



ii^ 



We are 

gearing ourselves 

to produce 

half a million 

computers a 

month.** 



coming out and we'll probably 
demonstrate at least one of 
them during CES. That is our 
16-bit machine. Now again, ev- 
eryone says "16-bit" and starts 
to look at what processor we'll 
be using. The processor which 
we're using is really a 68000 
Motorola processor, which is 
really — if you look at the ad- 
vertising by Macintosh, by- 
Apple — a 32-bit machine. But 
we don't want to play games, so 
we say that it is truly a 16-bit 
machine. From a viewpoint of 
what you can do with it, it isri't 
a full-blown 32-bit, so we call it 
a 16-bit machine. 

Now, that machine is going 
to use as its foundation the 
GEM hookup. Digital Research 
came out with GEM. You've 
heard of Crystal, it's like the 
Macintosh type. It's a graphical 
representation of what I call an 
extension of an operating sys- 
tem. It gives you icons, it gives 
you graphic representations, 
pull-down menus, and every- 
thing, with a mouse — you use a 
mouse with it. It's like the Mac- 
intosh. Now, we signed a deal 
with Digital Research, and 
worked with Digital Research 
for quite a while. We're using, 
actually, their operating system, 
the CP/M-86K, that's the op- 
erating system which we're us- 
ing, OK? And we're using their 
GEM program. And we're work- 



ing very closely with Digital Re- 
search to get that product 
completed so that we can dem- 
onstrate it at CES. 

C!: But CP/M-86, isn't that an 
operating system for the eight- 
bit Z80 chip? 

Hartmann: That's K, CP/M- 
86K. That's what they call a 
Macintosh -type operating sys- 
tem. ... In my opinion it's just 
fantastic. 

C!: GEM isn't running on any 
computer right now, is it? 

Hartmann: Oh, yes, you could 
see it, they have it at Tandy . . , 
pull-down menus, mouse, every- 
thing, like the Macintosh, basi- 
cally. [Editor's note: This is the 
MS-DOS, IBM-compatible ver- 
sion of GEM.] We believe if you 
look at the machine in terms of 
resolution, graphics, it's going to 
be very powerful. It's going to 
have features which in my opin- 
ion are going to be better than 
what the Macintosh features are. 
So that machine will be avail- 
able, and we'll demonstrate it in 
January, and within a few 
months we'll start to ship it. 
When I say "a few months," it's 
tough to predict exactly. I would 
say within three months or so 
we'll ship it, I would say not 
later than that. 

C!: But you'll be demonstrating 

it at CES? 

Hartmann: Yes, I would say 

we'll be demonstrating it at 
CES. OK, then the next question 
would be. How are you going to 
sell it? All of our 16- and 32-bit 
machines will be sold through 
the mass merchants. The price 
structure is going to be below 
$1,000. It is going to be so sig- 
nificant in terms of reduction, 
that we believe that we will 
really get a big share of the 
marketplace. If you look at it, 
really, with the introduction of 
the 16-bit machine, we are gear- 
ing ourselves to produce a half a 
million computers a month. 
That's what Jack Tramiel, what 



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Atari is doing, gearing ourselves 
to produce that many. And as 
far as we are concerned, price 
performance is going to be 
there, the quality of the product 
is going to be assured, the soft- 
ware will be available on the 
16-bit machine. I've been talk- 
ing in the last few days to third- 
party software developers, 
trying to get them to be partners 
with us. But more important, 
our philosophy is to give them 
the development tools, give 
them all the help possible so 
they can develop software and 
they can sell it themselves if 
they want to. So it's an open 
system, A similar philosophy 
with the Macintosh, really, 
which Apple followed. Different 
than what 1 used to do at Com- 
modore, OK? And it makes 
sense, you have to look at time. 
When you bring out a 16/32-bit 
machine, you have no other 
choice, you have to operate that 
way. 

C!: Are j'ou getting many takers 
on this third-party software? 

Hartmann: The guys I talked to 
felt that it sounded very inter- 
esting. They also recognize 
when Jack makes up his mind 
to do something. So they all 
said they want to continue talk- 
ing to us. Some of them will 
definitely port over the system 
to our machine, 'cause they've 
got it running on the Macintosh 
and they will do it for us. And 
then we'll decide if they want to 
sell it to us, or give us a license, 
or if they're going to sell it 
themselves. But we do have 
companies which will do it for 
us. 1 can't tell you who yet, be- 
cause I just talked with them in 
the last couple of days. And 
when I get back to my office, 
we'll continue and get all the 
data, the specifications, and turn 
it over to the people. 

C!: There are supposed to be 
two new computers out for 
Atari next year, a 16-bit ma- 
chine and also a 32-bit. What's 

36 COMPUTEI February 1985 



the next machine out? 

Hartmann; The 32-bit machine, 
we don't want to tell you yet 
what the processor is on it. It's 
going to be coming out about 
two or three months later, after 
CES, and you can guess what 
kind of processor you'll have to 
put in it. There are many full- 
blown 32-bit processors. I'll give 
you a couple of choices which I 
have in my mind. One is the 
68020, which is the Motorola. 
Another one you can look at is 
the National, which is the 
32032. And then you have Intel 
and I don't know how many 
more. But there are a couple of 
them, and I'm sure you can add 
a couple of more to them. And 
we will make our software and 
write our system in such a way 
that we can pick either of the 
two architectures and still make 
it work. So we have a little time 
to think about which system to 
use. We'll make that decision 
probably within the next four to 
six weeks. 

C!: If we could come down to 
Atari sometime in December 
before CES and take a look at 

these, because we have a very 
loyal Atari following and I think 
they're looking for what's going 
to come. Plus a loyal Commo- 
dore following which is inter- 
ested, too. . . . Now, the two 
new computers — these are very 
powerful computers, more pow- 
erful, obviously, than an IBM 
PC. Will they be marketed as 
home computers or business 
computers or something in 
between? 

Hartmann: I'll tell you what 
Jack says. He doesn't care. He 
says he sells them. If a guy 
wants to buy them for home 
uses, wants to buy them for per- 
sonal business, wants to buy 
them to run his business, that's 
fine. But we'll have the proper 
support there, we'll have the 
right software there. 

C!: So the 32-bit machine also 
will be at the mass merchants? 



Hartmann: All mass merchants. 

I'm telling you, below $1,000. 

Ch For both machines? How 
much memory will the 32-bit 
machine have? 

Hartmann: I can't tell you that, 
but it has to be sufficient for 
people to use it. 

C!: OK, now you'll mass- 
merchandise them, but if it's 
available in K marts and places 
like that— 

Hartmann: But you have to 
look at K mart. How about if I 
tell you K mart may have a 
computer store? 

C!: Like Sears, OK. But will peo- 
ple take seriously for business 
purposes a computer that's 
mass-merchandised? 

Hartmann: But we are not say- 
ing that it should only be for 
business. Only that a guy can 
buy a 32-bit machine. 

C!: You're saying an under- 
$1,000 computer for anyone 
who wants to buy it, mass- 
merchandised. 

Hartmann: And he can either 
use it for business, either use it 
for his home — have fun, do 
anything — it's up to him. We 
don't want to tell the guy, 
"Hey, this is only a business 
machine." 

C!: Right, but at the same time, 
you can also use a 64 or an 
Atari 800XL for some busi- 
nesses, but no one takes them 
seriously because they're sold as 
home computers. 

Hartmann: That's why the soft- 
ware. That's why if you look at 
GEM, and you look at the appli- 
cation software which we'll 
have with the machine, it's go- 
ing to be so friendly and so 
wonderful to use, it's going to 
make a lot attractive. You don't 
need all the jillion pieces of sup- 
port, you don't need a thick 
manual, like this thick. It'll be a 
lot simpler. @ 



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LOGIC 



713 Edgebrook Drive 
Champaign IL 61820 

(217) 359-8482 Telex; 206995 




Kathy Yakol, Feature Writer 



Though some authors and stars are lending only their names to enter- 
tainment software, others are actively contributing to the game's 
design. Here's a look at what's happening. 




You see it practically every time 
you flip through a magazine or 
turn on the television. Fame 
lending its name to the cause of 
advertising. Tennis players and 
movie stars and race-car drivers 
hawking shampoo and sports 
equipment and clothing lines. 

We've seen the same thing 
happen with microcomputers, 
famous faces and voices telling 
us which one to buy. Some 
entertainment software publish- 
ers are taking it a step farther; 



instead of promoting a package, 
the personality is a major part 
of the software, either as one of 
the game's characters, or even 
its designer. 



fhe Trillium series, produced 
^by a division of Spinnaker 
Software, is one of the best 
examples of this trend. It's a se- 
ries of interactive adventure 
games for the Commodore 64 
and Apple Il-series computers, 
based on novels by well-known 
science fiction authors. 

In each of the games, the 




38 COMPUTEI Febmary 1985 




player takes the role 
of the novel's main 
character, encountering 
his or her problems and making 
decisions. Full-color graphics 
and a sophisticated parser that 



understands several hundred 
words make the games easy to 
play. A hint book and word list 
are included in each package. 

In late 1983, Spinnaker ap- 
proached writer Michael Crich- 




ton, thinking that some of his 
works might lend themselves 
well to adventure games. He 
surprised them. He was just 
completing work on an adven- 
ture game of his own. "They 
came to acquire book rights and 
ended up taking a finished 
game," says Crichton. 

Crichton, author of The An- 
dromeda Strain and Congo, and 
writer/director of many science 
fiction films, was very interested 
in interactive fiction. He had 
been asked to do some creative 
work using laser disks but de- 
clined, believing that they 
couldn't be accessed in a suffi- 
ciendy sophisticated fashion. 



(^ o^ qi 



Books, breakers, bad guys, and 

Bruce: Personalities and trends 

find a place in computer games. 

Pictured from left to right are 

Fahrenheit 451, part of the Trillium series from Spinnaker; Creative Software's 

Break Street; Spy vs. Spy, First Star Software's adaptation of the comic strip 

from MAD magazine; Bruce Lee, from Datasoft; and the joitxt project of 

Infocom and author Douglas Adams, A Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, 

Febojary 1965 COMPUTE! 39 




He had hired programmer 
Steve Warrady in 1982 to help 
translate an original story into 
Apple assembly language. The 
result was Amazon, a graphics 
and text adventure in which the 
player is an agent for NSRT, a 
high-tech research firm. The 
player must travel to the Ama- 
zon and recover valuable emer- 
alds hidden in the Lost City of 
Chak, with the help of a 
friendly (and often sarcastic) 
bird named Paco. 

Fahrenheit 451, another 
game in the Trillium series, is a 
sequel to Ray Bradbury's book 
of the same name. As Guy 
Montag, the player lives in a fu- 
ture totalitarian society whose 
government is committed to 
controlling the populace by de- 
stroying all literature. Montag's 
mission is to restore to the 
world the freedom it once had. 

Rendezvous With Rama is 
based on the Arthur C. Clarke 
novel. The player, as captain of 
a small scout spaceship which 
has just encountered an alien 
starship hurtling into the solar 
system, must explore it and try 
to make contact with alien intel- 
ligence. (Clarke wrote a new 
ending to be used in the game.) 

The fantasy Dragonworld, 
by Byron Preiss and Michael 
Reaves, sends the player on a 
journey to rescue The Last 
Dragon from the Duke of 
Darkness, 

40 COMPUTEI Februory 1985 



Spinnaker's Trillium series, pictured 
from left to right, top row: 
Rendezvous With Rama, Amazon, 
Shadowkeep, and Dragonworld. 

In this scene from Ghostbusters, a 
ghost is being sucked up by a ghost 
vacuum as the player drives from one 
building to another. 



And here's an interesting 
twist: Science fiction writer Alan 
Dean Foster wrote a novel based 
on the fantasy game Shadowkeep. 
The player's task is to recapture 
the Shadowkeep, with its mazes 
and monsters, and to free the 
good wizard Nacomedon. Up to 
nine characters may be chosen 
by the player while exploring 
the keep. Designed as an inter- 
active adventure, the game in- 
corporates many aspects of 
role-playing fantasy software. 








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oftware designer David 
Crane, a cofounder of 
Activision, went to see the 
movie Ghostbusters on the rec- 
ommendation of a friend. "I 
think I may have enjoyed it a 
lot more than some people be- 
cause it was sprung on me," he 
says. "From the first special ef- 
fect, you knew that there was 
something here that wasn't just 
stand-up comedy." 

Two days after he saw the 
movie, someone at Activision 
asked if he'd like to write a 
computer game based on the 
movie. He took a day to think 
about it. "To do justice to any 
game takes no less than 500 
hours of my time, and 1 was go- 
ing to get married in six weeks." 

His decision to do it was 
based partly on the fact that he 
had already been working on 
the game without knowing it. 
For a couple of months. Crane 
had been trying to develop a 
game that had something to do 
with equipping a car and driv- 
ing it around city streets, but it 
was going nowhere. "It was a 
game concept in search of a 
theme," he says. 

And the Ghostbusters theme 



/""Hi, we're from Europe.Where's the gold?"/ 



A SECOND CHANCE to GET 
the NEW WORLD RIGHT 



T 

f F COLUMBUS 

f HAD LANDED IN 
■ NEW JERSEY; if 
J^ Cortez had been 
nicer to Montezuma; if 
Pizarro had been a more 
generous soul, would 
the world today be any 
different? 

If you've ever won- 
dered about things like 
that, you'll like Seven 
Cities of Gold very much 
indeed. 

It's a kind of ad ven- 
ture. An unusually rich 
and technically impres- 
sive one with new conti- 
nents to explore, natives 
to encounter, resources to 
manage and trade routes 
to establish. But beyond 
all the neat stuff Sei^en 
Cities throws up on the 
SCTeen, there's something 
else happening here. 

It feels quite odd to 
look at the map and see 
nothing. Of course you 
have to explore the more 
than 2800 screen new 
world in order to map it. 
But the way the natives 
act, the way you get older. 







This w Elif"|Jt'. in ^crtiltinti }-D j,'Ti£(ihiL"s. \hn outfit, I'lsic the Crown, iiiimch yrjur ships, and if ^oiiVt* 
cue Duf /or this, jiju TL'timi later ta tali ail sorts of wild srories ahotn tihil it's like aver there. 




I here are chxt 2H00 screens to cxplurt' trt the rteu- Animated mKit'cs jTirTound you They have no 
uorid. As you scroll through them, seasnns chongt'. reason to mist you. The drum beat tivickens, 




Trading ulth the Altecs is tricky Ybit tauU umd itp Home again yau vtew your maps, pat yourself on 
uith enoiiRh gold ta biiild m empire. Or as snufi, the back, and comiiier your place in histort 



the way seasons change 
and your men behave , and 
the way your reputation 
preceeds you gives you a 
sort of feeling that's 
unexpected in computer 
games. It's deeper. Maybe 
a little disquieting. It 
plays as much in your 
head as it does inside 
your computer. 

Seven Cities does all 
this with the real world or, 
better still (since the"new" 
world really isn't any- 
more), it will construct any 
number of completely 
detailed hemispheres for 
you to try your hand with. 

Designed by Ozark 
Softscape (the people 
who made M.U.L.E., 
In/oworWs "Strategy Game 
of 1983"), Seven Cities is 
about as near a recreation 
of history as has ever 
been accomplished, with 
or without a computer. 

Find it. Stomp around 
in it. See if you cant do a 
better job than all the cel- 
ebrated figures who got 
us into the mess we have 
to deal with today. 



SEVEN CITIES o/GOLD 

from ELECTRONIC ARTS" 



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fit perfectly. The theme song 
from the movie plays through- 
out the game (you can sing 
along by following the bouncing 
ball at the game's opening) as 
you buy a car and outfit it with 
equipment like ghost bait (to 
trap the marshmallow man) and 
a ghost vacuum (to suck up 
ghosts as you drive through the 
streets of the city). Buildings 
flashing red are ghost-ridden, 
and it's your job to maneuver 
each ghost into a ghost trap 
before he "slimes" you. The 
game is won when you've cap- 
tured enough ghosts to enter 
Zuul. 

"It's an amazing coin- 
cidence that what I was domg 
followed the script of the movie. 
I was able to put the theme and 
game together in such a way 
that 1 could have what's really 
an original game concept that 
embodied the spirit of the movie. 

^There were no coincidences 
I involved in the develop- 
\m^ ment of Infocom's com- 
puter game version of A 
Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, 
just a lot of mutual admiration. 
"Most people at Infocom were 
Hitchhiker's fans, and Douglas 
Adams [author of the book] was 
an Infocom game player," says 
Steve Meretzky. 

A Hitchhiker's Guide to the 



Galaxy is the story of Arthur 
Dent, an ordinary human being 
who is thrust into some rather 
extraordinary circumstances. 
After being told by Ford Prefect 
(an alien in disguise) that the 
earth is about to be destroyed, 
he hitches a ride on a Volgon 
spaceship, where he is tortured 
by having poetry read to him. 
Surviving that, he is ejected into 
space, and is rescued by the 
Heart of Gold, another space- 
ship, and brought to the planet 
Magrathea. Improbable things 
continue to happen as the zany 
plot unfolds. 

Meretzky, a program de- 
signer for Infocom, and Adams 
worked together to translate the 
book's themes, characters, and 
humor into a text adventure. 
"The game starts out following 
the book pretty closely, up to 
your arrival on the Volgon 
ship," he says. "From that 
point, until you get to the Heart 
of Gold, the general story line is 
pretty similar, but a lot of the 
more specific things that happen 
aren't the same things that hap- 
pen in the book. 

"By the time you get to the 
Heart of Gold, the story diverges 
almost completely from the 
story line of the book. But there 
are a number of things that are 
just sort of alluded to in the 
book that are gone into in much 
more detail in the game." 

Adams, whose home is in 
England, visited Meretzky at 
Infocom for about a week to 
map out the initial design of the 




game. They found that their cre- 
ative styles differed. Meretzky, 
who had previously designed 
Planetfall and Sorcerer for 
Infocom, usually came up with 
an overall concept for a game, 
then went back and filled in de- 
tails. Adams did it the opposite 
way — details first. 

So they kept in constant 
contact via electronic mail as 
Meretzky was programming, 
then met again in England for 
some intense final sessions 
("We basically holed ourselves 
up in a country inn and didn't 
come out until we had finished"). 

Meretzky found a different 
kind of challenge in program- 
ming a game whose story line 
had basically been written by 
someone else. "In some ways 
it's easier, and in some ways it's 
harder," he says. 'It's easier be- 
cause you have some constraints 
on the universe you're going to 
be designing, and on the charac- 
ters you're going to be using, 
and a lot of the situations, and 
you don't have to come up with 
as many ideas. 

"But on the other hand, 
there's more of a challenge be- 
cause you want to take advan- 
tage of the features of an 
interactive game, and you don't 
want it to be just a translation 
of the book, because the book is 
necessarily linear. You want to 
take advantage of the features 
and the power of the computer 
to do something different." 




G/JOB 



Datasoft's The Dallas Quest and four from Epyx: Barbie, 9 To 5 Typing, 
Breakdance, and GI Joe. 



42 COtaPUTH February 1985 











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Michael Crichton 




There are new ways of presenting information 
other than the traditional ways in which the 
viewer or reader is required to be passive. A few 
years ago, I realized that I didn't know about 
these things, and that I'd better find out about 
them. The only may I could learn was to actually 
go and do one. So I said, "Well, I'll just make a 
game and then I'll learn." And I certainly did. 

Interactive fiction — the adventure game — is 
one of those new ways. And Michael Crichton 
is one of the newest authors in this genre. 

Crichton is better known for his work in 
fiction and films. His novels include The 
Andromeda Strain, The Terminal Man, and 
Congo. As a filmmaker, he has been involved 
in the writing and directing of Westworld, 
Coma, The Great Train Robbery, Looker, and the 
recently released Runaway. 

The rapid growth of technology — and the 
decisions it necessarily forces on societies — has 
been a major theme in much of Crichton 's 
work. He's been interested in the artistic 
potential of microcomputers since the start, 
and owns several himself, including an Apple, 
a Commodore 64, a Radio Shack Model 100, 
and several IBM PCs. 

Crichton has used his micros primarily for 
word processing and game playing, but was 
especially intrigued by the possibilities that lay 
in adventure gaming, and disappointed that 
games weren't being more cleverly designed. 

/ simply didn't understand the mentality 
that informed them. It was not until I began 
programming myself that I realized it was a 
debugger's mentality. They could make you sit 
outside a door until you said exactly the right 
words. Sometimes you had to say, "I quit," and 
then it would let you through. 

Well, that's life in the programming world. 
It's not life in any other world. It's «of an 
accepted dramatic convetUion in any other arena 
of entertainment. It's something you learn to do 
when you're trying to make the computer work. 

So in 1982, eager to explore this partici- 



patory art form, Crichton started to script his 
own adventure game. Since the only computer 
language he knew well was BASIC, he hired 
programmer Steve Warrady to help translate 
his story into graphics and text using Apple 
assembly language. 

/ wanted to make a game that tended to re- 
flect my own prejudices. My prejudice is that I'm 
not a fantasist. I don't like magic spells to get me 
across the river and I don't like to meet trolls and 
dwarfs. I got tired of that when I was six. 

So I wanted to have a more realistic world. 
In Amazon, when you get to the river and find 
the boat that has a hole in it, there are three 
ways to patch it. And they're all things that 
would work with a real boat. You just use your 
head and say, "What would I do with the ma- 
terial available to me in the real world — this tait- 
gibte world we all know about — that would work?" 

Another prejudice: In Amazon, you can't 
solve your problems with violence. In general, as 
you go along, you'd better be more clever than 
violent. 

And another: The mazes in this game are 
only there for punitive reasons. I loathe mazes. I 
think they're a programmer's trick. They make the 
game slower and longer without being a very 
complicated programming task and not very in- 
teresting. If you make a mistake in Amazon — and 
it generally has to be a bad mistake—you get 
dumped in a maze. 

Crichton discovered something surprising 
along the way: There wasn't much difference 
between writing an adventure game and 
scripting a movie. 

Every consideration in making a movie is to 
try to see what the audience is thinking. Have I 
shown them this long enough? Did they get this 
point? Can they tell what this sound is? 

In writing an adventure game, those consid- 
erations are merely formalized, sittce the audience 
will in fact be literally responding. So I have to 
think, "If they're outside this door, what will they 
think? Will they be afraid to go in? What would a 
person do in this situation?" 



44 COMPUTE1 Febajory 1985 




^iAT- I 




Here's what I found out early on: You can't 
have extremely varied choices that don't seem to 
matter. I can go north, south, east, or west, and 
who cares? Vow can only do that for a while, and 
then if you don't start to have an expectation of 
what will happen, you'll stop playing the game. 
You'd better get right goitig and you'd better start 
to have something happen. 

If I play a game for a half-hour and it 
doesn't make any sense to me, I'll just quit and 
never go back. Say I'm locked in this house and I 
don't knoio what the point of the house is and 
why I can't get out and there's no sort of hint to 
me about the mentality that would assist me in 
getting out — I don't know. I could say "Shazam!" 
or I could burn the house down or — give me a 
break. I just stop. 

Crichton, a professional storyteller, took 
tremendous care with the plot, the actual story 
line oi Amazon. I think about a plot as being a 
story where you can imagine the consequences as 
you go. It's like the little guy who yells at the 
screen, "Look behind you, Hoppy!" You must 
know something the character doesn't. The audi- 
ence has an expectation — if you go in this room, 
the bad guy will be there. That's plot. 

At a certain point in the process of design- 
ing Amazon — after all the n:\aterial was gen- 
erated, all the possible plot twists, and settings 
and characters were either accepted or re- 
jected — Crichton started treating the game like 
a movie. He and his programmer and graphic 
designer collaborated like the creative and 
technical forces of a film crew collaborate. 

The game took 18 months from start to 
finish, perhaps a bit longer than most video- 
games, but as Crichton says, they were all 
learning. We're not a professional software com- 
pany. We're just some people making a program. 

Trillium approached Crichton to acquire 
book rights about the time he was polishing 
Amazon. They came to me and said they wanted 
to do a series of adventure games based on novels 
and I said, "Guess what? I just finished one." It 
was absolute coincidence. 




Amazon has its share of bad guys, but 
they're generally human, unlike the high-tech 
villains in many of his other creations. Tech- 
nology, though, is not the enemy. Crichton 
thinks that he may have been misunderstood 
in the past. 

Everyone remembers the scene in Westworld 
where Yul Brynner is a robot that runs amok. But 
there is a very specific scene where people dis- 
cuss whether or not to shut down the resort. I 
think the movie loas as much about that decision 
as anything. They just didn't think it was really 
going to happen. 

I don't see technology as being out there, do- 
ing bad things to us people, like we're inside the 
circle of covered wagons and technology is out 
there firing arrows at us. We're making the tech- 
nology and it is a manifestation of how we think. 
To the extent that we think egotistically and ir- 
rationally and paranoically and foolishly, then we 
have technology that will give us nuclear winters 
or cars that won't brake. But that's because peo- 
ple didn't design them right. 



February 1985 COMPUTEi 45 



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j^esides characters and stories 
^•J from books and movies, 
jjr'^ Other famous personalities 
and trends have been incorpo- 
rated into entertainment 
software. 

The recent awareness of 
breakdancing has spawned at 
least two computer games: Break 
Street, by Creative Software, and 
Breakdance, by Epyx. Both 
games feature breakdancers per- 
forming various steps, and allow 
you to choreograph your own 
dances or imitate routines al- 
ready created. 

Epyx has also released three 
other programs based on fam- 
ous faces. In Barbie, you can do 
the same things that young girls 
have done with Barbie dolls for 
25 years: shop for or design 
clothes, style and color Barbie's 
hair, and dress her up. G. /, Joe, 
taken from the familiar child's 
toy, lets you select a battle situ- 
ation and outfit your soldier to 
fight. And everyone gets to try 
for revenge on Mr. Hart in 9 To 
5 Typing, a typing tutorial using 
characters from the movie 9To5. 

J.R. haters don't have to 
wait until Friday night to see 
their favorite villain. Datasoft's 
Dallas Quest, a text and graphics 
adventure, puts you in South 
Fork and pits you against the 
TV show's bad guys as you try 
to succeed in a dangerous task 
given to you by Sue Ellen. 
Datasoft has also recently re- 
leased Conan, based on Arnold 
Schwartzenegger's musclebound 
hero, and Bruce Lee, based on 
the karate expert of film fame. 

Commodore and Marvel 
Adventures, along with the pro- 
gramming talent of Scott Ad- 
ams, have designed an 
adventure game based on the 
television show The Hulk. The 
player controls the intellect of 
both Bruce Banner and his alter 
ego, the big green guy, as he 
struggles to unlock the riddle of 
the Chief Examiner. 

Cartoon characters continue 
to show up in games, too. Sierra 



On-Line, which brought you 
BC's Quest For Tires, has li- 
censed some of Walt Disney's 
creations for use in educational 
software. Donald Duck's Play- 
ground helps develop money- 
handling skills, as well as shape, 
color, and letter-matching abili- 
ties. Mickey's Space Adventure 
promotes the development of 
mapping and problem-solving 
skills while teaching about the 
solar system. And Winnie The 
Pooh In The Hundred Acre Wood 
encourages good mapping and 
reading skills. 

Spy vs. Spy, the cartoon 
strip series from the pages of 
MAD magazine, is now a com- 
puter game, published by First 
Star Software. In it, the White 
Spy and the Black Spy play 
tricks on each other and oppose 
each other in competitive, hu- 
morous, and dangerous 
situations. 

j^% big name doesn't 
y^ guarantee a superior 
yr^m^game, but it may im- 
prove sales. And when a 
personality doesn't just endorse 
a product, but is actually in- 
volved in its design and produc- 
tion, you've probably got a 
better than average program — if 
the individual was working 
within his or her own area of 
expertise. 

Filmmakers and play pro- 
ducers try to get "names" for 
their shows, not only because 
they'll draw bigger crowds, but 
because, generally, that person 
had to evidence some talent to 
become a name in the first 
place. 

Will people buy software if 
a superstar was involved in its 
making? Does Michael Crichton 
think that his name will influ- 
ence people to buy Amazon? 

"1 don't know. What do 
you think?" he says. "I don't 
think it matters. I think what's 
important is that it's a good 
game." © 



so YOU THINK 

YOU GOT THE BEST OF 

FROGGER AND ZAXXON? 

SORRY. 





See, while you've been master- 
ing them, we've been advancing 
them. Making them even more Tun 
than before. So now we have two 
new mindblasters. 

Frogger II Threee- 
Deep, a three-screen 
nightmare. Starting 
with an undersea 
battle against deadly 
creatures and the 
cruel undercurrent. If 
you do make it to the surface, 
it just gets worse. The only hope 
is to leap into the sky where even 
more frog-eating monsters lurk. 
And Super Zaxxon, taking you 

beyond the outer limits in ^ , 

your space fighter 
Tunneling through 
enemy attack, firing 
at Zaxxon's forces, 
dodging mine layers. 

And beyond the last 
electron barrier, the 
ultimate test. Zaxxon 
is now a killer dragon hurtling 
heat-seeking fireballs. 

Hope we haven't scared you. 
But if Sega doesn't keep you ahead 
of the game, who will? 



H I M^^^^^^^^^^^^k^ ji^^ "m^^^^^^ri 




8 

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Enterprises, Inc. 

^Parker Brothc-is 

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:■.■■ 








FROGGER II 










■.-".■. 


•./v. 






M .'. 


SUPER ZAXXON 




©1985 Sitia EiUBrpri5i.-s. Inc- FROCOER .s a lr.iiknia.k uf Scfl Eiilt-rTmsi-s. Int. THREF.EDEEP is a [roifcrnark irf Forkor Brolhcrs, ZAXXON ih a iradL-mark ol Sciia Enli'ipriws. Int. CJanlc scrren'. an- illusEraiLil. 

INTRODUCING FROGGER II THREEEDEEP AND SUPER ZAXXON. 



B 



R T H 





COMPUTER GAME 



Sharon Darling, Research Assistant 



Five of the world's best computer 
game designers talk about how 
they create their games. 



Chris Crawford, Jon Free- 
man, Bill Budge, Bruce 
Carver, and Dan 
Bunten — some of the most fam- 
ous names in computer game 
design — don't consider them- 
selves master programmers. It 
might be more accurate to call 
them artists who also know 
how to program a computer. 
"I wouldn't characterize 
myself as a brilliant program- 
mer; 1 would characterize myself 
as a competent programmer, 
and that's about all," says 
Crawford, the designer behind 
such critically acclaimed games 
as Eastern Front and. Excalibur. 
"Great games don't spring from 
brilliant programming," he 
adds. "Brilliant programming 
can only take you- a very short 
distance. The first real trick is at 
the design stage." 

Budge, who created Pinball 
Construction Set, an innovative, 

48 COMPUTil February 1985 



seminal game, concurs. "It's im- 
portant not to be just a pro- 
grammer right now," he says, 
"and 1 think the most unique 
thing I do is in the area of de- 
signing, although I also think 
I'm lucky that I'm a good pro- 
grammer, so 1 don't necessarily 
have to depend on other 
programmers," 

Another vote for the impor- 
tance of design comes from 
Bruce Carver, author of the 
games Beach Head and Raid 
Over Moscow. "A programmer 
has to be some kind of artist in 
addition to being just a raw pro- 
grammer," he says. "If he can't 
sketch and draw pictures, he 
has to rely on an outsider to 
help him program the game if 
he wants it to look good. 

"And the problem with that 
is that an artist just sees the pic- 
ture in his mind, he doesn't 
really see things interacting 
from a programmer's point of 
view. So we feel that a good 
programmer has to be three or 
four different people at the same 
time if he wants to do this game 
and make it very cohesive." 



While the basic idea for a 
game may come from 
anywhere — the name 
Raid Over Moscow sprang up on 
a trip from Las Vegas to 
Carver's home in Utah — from 
that point on, the process be- 
comes very detailed and takes 
months to complete. "Regard- 
less of how it [an idea] starts, a 
premise has to be developed," 
Carver says, "So what we [the 
design team at Access Software] 
do is sit down in a meeting, and 
we talk about this idea that we 
think has potential." 

Moving from the talking 
stage to the completed game in- 
volves many steps, and the 
game may even be shelved at 
some point along the way be- 
cause the original idea just 
didn't lend itself to a finished 
product, 

"We're firm believers in the 
storyboard type of approach," 
says Bunten, whose software 
development firm, Ozark 
Softscape, turned out the hit 
games M.U.L.E. and Seven Cities 
of Gold. Using such a system 
means that "you've worked out 




Its only business is managing your home finances. 

No program does it more quickly, more easily, more directly. 



Your Personal Net Worth systematizes 
"the managementof your household income 
expenses, credit cards and check books — 
using nnethods tested for accuracy by Touche 
Ross, one of the nation's leading accounting 
firms. 

Your Personal Net Worth puts your com- 
puter to work, keeps your records straight, in- 
cluding your personal inventory of valuables 
and stock portfolio, tells you where and how 
you're spending your money or if you're mak- 
ing a shambles of your budget. And does it' all 



in less tim e than it takes you to balance your 
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Nothing else — no other program at twice 
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than Your Personal Net Worth. 

You'll find it at your favorite software 
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silver dollar on the front. It could be the 
single most valuable purchase you'll 
ever make. 




Record all banking and 
any credit card trans- 
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statements instantly (up 
to 10 separate bank ac- 
counts can be handled), 
— print checks, too. 



Set up a budget (as many 
as 350 categories) — and 
then compare your actual 
income and expenses to 
the budget. 



JUever forget a tax-deduc- 
tible item. Today or at tax 
return time. 



Display or print every 
financial report you'll 
ever need. 







^s^s^smig 




VgteWa/ 



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Record stock, bond and 
other investment trans- 
actions. Inventory 
household valuables, 
collectibles and 
important papers for 
insurance and other 
purposes. 



Your Personal Net Worth 
works fast because it's in 
machine language. Docu- 
mentation in plain English 
is referenced for easy 
use. "Help" functions on 
screen at all times. 



Available for: 



IBM-PC/XT/PCjr (128K) 
Appte[l+/lle/!lc(64K) 
Commodore 64 
Atari (48K) 
The Program comes 
with two disks, one of 
which has accounts al- 
ready set up for entry. 
However, only one disk 
drive is necessary. 



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1984,ScarboroughSystems, Inc., 25 N.Broadway, Tarrytown, NY 10591 ^^ M 



at that point most of the key 
conceptual elements, and you 
work out what the driving moti- 
vation is that the player should 
experience when he's playing," 
Bunten says. "What's his goal — 
what is he after, what does he 
want to get out of this expe- 
rience? That's one of the first 
things we want to get. Then 
we'll figure out, based on that, 
how the environment has to 
support the image." 

Carver looks for a sweaty- 
palm feeling. "There's a lot of 
thought given to what's going 
to be the most playable screen. 
You want to take that user to 
the point where his hands start 
getting sweaty, and he's always 
making decisions on what he's 
going to be firing at, or what 
he's going to do. 

"If you just always have the 
same thing for him, he's going 
to get bored really quickly, so 
you make his mind work, you 
give him options. . . . We try to 
very subtly put those all 
through the game, so it's not 
really apparent, but it retains 
the interest for a long time." 

Freeman, whose credits in- 
clude Archon, Archon II: Adept, 
and Murder on the Zinderneuf, 
says he starts with an idea "that 
has become sufficiently clear 
and sufficiently compelling or 
attractive — whichever project is 
nagging me the most." From 
there, an outline is developed to 
chart the game's direction. 

"We have a good idea 
where the game is going and 
what it will look like at the be- 
ginning," Freeman says of his 
software team, Freefall Asso- 
ciates. "But there's a lot of fine- 
tuning that can only be done 
after the game has started to 
take concrete form. 

"The design is not some- 
thing cast in stone that has to 
be followed to the letter — it's 
more of a guideline. Many peo- 
ple who start have only a vague 
idea where they're going. We do 
have a pretty good idea where 
we're going, but that doesn't 

50 COMPUTEI February 1985 




Bruce Carver 

mean we don't run into block- 
ades. We kick out ideas and 
throw out the bad ones." 

Also, some games contain 
hidden lessons. "Some 
of the games I've done 
have had goals of teaching peo- 
ple about nature or warfare — 
specifically, the goal of quantita- 
tive factors versus false factors," 
Crawford says. "The point of 
the game Excalibur is leadership. 
I didn't set out to do a King 
Arthur game — I set out to do a 
game about leadership. And 
once you've chosen your goal, 
you choose a topic that is a 
theme for expressing your goal." 
With Eastern Front, he adds, 
the goal was "to teach people 
the difference between fire 
power and military effective- 
ness — it was something that 
was bothering me. A lot of 
Americans have this problem in 
thinking that the more weapons 
you have, the more powerful 
you are." 

In Seven Cities of Gold, 
Ozark Softscape embodied three 
different ideas, Bunten says. 
"One was that the world was 
big and enormous, and these 
people were really brave to 
head off into the total unknown. 



Second, interaction with the na- 
tives was a subtle kind of com- 
munication; there was always a 
language barrier. Third," he 
adds, "there was a moral di- 
lemma built in. Just because 
you're big enough to take what 
you want, does that make it 
right to take it?" 

At first, players who field 
tested the game would take all 
the goods and gold they could 
from natives. But soon the 
testers "began to discover that 
they didn't feel real good about 
themselves, so they would get 
to a point where they would 
build rules for themselves, like 
'Well, I won't kill them unless 
they kill me first.' " 

Sometimes, the hidden 
messages can be as subtle as not 
using sexist terms, as in Archon 
and Murder on the Zinderneuf. 
"Our documentation is not sex- 
ist, not even vaguely," Freeman 
says. "There are both male and 
female characters on the board 
in Archon, and female characters 
are not weaker than the male 
characters as a group. In Murder 
on the Zinderneuf, there are an 
equal number of [male and fe- 
male] suspects, and there is a 
mix of detectives. Anybody can 
get killed, and anybody could 
have done it. 

"That's all secondary to the 
point of having fun," he adds. 
"But it's in there by design." 

If a would-be game designer 
wants to get started in the 
field, there are basically two 
approaches to take, at least 
judging by these five aces: 
either try to come up with 
something that breaks the mold 
as far as computer games are 
concerned, or start out using 
what's been done before as a 
guide. 

Budge found success by im- 
proving on what had come 
before. "The way I got started 
was by not trying to do any- 
thing original at all," he recalls. 
"I wanted to learn how to write 



iU 



IS NOT A SOU) SPORT. 




When we introduced Pitstop, 
we created action in the pits. 
Now, with PITSTOP II, EPYX 
introduces true competitive auto 
racing, both on the track and in 
the pits. Auto racing is not a one 
man sport. With PITSTOP II, 
you can now experience the thrill 
of speed and competition as you battle your opponent in 
a race against the clock. Now, more than ever, the strategy 
of when you make a pit stop and your pit crew's speed 
and performance, combined with your skill on the track, 
will determine the winner. 
A split screen shows you your position and that of your 




opponent, a digital clock displays time and a lap 
counter gives you your race position as you race 
against each other in pursuit of the checkered flag. 
You can also play against the computer and take 
a practice lap or race against the computer controlled 
pace car as you prepare for real head-to-head com- 
petition. Step up to PITSTOP II because auto racing 
is not a solo SDort. 
One or two players: joystick controlled. 





Strategy Games for the Action-Game Player 




Bill Budge 



jon Freeman and Anne Westfall 



videogames. I bought an Apple 
about five years ago and just 
went to arcades and copied the 
games that I saw." He adds that 
his main interest at the time was 
in creating "neat pictures and 
neat sounds." 

A really good game, he 
says, would turn the player into 
a hacker. "You should provide 
environments where it's fun to 
put together things that are 
structured on a computer, but 
you don't have all the junk that 
you have when you're program- 
ming. You sort of restrict people 
to doing things that are like 
videogames, or pictures and 
sound, and take away all the 
busywork part." 

Toward that end, a project 
he is working on now is a con- 
struction set to build construc- 
tion sets. "That's a very difficult 
program to write, and I could 
never have written that before 
Pinball. After I did Pinball, it 
seems like there's some faint 
chance." He also adds that if he 
hadn't started out the way he 
did, "I wouldn't be qualified to 
take the next step." 

The environment for that 

52 COMPUTEI February 1985 



project, which he says will take 
several years to complete, "is 
the sort where you can just play 
and not worry about the conse- 
quences of every single mistake. 
You can mix and match, you 
don't have to write something 
totally new, you can take some- 
thing from Pac-Man and take a 
piece from Donkey Kong and 
make it \v.'ork." 

Oddly, Budge doesn't like 
to play arcade and videogames 
very much. In fact, he says it 
was "sheer torture" to play pin- 
ball steadily for months while 
working on his construction set. 
"There are other people who 
are into games and are better at 
it than I am, so 1 had to figure 
out ways to get around the 
gaming, but I still wanted to 
create things that were like 
videogames," he says. 

Bunten also thinks taking a 
lesson from what's been done 
by others is useful for new de- 
signers. "Typically, my first 
game was a knock-off of some- 
one else's game, and it was an 
enhancement of things that 1 
thought were needed. You've 
got to build some experience 



just with the medium and what 
is possible, before you can jump 
off into some new territory, 

"As long as it doesn't vio- 
late any copyright, it's probably 
a good way to get started. 
Somebody said there's nothing 
new under the sun, and there 
probably isn't." 

Carver feels beginning de- 
signers need to realize 
that the process is not 
all fun and games. "It's not 
something that's as glamorous 
as it might sound," he says. 
"There are times when I want 
to leave so bad — I tend to get 
really grouchy — but I know if 
we're going to get it finished in, 
say, five months, then I have to 
stay and get the work done." 

He agrees that "if you use 
other people's stuff, you'll get 
into a mold and you can't really 
get out. I find I have to con- 
sciously work on changing the 
things I do, otherwise I'll tend 
to do them the way I did them 
before, and the game will tend 
to have the same feel that it had 
before." 



IMPOSSIBLE MISSION. 
YOUR MISSION-TO SAVE THE WQRW 




■ itiNt -a 



^h- V _&&ii& 



EEC 



^ 'i 



E 



As a member of the exclu- 
sive Anti-Computer Terrorist 
Squad (ACT), your mission is 
to find and reach the infamous 
Elvin, who is holding the 
world's population hostage 
under threat of nuclear annihi- 
lation. You must negotiate a 

path through the rooms and tunnels of his headquarters 

trying to avoid Elvin's robot protectors. 
Should you try to outrun or jump over the next 

robot or play it safe and take the time to assemble the 

codes needed to deactivate the robots and then to 



find and stop Elvin. 

Use your camera to photograph as many clues 
as possible to find the password which will allow 
you to penetrate Elvin's control room. 

Your Mission— To Save The World, But Hurry! 

One player; joystick controlled. 



EDYX 

m COMPUTE SOfTWAKE 

Strategy Qamesfyr the Action-Game Player 





Crawford feels the most im- 
portant consideration in game 
design is something he calls "ar- 
tistic honesty," Far too many 
people, he adds, are writing 
programs that are imitations of 
other games. "They say 'Well, 
I'm going to do games!' Then 
they say, 'Well, what kind of 
games do I like right now? Well, 
I sure liked Pac-Man — let me do 
a variation on that.' And that is 
just the wrong way to do it. 

"The right way to do it is to 
ask yourself what is an impor- 
tant interest around the world, 
and then try to capture that at- 
traction," he asserts. 

Freeman also feels that 
some game designers have 
fallen into a rut. "1 think there 
are all sorts of subjects and lots 
of techniques and lots of ap- 
proaches that are available, that 
haven't been done. 1 think, on 
the other hand, that many de- 



signers are in a rut — they define 
their universe too narrowly, in 
my opinion," he says. 

While these five designers 
may differ in their opinions on 
how best to approach game 
writing, there is one point on 
which they all agree: Right now, 
it's tough for anyone, no matter 
how good, to get a game pub- 
lished in today's volatile soft- 
ware market. 

Perhaps Crawford says it 
most gently. "I will point out 
the sad truth. We have pretty 
much passed the period where 
hobbyists could put together a 
game that would have commer- 
cial prospect. It's much more 
difficult to break in, much less 
stay in. Right now, in November 
1984, I would discourage any- 
one. If you want to do a game, 
do it for fun, but don't try to do 
game designs to make any 
money. The odds are so much 




Chris Crawford 

against the individual that I 
would hate to wish that heart- 
break on anyone," t 



The genius in 
your Commodore depends onyou.**\ 



Let it out with 
Wiley Computer Books* 



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A Self-Teaching Guide 

Ann Harris 

Create animated characters, colorful 
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a division of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 

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Prices subject to change and higher in Canada . 

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COMPUTER©®©! 



54 COMPUTEI Febmarv 1985 







PI 


ITE 



COMPUTER AQIVITY TOYS:. 



EDYX 




.4>-^ 



BEOVUSE BUILDING YOUR CHILD'S 
IMAGINATION IS NOT A GAME. 





:;eb-3>v outfit 




g^^ 




n 




.«"- 

'^^ 



We all know that you can't Idd a kid. And 
younger kids are growing tired of arcade-type 
computer games that don't hold then" interest, 
while learning programs frequently don't gener- 
ate any interest at all. 

Now, EPYX introduces Computer Activify 
Toys, featuring Barbie,™ Hot Wheels'" and G.I. 
Joe.® The perfect way for children ages 4-10 to 
engage in imaginative, non-structured, non- 
competitive play patterns either individually or 
with a friend. 

Now on your computer screen, your little girl 
can dress a Barbie™ Doll and change her clothes 
and her hair styles. Your boy can move a Hot 
Wheels car around a Hot Wheels'" garage, after 
actually designing the car on the computer 



screen. He can engage in a make-believe battle- 
field scenario with G.I. Joe® pitted against 
Cobra." 

The hours of time tested, imaginative free 
play generated by these well-known toys and 
dolls can now have added dimensions of control, 
versatility and realism through the magic of the 
home computer. They are disc-based products 
so you can be sure there are enough activities to 
keep your child occupied and entertained hour 
after hour. 



raMA/r£?sfF7H»ieF 



Computer Activity Tays^ 
Because building a child's imagination is not a game 



BARBIE anA HOT WHEELS irc Trademarks owned by arnl used voder licence frotn Mat- 
tel, Inc. e 1984 htAtiei, [rc. All Kttiiits Reserved. G.I. JOE is i registered ttadenurh and 
COBRA is a tradcnuik ovned by uid used under license from Hasbro lodtisiries. Inc. 
e 1984 Hasbro InduKlries, Inc. All Rights ReKrv^d. 



^i*i 



•*&;•. 



t 



,;,^sssiv 



\ 



ff 



VS^ 



/^ 



^"^i 



"Acrobflf" \s a realistic, fast-moving arcade-style 
game. You must guide your alter ego on a perilous 
journey through mountains, jungles, and under- 
ground caves, while avoiding numerous obstacles by 
jumping, flipping, or sliding under them. You can 
select any of three different speeds to start off with, 
but the action will get faster and harder with each 
new level you reach. Acrobat will challenge your 
sense of timing as well as your reflexes. Versions for 
Atari, Commodore 64, and VIC. 



The playing field of "Acrobat" is divided into 
two sections. The top of the screen contains your 
man, the obstacles, and the background scenery. 
The scoreboard is located at the bottom of the 
screen. It contains your current score, the high 
score so far, and at the far right, the number of 
men you have left. You begin the game standing 
in the middle of a mountain valley, ready for 
your journey. 

At the beginning of each game, you can 
choose between three levels of difficulty by 
pressing the corresponding number. Level 1 is 
the easiest. Level 3 is almost impossible. 

After you have chosen the difficulty level, 
press the START button or push the joystick in 
any direction to start the game. 

56 COMPUTEI Februarv 1985 



The Unstoppable Runner 

After you have started the game, your man will 
begin to run. He runs forward automatically, and 
he cannot be stopped. You must maneuver past 
the various obstacles that come at you. You can 
push the joystick forward to jump, backward to 
slide, or press the joystick button to flip. If you 
manage to stay alive long enough, you will ad- 
vance a level, and face new challenges. If you 
touch any of the obstacles, you will collapse in a 
heap and lose a man. Push the joystick in any 
direction to continue. You will receive a free man 
when you reach 2000 points, and at every 1000 
points thereafter. 

You receive points for everything you do. 
You get 20 points for a jump, 10 points for a 
slide, 10 points for a flip, and 2 points for every 
step you take forward. Your score is updated 
periodically throughout the game. 

Special Features 

You will advance a level after playing for a cer- 
tain length of time. The screen is redrawn and 
you are placed into a new setting. Bonus points 
are also awarded depending on the number of 
men you have left. Push the joystick in any 
direction, or push START to begin running again. 

You can also pause Acrobat while you are 
running. Simply press the space bar. Press CTRL-S 
or the joystick button to begin again. 



AT LAST, . . A TEACHER 
WHO IS JUST YOUR TYPE! 

Turn your COMMODORE 64 into a personal typing tutor with KEYS TO TYPING software. 
Over 30 easy lessons, all based on proven teaching techniques that typing teachers have been 
using for years. Combined with the speed and flexibility of computerized instruction— it 's 

the fastest and easiest way yet to learn typing. 






tp-by-stcp lessons 
at your own pace! 
a # 1 will explain the 
, . ^jjifam and show you 
how to get on-screen help 
each lesson has three parts: ' 
"Introduction of new keys, 
exer cises, and reinforcement 
400 exercises, all based 
liTsuccessful typing manuals 
jet immediate help or return to the 
main menu w ith a single keystroke 
>mplex computer commands, 
_er friendly and menu driven". 
iO knowledge of computers needed, 
||ist basic reading skills , — 

select the lesson you want 

through a simple menu conti 
^ping game included, 
to m ake learn In g fu n ! 



'^S^iS 



m 



vm 




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The perfect learning program for stud^^^^^^^^^^Knesspeople who need typing skills but 
are short on lime. For people re-en^^^^^^^^^^^^ho need a fast refresher. Designed by 

educators and computer programmers working together. KEYS TO TYPING lets you learn quickly. 
easily and effortlessly. After 32 lessons, you'll be typing ai speeds you never thought possible. 




SOHuralSt 

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Press START to restart the entire game at 
any time except during a pause. 

Programming Techniques 

Acrobat uses several special features of the Atari 
computers. High speed player/missile graphics 
and horizontal scrolling create an effective illu- 
sion of movement. Vertical blank interrupts, cus- 
tom display modes, machine language routines, 
and numerous sound effects are also used to en- 
hance the game. 

The routine at line 30000 appeared in the 
article "Extending Player Missile Graphics" 
{COMPUTE!, October 1981). This short but ex- 
tremely powerful routine changes the shape of a 
player at machine language speed. This helps 
create smooth animation with just one player. 
I've used this method throughout the program to 
animate the acrobat and change the shapes of 
the obstacles. The data for the different shapes of 
the acrobat are stored in RAM, and their loca- 
tions are placed into the array PI(). The data for 
the numerous obstacles are likewise tucked away 
in safe RAM, and their locations are placed in 
the array OB(). 

The second machine language routine in the 
program starts at line 30700. This is a slightly 
modified version of one that appeared in ANTIC 
(June 1982), This routine moves the obstacles 
horizontally during the Vertical Blank Interrupt, 
which occurs 60 times per second. Once this rou- 
tine is set up and called, it will operate continu- 
ously until told to stop. 

Coarse horizontal scrolling occurs in the sub- 
routine at line 90. Line 50 determines the address 
of screen memory, and stores it in the variable 
DL4. Then, in line 90, the value stored in DL4, 
PDL4, is increased and checked to see if it is too 
high. If it is, PDL4 is set equal to a much lower 
number. This causes a wraparound effect. Line 
125 POKES PDL4 into DL4, which causes the top 
half of the GRAPHICS 8 screen to scroll. 

Be very careful typing in lines 27000 to 
27070. This subroutine uses the Atari forced read 
mode to erase certain lines after they are not 
needed anymore. This increases the amount of 
memory available before going into GRAPHICS 8, 
If you have a full 40K-64K system, you can re- 
place these lines with 27000 RETURN, If you need 
to type this section in, be sure to save the program 
before running it. If you forget to save, you will 
lose almost half of what you had typed in. 

If you would rather not spend the time 
typing in Acrobat, I will make a copy (Atari ver- 
sion only) if you send me a blank tape or disk, a 
self-addressed, stamped mailer, and $3, 

Peter Rizzuto 
9 Idkbrook Lane 
Aberdeen. N] 07747 



Program 1 : Atari Acrobat 

Refer to "COMPUTE! 's Guide For Typing In Programs" 
article before typing this program in. 

JI 10 GDSUB i9000:GOSUB 20000:GOSUB 
250ig0:GOSUB 20100:GDSUB 27000 
AG 1 1 D = USR ( 1 536) : 60SUB 2i000:GOSUB 
21220;GOSUB AD:POKE XP,X:GDSUB 
19500:GOTO WT 
0!12 D = USR (ML, MANY, PI (9) ) : GDSUB MO: 

RETURN 
AC 20 D = USR(ML,OB2,OB(QWl ) ) :QW1=QW1 + 

01: IF QW1>MAXG THEN QWI=MINO 
EH 25 RETURN 
AN 30 D = USR(ML,0S1,0B(DW) ) :QW = QW-D1: 

IF QW<MINQ THEN EW=MflXQ 
EE3i RETURN 

[0 40 POKE C6, 01: POKE C7,9;? SCORE: I 
F SCORE >2 IP THEN GOSUB 23500 :R 
ETURN 
EF 41 RETURN 

0[ 50 DL = PEEK (560) +256«PEeK (561 ) : DL4 

=DL+Z: PDL4=PEEK (DL4) : POKE DL+l 

3 1, 13: POKE DL + 1 32 , J : POKE DC,U: 

POKE 70B, 44 

Lrt 55 GDSUB SY: RETURN 

GE 90 ST = STICK (0) : PDL4 = PDL4h-J : IF PDL 

4:M20 then PDL4 = 81 : SC = SC + 01 
DL 100 IF LEVEL<200 then IF PEEK ( X I P 
)<25 then POKE X 1 P, 220: GOSUB 
B2 
DC' 110 IF LEVEL? 100 THEN IF PEEK (X IP 
).-220 THEN POKE XIP,25:G0SUB 
B2 
CD 120 IF PEEK(X2P)<30 THEN POKE X2P 

,255: GOSUB 30 
Of 125 POKE DL4, PDL4: RETURN 
DC 200 GDSUB MO:SOUND J , 1 50- Y . 8 , Z : GO 
SUB 12: SCDRE=SCDRE+B2: YF=Y: FD 
R Q=01 TO K: YF=YF-J : F=5: GOSUB 
JUM:NEXT Q 
CJ 205 SOUND J , 150-YF, a, Z : FDR D = 01 T 
D K; YF=YF-J: F=6: GOSUB JUN:NEX 
T Q:SOUND J , 1 50 - Y F , 8 , Z : GOSUB 
40;FDR D=01 TO h 
JH215 YF = YF + J:F = 7: GOSUB JUM:NEXT Q: 
SOUND J , 150-YF , 8, Z : F=K : SOUND 
J , 0, 0, 0: GDSUB JUM 
G£ 240 F = Z:IF PEEK (CO) THEN 10000 
AK 2 45 D = USR (ML, MANY, PI (F) ) : POKE RES 

.0:SOUND 1 , O, 0, 0: RETURN 
FE 2 50 D = USR (ML, MAN+YF, PI (F) ) : BOSUB 

MO:SOUND 1 . 1 70- YF , E . J : RETURN 
£M 300 GDSUB MO: GDSUB U: SOUND J , 1 70- 

Y,8, Z:SCORE=SCORE+E:YF=Y 
il 305 FDR A = 1 TO J: FOR F=ll TO 14: 
YF = YF-J : GOSUB JUM:NEXT F:|\JEXT 
AiSDUND J . 170-YF, 8, Z : GOSUB 40 
tiZiii FOR A = 01 TO J : FOR F=ll TD 14: 
YF=YF+J : GDSUB JUM:NEXT F:NEXT 
A:SOUND J,0,O.D;60TO 240 
E! 315 GOTO 240 
PB 2000 GOSUB MO: D = USR (ML . MANY, PI (F) 

):IF PEEK C ST A) =6 THEN 11100 
FL 2005 IF PEEK (KEY) =33 THEN GOSUB 1 

3 
JF2010 SOUND 01 . 231 +F, E, E: SOUND 01, 

0,0,0 
PP20 15 IF PEEK (CO) THEN GOSUB 10000 
B[ 2020 IF ST=13 THEN GOSUB B000 



58 COMPUTE! February 1965 



Looks like a Ferrari. 
Drives like a Rolls. 
Parks like a Beetle. 





GT for Atari shown 



Ask your computer dealer to let you test drive 
the all new Indus CT.™ 

The most advanced, most handsome disk 
drive in the world. 

Flip its power switch and... 
Turn your Atari into Ferrari. 
Unleash your Apple. 
And now turbocharge your Commodore. 

Looks like a Ferrari. 

The Indus GT is only 2.65" high. But under its 
front-loading front end is slimline engineering 
with a distinctive European-Cran flair. 

Engaging its AccuTouch'" buttons lets you 
control the LED-lit CommandPost™ Marvel at 
how responsive it makes every Commodore, 
Apple and Atari personal computer. 

Drives like a Rolls. 

Nestled into its soundproofed chassis is the 
quietest and most powerful disk drive system 
money can buy. At top speed, it's virtually 
inaudible... whisper quiet. 

Built into each Indus GT is a perfect 
combination of craftsmanship and advanced 
engineering. Luxurious styling reflects the 
personal tastes of each GT owner, 

'Included as standard equipmenl. 

Far dealer informalion, call (818)882-9600. 

©198SlndusSystems,9304DeerfngAvenue,Chatsworth,CA91311.ThelndusGTisaproducioflndusSystems. Atari is a registered trademark of Atari, Inc. Apple is a registered 
trademark of Apple Com puler, Inc. Commodore is a registered trademark of Commodore Business Machines, Inc. 



And each GT comes with the exclusive CT 
DrivingSystem™ of software programs.* World- 
class word processing is a breeze with the CT 
Estate WordProcessor?' Your dealer will describe 
the two additional programs that allow GT 
owners to accelerate their computer driving skills. 

Also, the Indus GT is covered with the 
CT PortaCase™ A stylish case that conveniently 
doubles as a 80-disk storage file.* 

Parks like a Beetle. 

The GT's small, sleek, condensed size makes 
it easy to park. 

A WarrantyPlus'" package is included with 
every Indus CT, featuring full year parts and labor 
on the complete drive train. 

Drive home a winner and park 
an Indus GT next to your 
personal computer. 



INDUS 




The all-new Indus GT Disk Drive. 

The most advanced, most handsome disk drive in the world. 



Notes For Commodore 
Versions 

The Commodore versions of "Acrobat" have 
the same goal as the Atari version; you must 
slide, flip, and jump to avoid anything that 
gets in your way. 

Both the VIC-20 and Commodore 64 
versions use the keyboard rather than the 
joystick. This permits a more sensitive re- 
sponse to the player. If you don't like the 
keys chosen, the 64 version allov^^s you to 
make changes at the start of the program. 
This feature is not present in the VIC ver- 
sion, but changes can be made by altering 
the letters J, S, and F in lines 35-45 of 
Program 4. 

The VIC and 64 versions are written 
primarily in BASIC, with a machine lan- 
guage subroutine used for scrolling and 
placement of the obstacles. 

The 64 version (Program 2) contains an 
interrupt-driven subroutine to scroll the 
playfield smoothly. A single sprite is used 
for the acrobat. Its movement is simulated 
by continually changing the sprite data 
pointer (using the FOR-NEXT loop begin- 
ning at line 21) to point to each of the ac- 
robat's d' Terent positions. 

The Night Runner 

An interesting addition to the 64 version is a 
night mode. Here your acrobat runs through 
the darkness with only a flashlight to light 
his path. You may have seen this effect in 
arcade racing games. This was done by fill- 
ing the color RAM with black (to turn 
everything invisible) then placing a white 
sprite in front of the acrobat. To insure that 
screen objects would be visible in the light, 
the sprite-to-background display priority 
register was set to give the background 
priority over the spotlight sprite. 



The scoring of the 64 version is fairly 
straightforward. Each time the acrobat 
jumps over or slides under something, you 
are given 2 points. A flip, because it is much 
harder to control, is worth 5 points. Later in 
the game, a chicken will start flying on the 
screen. Every time you can avoid hitting the 
chicken, you are given an additional 10 
points. 

An extra acrobat is awarded for every 
100 points; a quick change of border color 
will indicate that an extra man was earned. 
The score will be shown only when you 
lose an acrobat, 

VIC Autoload 

The VIC version of Acrobat requires no 
memory expansion. The program is written 
in two parts (Programs 3 and 4) and chained 
to make efficient use of the small amount of 
memory present. Program 3 will automati- 
cally load and run Program 4 from disk. To 
use the programs with tape, change the 8 to 
a 1 in line 15 of Program 3, and be sure to 
save Program 4 immediately following Pro- 
gram 3 on the tape. For either disk or tape, 
you must save Program 4 with the name AC 
for the autoload feature to work properly. 
To avoid an OUT OF MEMORY error, do 
not add any extra spaces to the program 
lines when typing Programs 3 and 4. 

In this version, custom characters were 
used in place of sprites. Because of this, 
smooth horizontal scrolling was not possible. 

The VIC rules are slightly different from 
the 64 version. To make the game more chal- 
lenging, the acrobat now moves forward. 
There will be a slight flash of the border 
color to warn that the acrobat will soon move. 

Scoring is as follows; For obstacles you 
jump over or slide under, you are given 2 
points. Flips are worth 8 points, and for 
each block you move forward, you are given 
an additional bonus of 10 points. 



DC 2025 I 

EL 2030 I 

LD 2035 I 

N 

T 

BD 20 4 F 

n 20 4 5 S 

EA 8 000 B 

P 

COB010 F 

P 

B 

EN 9000 S 
R 

DP 9 1 P 
G 

60 COMPUTEI 



F ST = 
F STP 
F S C )■ 
Q = MIN 
THEN 
= F + D1 

caRE= 

CORE = 
I ( 16> 
OR T = 
1(17) 

40: D 
Dl : RE 
OUND 
ETURN 
OKE X 
8, 0: P 

Febmary 



14 T 
IG (0 
7 TH 
D + 01 
240 
: IF 
SCOR 
SCOR 
) : GO 
01 T 
) : GO 
= USR 
TURN 
01,1 



HEN 
) =D 
EN M 
: SC = 
00 
F>Z 
E + J : 
E + E: 
SUB 
O 7: 
BUB 
<ML, 



GOSUB 
THEN 
AXD = M 
0: IF 

THEN 

GOTO 

D = USR 

MO 

D = USR 

MO: NE 

MANY, 



200 
GOSUB 
AXQ+Dl 
MAXQ>L 

F = 01 

2000 
(ML . MA 

(ML, MA 
XT T: G 
P I ( 16) 



300 
: MI 
IMI 



NY, 

NY, 
OSU 
) : F 



NT (RND (0) *40) , E, J 



IP, D: POKE X2P,30:POKE 
DKE B9,0:PQKE 53249,0: 

1985 



POKE 
: POKE 
CH9200 POKE 

G8, 

BC9500 RETUR 

1 THE 

(in 9510 SOUND 

: SOUN 

: NEXT 

ftp 10000 GDSU 

I (E) 

SR (M 

KB 10005 FOR 

,EX < 

A: NE 

T I 

JO 10010 D = US 



5325 
707 
705, 
1 :P0 
N : R 
N GO 
0, A 
D J , 
I : G 
B 14 
> :LI 
L,MA 
1=01 
I) ) : 
XT I 



1 , 3 : F' 
, BACKC 
U: POKE 
KE G9, 
EAD A, 
SUB 14 
, E, 6: S 
R,E, Z: 
OTO 95 
000: D= 
=LI-01 
NY, EX ( 
TO K: 
FOR A = 
: FDR I 



DKE 
: RET 

707 
01 : R 
I ,R, 
000: 
OUND 
FOR 
00 

USR ( 
: GOS 
01 ) ) 
D = US 
01 T 

Ol 



7 05, BACKC 

URN 

,136: POKE 

ETURN 

L: IF A=-Q 

RETURN 

01 , I , E, 6 
1=01 TO L 

ML, MANY, P 
UB SY-. D = U 

R (ML, MANY 
SsNEXT 
TO 65:NEX 



R (ML, MANY, EX CZ) ) : SOUND 



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1112: 



•1 111 23 



01 , 255,8, 8: GOSUB SY:POKE CC 
,K:FDKE C7, 36: POKE C6,01:? 
LI: SOUND 01,0,0,D:IF LI=0 T 
HEN 1 1 000 

FOR 1=01 TO 50:NEXT 
RE 31700: GOSUB 9500 
IF FEEK(STA)=6 THEN 
IF STICKCD)=15 THEN 
POKE RES,0:GOSUB GO: 
. K: 5T=15: RETURN 
POKE C6,K:PaKE C7,K: 
UEH 
:UP3":PDKE C6,D1 
FOR 1=01 TO 50:NEXT I:RE9TD 
RE 3 1500: GOSUB 9500 
IF STRIG(D)=0 OR PEEK':STA) = 
6 THEN SOUND O 1 , , . D : POKE 
RES, 0: GO ID 11100 
GOSUB 9L'I00:GOTO 11005 
DW=D1:QW1=01:F=E:MINU=D1:MA 
>:Q = J:LI=K;SC = O:X = 12 0:LIMIT = 
6: BACKC=96: LEV=01 : 3PED=197 
PDh::E BC, BACKC: POKE PC.BACKC 
: GOSUB SY:PDKE XF.O 
POKE DC, BACKC: POKE DL ^ 1 3 i , 1 
5:GDSUB SY:POKE XF,C:PDfE 1 
552,19a:PaKE 1 554 . 1 9 7 : POKE 
1565, 1 98: PDK:E 1567.197 
POKE DL4, 80: GOSUB 2 1220: GOS 
UB 2 1038: IF SCORE -HI I HEN H 
1=SC0RE 

PO^.E C6,01:PDKE C7,26:^ Hi 
SCaRE=0:POKE DC,U:PO[E DL+1 
31, 13: IF LEVEL =0 THEN 11130 
RESTORE 3 1 000+LEVEL : COLOR C 
:GDSUB 15000: RESTORE 31000 
COLOR 01: GOSUB 15000 
LEVEL-0:POKE XP,X:GD5ue AD 
GOSUB 19500 

IF STICK (OJ <■ :15 OR PEE! (3TA 
; =6 THEN 1 2030 
IF SCORE THEN 12025 
IF PEEK (KEY) =3 1 THEN PUKE C 
6. K: POKE C7,31:'" "1CUP]":TY 
P=0 1 : POKE 1 554 ,197: SPED=197 
IF PEEK (KEY) =30 THEN POKE C 
6,K:PDKE C7,31:? "2CUPJ":TY 
P=J:POKE 1554. 198: SPED= 197 
IF PEEi: (KEY) =26 THEN POKE C 
6, K: POKE C7,31:'^ "3CUPi":TY 
P = K: POKE 1 554, 193 : SPED= 1 93 
POKE RES, 0: GOSUB 9(r0'!! : GO TO 
WT 

SOUND 01 , 0. 0, 0: POKE KEY, 255 
: GOSUB 1 9505 : RESTORE 3 1800: 
SOSUB 9500: GOSUB GO:PO(E CC 
, K : GOSUB 300 : GOTO 2040 
POKE KEY . 255 : D=USR ( riL . MANY , 
P I <E ) ) : GOSUB 14000: POtE G8. 
0:POt-:E G9,0 

IF PEEK < KEY)- ^190 AND STRIG 

( D ) = 1 THEN i 3 K'> 5 
POKE RES, 0: POKE i^.E Y , 255 : POK 
E 03,01: POKE G9.01: RETURN 
SOUND a, 0, D. G: SOUND 01,0,0, 
0:SOUND J , 0. 0, G: SOUND K . , O 

,0: RETURN 

READ X C , Y C : P L T X C , Y C 
READ XC,YC:IF XC=-01 THEN G 
OSUB 14000: RETURN 
62 COMPUTEI February 1985 



1 1 1 30 

12000 

12005 
12010 



Fl 12015 

Ff 12020 

:? 12025 

S6 1 2030 



KF 


13000 


IN 


13005 


Cb 


1 3 en 


hJ 


14000 


F8 


1500 


IC 


15010 



THEN 


P 


"You 


a 


: POKE 


D 


1000 





B: 15015 IF XC = ~9 THEN 15000 
Pf 15020 DRAWTD XC,YC:IF XC-255 THEN 
XC=XC-255: SOUND 0,XC,E,J:G 

OTO 15010 
f^J 15025 SOUND O, XC, 10, J : GOTO 15010 
FL 16000 POKE XP.O:POKE 53249. 0:PDKE 

53250,0: POKE 53251,0 
tlL 16005 POKE 559,62:P0KE PC,BACKC:P 

OKE DC, BACKC: PDhE BC, BACKC: 

POKE 752, 01: COLOR Dl: RETURN 
E£ 16010 A = PEEK ( 16) : IF A=128 THEN RE 

TURN 
■t 16015 POKE 16, A-- 128: POKE 53774, A~ 

128: RETURN 
HC 17000 ■:' ■' -CCLEAR: " : IF LEV .■9 

OKE C6,J:P0KE 07,9:';' 

re too good Tor me!" 

C,U:LEVEL=2ei0:GOTO 1 
N! 1700 1 POSITION 1,01:? "fQ}{35 R} 

CE: " : POSI TION 1 , J : "^ " : 

<.6> SPACESJNow advancing to 

Level ";LEV; 
PJ 17002 ? "C5 spaces: ! " 
PA 17005 POSITION Oi,K:? "CZ:<:35 RJ 

CO": POKE C6, 01: POKE C7,0 

RETURN 
KQ 17500 A= 100«LI /5: FOR 1=01 TO 5: 

ORE==SCORE + A: POKE C6,01:P0 
07,9:-;' SCORE;:FOR R = 01 T 

20:SQUND D,40~R*J,E,B 
PN17505 NEXT R:NEXT I : POKE C6,01: 

TURN 
16 19000 GRAPHICS 0:GOSUB 16010:PO 
752, 1:DL=PEEK(560)+PEEK( 

1 > «256: DL=DL+4: POKE 709,9 

POKE 710,96:POKE 7 12,96 
JA 19005 POKE DL+16,6:POKE DL+17,6 

OKE DL+28, 65:PGKE DL+29,P 

K (560): POKE DL+30 , PEEK ( 56 

:? "{CLEAR>" 
BE 19011 POSITION 11,20:7 "ONE MOHEN 

T PLEASE, . . " 
BN 19015 POSITION 4,7: 

{£> <:q><2 R> 

tajc2 rj<:e> 

<2 RJtEJ CR} 
N 4,8:7 " 



1 : 

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D 

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<:3 SPACES) 



10 



AB 19020 



m 19025 

ED 19500 

EF 19505 
KK 2000 

AH 20005 



POSIT 

ioy i 
<cy ! 

<.2 R> 

*p II I 

POSI T 

<;z><:2 
CO i 
<: X > " ; 
POKE 
ct Di 
YP=1 : 
POKE 
{24 S 
X = 120 
W:LI = 
ML=16 
X (4) : 
X P = 5 3 
= 90:S 
1 : PC = 



ION 
<3 

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I 

CD] 



ION 
R> 
ZJ C 
POK 
C6, 
f f i 
RET 
C6, 
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: Y = 
3:H 
00: 
C6 = 
248 
Y = 9 
710 



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SPACE 

CAJ C 

! " : 

1 -1:3 S 

t t 

4, 11 
CXJ 

2 R> i 
E 709 
3: POK 
cu 1 t y 
URN 
3: POK 
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141 : F 
1=0: S 
DIM P 
656 : C 
: X1P = 
100: G 
:BC = 7 



? " C A > 

s> ca:- C 

R 3 C X > C 
POSITI 
PACES> 

I I 
I I 

: ? " C X 

cx: c 

C] CXJ 
, 10: RE 
E C7 , a 



E C7, a 
PJ " : RE 
10: QW 
CORE=H 
1(18), 
7=657: 
206: X2 
0=9200 
12: DC= 



C2 RJ 
RJ CW> 
E > C A } 
ON 4,10: 
! CZ J 

i 

J cx> 

Z3C2 RJ 

CX> 
TURN 

: ? " Se 1 e 
1 cup: " : T 

TURN 

= 1 : QW1=Q 

1 : SC = HI : 
OB ( 17) , E 

2 = 4 

P=207: MO 
: 0=0: 01= 
709: C0=5 




COMPUTE! Books brings you the companion volume to the best 
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which the critics have said: 

"If you know BASIC and want to learn machine language, this is the 
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The Second Book of Machine Language picks up where Machine Language 
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There are powerful computer languages and there is good documentation, 
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Buy both books for grade ond 4,0 BASIC). Disk drive recommended, 

$25.00 and save 
$4.90! That's 15% 
off the retail price! 

Offer Expires March 15. 1985 




THE i/lD5 Disk 

LADS, the assembler used in The Second Book of Machine Language, is avaiiable on disl< for only 
$12.95. This is o great accompaniment to the book, saving you hours of typing time by providing 
the complete source and object modules for all versions of the assembler. And LADS disks are spe- 
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To Order: Call Toll Free 800-334-0868 (in NC 919-275-9809) or mail this coupon witfi your pay 
ment toCOMPUTEl Books, P.O. Box 5406, Greensboro, NC 27403. Offer Expires March 15. 1985 



The Second Book of Machine Language. $14.95 

Machine Language for Beginners. $14.95 

WDSDysA- (Apple) $12.95 

WDSD/s*- (Atari) $12.95 

LADS Disk (,Commo6ore}. $12.95 



D Payment Enclosed (check or money order) 

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Shipping and handling 
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Total Paid 

All exaen, must De pfepoid. 
Please allow <)-6 weeks for cJelivefy. 



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SPINNAKER-Cattror items 


and prices. 




SYNAPSE - Call tor Items and 


prices. 




TIMEWORKS 




Data Manager ll-O, 


,.34.95 


Word Writer- D.... 


.34.95 


Cove /Word 




Wliords-D 


. 23.95 


Evelyn Wood -0 ... 


- 49.95 


Acd, PoyoblB - D , . . 


. . 41.95 


Acct. Recelvable-O 


, 41,95 


General Ledger-D. 


-.41.95 


Payroll Management 


-D41.95 


TOUCH TABLETS 




Kookj Pod-D 


. 69.95 


Koalo Pod -Cort, ,. 


. 74.95 


Animation Station - C 


. 59.95 


Muppet Keys -0... 


.54.95 



'P 



% 



''Or, 






Est. 1982 

OROEfliNQ INFORMATION. Please specify system. For tast delivery send cashier's ctieck. money order or direct bank translers. Personal 
and company checks allow 2 weeks to clear. Charges for COD are S3.00. School Purchase Orders v^eleame. In CONTINENTAL USA in- 
clude $3.00 shipping per sottvyare order. Include 3% shipping on all Hardware orders, minimunn $3.00. Mastercard & Visa please Include 
card * end expiration date. Wl residents please add 5% sales lax. HI, AK. FRO, APO, Canadian orders — add 5% shipping, minimum $5.00. 
All other foreign orders, please add 15% shipping, minimum SIQ.Ofl. All goods are new and Include factory warranty. Due to our tow prices 
all sales are tlnal. All dsfecHve returns must have a return authorisation number. Please call 414-351 -2007 to obtain an RA* or your return 
will NOT be accepted tor replacement or repair. Prices and availability are subject to change without notice. 



^2* I 

— — h 



s 



COMPUTABIUTV 

P.O. Box T76S2 

Milwaukee, Wl 53217 

ORDER UNES OPEN 
Mon-Fri 11AM-7PMCST 

Sot 12 PM - 5 PM CST 



3260: J=2:GB = 20B: G9 = 209 OSUB 2122fl 

PF20010 STA = 53279: CC=:5327a: RES = 77: K hi 22035 POKE C6,D1:P0KE C7,9:? SCDR 

EY=764: B2=20: WT=1 2000 ; AD=50 E ; : POKE C7,26:? HI;:PnKE C7 

: JUM = 250: BPED=197: LEV=1 : 2 IP ,36:? LI 

= 2000: K = 3: E=10: U=12 FL 22040 FOh:;E DL4 , 80 : D = USR ■: ML , M AN Y , P 
PM 20015 FOR A=1600 TO 1624: READ I:P I'. E)):BnsUB SY:POKE XP,120: 

OKE A, I: NEXT A: FOR A = 260 TO POKE CC,K:POi:E DC,U:GOSUB A 

419:READ I-POKE A I-NEXT A DiGOSUB 17500:GOTD WT 

1F20020 FDR A=1650 TO 1777:READ I:F Ft 22100 BACKC = : GOSUB 16000:GQSUB S 



Y:GDSUB 17000: POKE DC, U: COL 
OR D: RESTORE 31100:6OSLJB 15 
000: COLOR 1 



OKE A,I:NEXT A:FOR A=01 TO 
18:READ I : P I ( A ) = I : NE X T A 

AE 20025 A = PEEK ( 106) -40: POKE 54279, A 

-P = '^56*A- POKE 559 6-^-POKE 6 "fl 22 11 RESTORE 31200:GDSUB 15000 

23 01-PDKE 53''77 3-POKE XP MK22120 M 1 NQ=1 3 : MAXQ= 1 4 : QW = M INQ : QW 1 
oIpOKE 704,30^ ' ' ' =QW:SC=G: LIMIT=17:F=10: POKE 

EE 20030 MAN=P+1024: MANY=MAN+Y: 0B1=P 1552,230:IF SPED=19B OR TY 

+12S0+141:OB2=P+1792+141:FD f=2 THEN POKE 1554,230 

R I=MAN TO P+ 1536: POKE 1,0: CH 22125 GOTO 22030 

MEXT I BE 23500 POKE PC,14:P0KE BC,14:LI=LI 

KK20035 FOR I=P+1792 TO P + 2048:POKE +0 1 : Z I P= Z I P+ 1 000 : POKE C6,01 

I,D:NEXT I:RETURN : POKE C7,36:? L I ; " CUP> " : POK 

HJ 20100 FOR A = P TO P+191:READ I:POK E PC , B ACKC : POKE BC,BACKC:RE 

EA,I:NEXTA TURN 

CC 20105 C = oi:FDR A = P TO P+159 STEP iQ 24000 LEV = LEV + 1 : LEVEL = LEVEL+ 1 00 : 
16:DB(C>=A:C=C+01:NEXT A:OB IF LEVEL>200 THEN POKE DL+1 

C 1 1 ) =0B (8) : OB (U> =0B (7) 31,15:B0TD 24500 

EM20110 FDR I=P + 400 TO P + 463:READ A ^►:24010 POKE DL+ 13 1 , 1 5 : SOTO 21900 + L 
:PDKE I, A: NEXT I:C=Q1:FDR I EVEL 

=F+400 TO P+463 STEP 16-EX< DF 24500 BACKC=96 : GOSUB 16000:GDSUB 
C) =1 • C = C + 01 - NEXT I " SY:GOSUE 17000;PDKE DC,U 

Fl 20115 FOR i=P + 200'TD P + 247:READ A LB 24505 RESTORE 3 1 000 + LEVEL- 1 00 : COL 
•POKE I A-NEXT I-0B(13)=P+2 ^^ 0:GOSUB 1 5000 : RESTORE 31 

32:0B<14)=0B(01 ) iDB<15)=P+2 000:COLDR 01:60SUB 15000:SP 



16:OB(16)=F+200:OB(17)=DB(O 
1 > 



ED=19a 
«« 24510 LEVEL = Q: BACKC = 96: POKE 1552, 



PI 20120 RESTORE 30700:FOR 1 = 1536 TO 19a:P0KE 1 554 , 1 98 : M I NQ = I : M 

1576:READ A:POKE I,A:NEXT AXQ= J : DW=M I NQ : QW 1 =QW : SC=0 r L 

IiPOKE 68,0:P0KE 69,a:PDKE I M I T=Z : F=E : GOTO 22030 

X1P,0:POKE X2P,B2;RETURN PC 25000 FOR 1=30 TO 108 STEP J : POKE 
PII 21000 GRAPHICS B:eOSUB 16010:LEVE X P , I : D-USR « ML , MANY , P I < F ) ) : 

L=D: BACKC=96: GOSUB 16000:PO F=F+01:IF F>Z THEN F=01 

KE DC,U JB 25005 NEXT I : D=USR C ML , MAN Y , P I ( 9 ) ) 
Kfi21005 MINQ = D1 : MAXQ = J : SC = 0: LIMIT = 6 : FOR A = 01 TO J : FOR F=ll TO 

:POKE 1552, 19B:REST0RE 3100 1 4 ; Y= Y-J : I = I + J : POKE XP,I 

0:GOSUB 15000 PJ25015 D = USR ( ML , MAN + Y , P I ( F ) ) : NE XT 
CA21010 FOR 1=01 TO 319 STEP J : PLOT . F^NEXT A:F0R^A = 01 TO J : FOR 

I,124:DRAWT0 I,125:NEXT I: F-11 TO 1 4 : Y-Y + J : I - I + J 

FDR I=J TO 31B STEP J:PLOT iC 25020 POKE X P , I : D = USR ( ML , MAN + Y , P I 

I,132:DRAWT0 I,149:NEXT I <F)):NEXT F:NEXT A:F=01 

CP 21015 POKE DC.BACKC ' KN 25025 FOR I = I+J TO 220 STEP J : FOK 
KE2103B -^ "<CLEAR>":POSlTION 01,01: ^ 53248 , I : D = USR ( ML , M ANY , F I ( 

? ■■tBJ{31 R>CW3t3 R><E>":PO F ) ) : F = F + 1 : I F F>Z THEN F = D1 

SITION 01, Js-^ ■■:a3illll:0"; JO25030 NEXT I:F = E:RETURN 

BB21040 ? "^7 SPACES>IIE^13HII1:0 " HD 27000 GRAPH I CS^0_:P0KE^752 , 0I_: POKE 

C7 SPACES> ! 3 !":POSITI0N O 

1,Z:? "tZJtSl RJ<X><:3 R> 

■CC>":RETURN PI 27005 ? " CCLE AR J " : POS I T I ON J,6:F0 
LK21220 D = USR(ML,OB1,OB(QW) ) ;D = USRC ^ 1=30000 TO 30010:7 I:NEXT 

ML,MANY,PI<F)):D = USR(ML,OB2 ^- " CDNT - : POS IT I ON , : ST 

, OB (QW) ) : RETURN •-"" 

KC22000 BACKC = 196:G0SUB 16000:GOSUB JC27010 ? " -[CLE AR ] " : POS I T I ON J,6:FD 
SY: GOSUB 17000:POKE DC,U:C « 1=30080 TO 30098 STEP J:? 

OLOR OrRESTDRE 31000:6OSUB I:NEXT I:? " CONT " : POS I T I ON 

15000:COLOR 01 D,0:STDP 

LO22010 RESTORE 31100:GOSUB 15000 LF 27015 ? " iCLEARl " : POS I T I ON J,6:FD 
SE 22020 MINQ=7:MAXQ=8:DW=MINQ:QW1=Q R 1=25000 TO 25030 STEP 5:7 

W: SC = 0:LIMIT = U:F = E: POKE 155 I;NEXT 1 : FDR 1 = 19000 TO 19 

2,19SiP0KE 1567, SPED: IF LEV 025 STEP 5:? I:NEXT I:? "CO 

=5 THEN LIMIT=E NT" 

J622030 POKE DC, BACKCj GOSUB 21038:6 LK 27020 POSITION D,D:STDP 

February 1985 COMPUTEI 65 



710,96:POKE 712,96:P0KE 70 
9,96:P0KE 842,13:60509 16010 



JO 27025 



LL 27030 
PE 27035 



HE 27070 
Dli 30000 



BH 3000 1 



30002 



m 3000' 



LP 30004 



HD 300 0: 



BC 30006 



PK 30007 



FJ 30008 



BD 30009 



JH 30010 



30080 



PF 30082 



300B4 



DM 30086 



KH 30088 



-^ " <CLEAR} ": POSITION J.6:FD 
R 1=20000 TO 20035 STEP 5:? 

1:NEXT I:FOR 1=20100 TO 20 
120 STEP 5:? I:NEXT I:? "CD 
NT" 

POSITION D,D:STOP 
? " {clear: ■': POSITION J,6:F0 
R 1=27000 TO 27035 STEP 5:7 

I: NEXT I:? "30700":? "3070 
2":? "GOTO 27070" : POS I TI ON 
0, O; STOP 

POKE 842, 12: RETURN 
DATA 104,104,133,204,104,13 
3, 203, 104, 133, 2 09, 104, 133, 2 
08, 160, 0, 177, 208, 145, 203, 20 
0, 192, 16, 208, 247, 96 
DATA 12,12,8,56,90,156,24,3 
0, 18,36,72, 132, 128, 0,0,0, 12 
,12, 8, 56, 88, 94, 88, 24, 20, 18, 
226, 130, 3, 0, 0, 

DATA 12,12,8,24,24,24,24,24 
,216, 56, 20, 4, 4, 4, 6,0, 12, 12, 
8, 24, 56, 56, 60, 56, 30, 18, 20, 1 
6, 16, 16, 24, 

DATA 0,0,24,24,18,52,56,50, 
53, 56, 48, 32, 64, 128, 0,0, 0,0, 
12, 12, 8, 24, 60, 91, 24, 24, 158, 
1 13, 0,0, 0,0 

DATA 0,0,12,12,8,24,26,28,1 
52, 88, 56, 28, 2, 1,0,0,0,0, 12, 
12, a, 24, 26, 28, 24, 24, 120, 12, 
4,4,4,0 

DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0, 
0,0,0,0,0, 12, 12, 8, 24, 24, 24, 
24, 24, 24, 8, 8, a, 8, 8, 12,0 
DATA 0,0,0,192,200,132,204, 
248, 112,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 
,24, 4, 2, 102, 108, 16, 0,0, 0,0, 
0,0,0 

DATA 0,0,0,14,31,51,33,19,1 
9,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,8,54, 
102, 64, 32, 24, 0,0, 0,0, 0,0,0 
DATA 48,48,16,28,26,122,26, 
24, 40, 72, 71, 65, 192, 0,0, 0,0, 
0,96, 96, 64, 100, 56, 48, 48, 58, 
29, 24, 15, 0,0,0 

DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,19 
2, 208, 144, 254, 125, 0, 40, 48, 1 
6, 24, 28, 28, 60, 28, 120, 72, 40, 
a, a, B, 24, 

DATA 260,276.292.308,324,34 

0, 356, 372, 388, 404, 1650, 1666 

, 168 2, 1698, 1714, 1730, 1746, 1 

762 

DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0, 

8, 28, 62, 127, 0,0, 0,0, 0,0, 0,0 

,0,0,8,8,8,8,8,8,0 

DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,32,64,25 

5,64,32,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0-0 

,0,8,8,8,8,8,8,8,8,0 

DATA 0,0,0,0,32,64,255,64,3 

2,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 



0,255,2: 



ijj, -ijj, ^jj, i-jj. 



255, 255, 

DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,64,2 55,64, 

0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,4 
a, 88, 60, 4, a, 16, 34, 37, 25,0 
DATA 0,0,0,0,96,109,255,28, 
12,6,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,48. 1 



Ffl 30090 
FD 30092 

FD 30094 

!'M 30096 

OE 30098 
US 30700 

DH 30702 
«E 31000 
IQ 31 1 00 

AC 31 102 

!6 31 1 04 
H[ 31106 
SC 31 108 

DE 3 1 1 1 
BC 3 1 1 1 2 

CJ 3 1 1 1 4 
EF 3 1 1 1 6 

NF 3 1 1 1 8 
KG 3 1200 

15 31202 

DK 31204 



12,248, 236 ,70,3, 1,0,0.0.0,0 

, 

DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0, 

30, 247, 255, 66, 0, 0, 0, S, 0, 24 , 

6 0, 126,219, 1 2 6 . , , 1^1 , , S!l , 'it , 



DATA 12,12,24.24,24,24,24,2 

4,24,24,8,44,8, 16,0,0,0,0, 1 

2, 12, 3,24.24. 24, 24, 24, 24, a, 

4, 4, 56, 

DATA 0,0,0,0,12,31,27,27,24 

,24,24,8,4,4,56,0,0,0,0,0,0 

,0,0,4, 14, 11,9,9, II, 1 1 , 5 9 , i;i 

DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,25 

5, 255, 126, ! 26, 36. 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 

0,0,36, 126,219, 129,0,0,0.0. 

0, 

DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,28.8.8 

,28,28,28,28.0 

DATA 104, 1 6 !i) , 1 (;* , 162.6, 169,7 

,76, 92, 228, 169,0, 197.2 3,24 

0,9, 198,206, 197,206, 166,206 

, 14 2, 3, 2 08 

DATA 197,209,240,9,198,207, 

197, 20 7, 166. 207 , 142, 1 , 208, 7 

6,98. 228 

DATA 1 , 93, 56, 55, 62, 55, 1 00 , 9 

3, 134, 67, 170, 93, 2 10, 59, 245, 

80,280,67,319,93,-1,-1 

DATA 1,50,4,52,8,53,14,53,1 

9, 57, 2 3, 58, 29, 57, 39, 60, 45, 6 

0, 43, 93, 65, 93, 65. 60. 7 1,60,8 

1 , 57, 87, 58, 91 , 57, 96 

DATA 53,104.53,108,52,111,5 

0, 1 19, 40, 125. 37. 130, 30, 133, 

25, 132, 18, 131 , 13, 131,7, 128, 

3, 124. 1 . -9, -9 

DATA 45,60,47,61,49,63,52.6 

2,5-6,63,58,61,60.59,63,61,6 

5, 60, -9, -9 

DATA 115,45,120,48,125,49,1 

3 4.49, 140.54, 145.56, 155.56, 

155,9 3 

DATA 175,93,175,56,185,56.1 

90, 54, 196, 49, 20 6, 49. 211, 48, 

220. 45.223.40.227. 35.226.34 
, -9,-9 

DATA 155,56,159,57,165,56,1 

70,57,175,56,-9,-9 

DATA 220,45,225,50,234,51,2 

40, 50, 250, 54, 253, 54, 253, 93. 

273,93,273.54.2 80.52 

DATA 286,51,294,52,300.54.3 

07, 53, 3 10, 51, 319. 48, -9, -9 

DATA 319,48,315,46,312,44,3 

10, 40, 308, 36, 305, 35. 300, 28, 

298, 24, 299, 20,300, 17,302. 12 

,303, 6, 305, 2, 308, 1,-9,-9 

DATA 253.54,259,55,266,54,2 

70, 55,274, 54, -1 , -1 

DATA 1,1,10,10,30,10,38,18, 

43, 30, 50, 54, 60, 65, 65. 52, 70, 

72, 72, 75, 74, 80, 85, 80, 90, 72, 

94, 66, 123, 66, 123, 55, 140, 40 

DATA 135,24,145,15,160.24.1 

80, 12, 170, 40, 191, 82. 200, 62. 

206. 70. 213. 60. 200. 40. 207. 35 
,213,43,230,24.240,50 

DATA 256,50,260,55,273,30,2 



66 COMPUTEI February 1985 



A B Computers 

THE VALUE LEADER ■ SINCE 1976 






Sanyo 550 & 555 PC's, Built-in software 
includes MDOS Version II, Wordstar, Calc- 
Siar. Basic, more. Great Prices, 



Computer Ram 

5501 isaK- 

5S0-2 t!8K- 

555-1 128K- 

555-2 l2flK- 



Drrve 

1B0KII drivel 
360K(I drivel 
360K |2 drives) 
720K (2 dri«s| 



Price 
U95. 

850. 
1075, 
1275. 



•EXPANDABLE TO 256 



Tg/fm* 



data 
systems 



All Zenittis lully software & liardware com- 
patible Willi Ihe PC and XT superior 
iieyboard 

Computer Ram Dti»e Ports Price 

ZF 151.21 ISaKMO 1PU2SEB CALL 

ZF151S2 320K 720 (8 diiyes) 1PL(2 SER CALL 
ZW-15I-5J 320K106MB-t36OlPU2SER CALL 
ZF-161-Jr IJ8K360 1PL(2 SER- CALL 

ZF-161-52' 320K 720 (2 drives) 1PU2 SEFl. CALL 
■Poilable 



Panasonic. 




PANASONIC 1Q90 

Friction & tractor. 

excellent correspondence mode. 

Epson code compatible S239. 



OTHER COMPUTER SPECIALS 

IBM PC and PC XT in stock 

available al special prices CALL 

ALSPA 8' CPM Computers. 64K 

memory worktiorse at super special 
prices- 

l/SS as low asS500. 

2/SS $700. a/DS 51,000. 

Franklin Ace — not many left, 

super prices .,,, CALL 

Commodore— full line,- CALL 

DISKS & ACCESSORIES 

Price per 5%" Disk 
3M ss DS AT 

Qty, SSfDD DD/OD 9« TPI M TPl H DENS 
200 J1.55 J.14 3.16 %Ai CALL 
100 1.59 2.19 3.22 3.SS CALL 
10 1.62 223 3.29 3.63 CALL 

VEH8ATIH SS DS AT 

Qty. SSIDO DD/QD 3«TPt 3«TPt H DENS 

200 SI .01 217 3.29 3.e3 CALL 

100 \IS> 222 3.36 3.71 CALL 

10 1.eS 2.26 1.43 3.78 CALL 

MAXELL SS OS AT 

aiy. SSJDD DDIDE) 96 TPI 96 TPI H DENS 

200 S1.M 2.56 2.74 3.43 5.04 

100 1.97 261 280 3.50 5.15 

10 2.01 266 2.86 3.57 5.25 



30 Mactntosti 3Va" diskettes in Amaray 
drskbank $135. 




SOFTWARE 

Master Type (Scarborougfi) S22. 

Matii Blasler! (Davidson) 35. 

Typing Tutor III (S&S) 35. 

Alphabet 200 (Spinnaker) 22. 

Success witti Math (CBS) 18. 

Typing Tytor II (Microsoft) IB. 

Algebra I (Peachtree) 22. 

Story Machine (Spinnaker) 22. 

Word Attack! (Davidson) 35. 

Get Organizedl (Eledfonic Arts) 159. 

Spollight (Software Arts) 120. 

Microsoft "Word" (WMouse) 325. 

Unix Operating System tor PC CALL 

Copy PC 29. 

Fligtil Simulator II (Sub Logic) 39. 

t-2-3 (Lotus) 299. 

PFS:File (Software Pbstig ) 89. 



HIT PARADE 

Symptiony (Lotus) 499. 

PFS:fleport (Software Pbshg.) 79. 

PFS:Write (Software PBshg.) 89. 

dBase III (Asliton-Tale) 489, 

dBase II (Ashton-Tate) ...„ 349. 

Framework (As It ton-Tate) 489. 

MultimalB (Mulliuiate) 320. 

Chart (Microsift) 179. 

I^ultiplan (Microsoft) 129. 

Wordstar (Micropro) ,,,,335. 

■Personal Pearl (pearlsoft)— Database 
filing/repoiling system for personal 
productivity. Manipulate database ttiru 
simple Englisti sentence commands. Great 
for beginner or pro. Super business aid. 
Ini:ludes lunclions for bookkeeping, general 
ledger, billings managemenl. mail list, sales ti 
analysis, budget planning, more S235. 



We carry toll software lines by Electronic Arts. Scholastic, Scarborough. 
PFS. Spinnaker, Batteries Included, Others- If you don't see il ttere, CALL. 



• AB's OWN DlSKETTES-top disk guality 
at a low. low price buy tOO (DS/DD) and 
pay only SI. 50 per disk. 
Plus, before February 28, get a free Amaray 
filediamate 5 disk file in the bargain! 

AB carrys all major brands .., 3M, Vetbaliii, 
Maxell, Wabash. BASF. Sentinel. Dysan. . .in all 
popular sizes and CDnliguralions. CAll tor super 
pnces. 

DISK STORAGE 

Mini Flip 'N File (aOs- disks) S17.45 

Rolltop 100 (too disks. 

10 dividers) 28.99 

Mini Kas-etle/1D (for 5" disks) 

1/2.25 10/2.05 ea, 

Amaray Mediamale 5 11,99 

Irinovative Concepts— fold out style for 5" 

Flip 'N File/25 16.50 

Flip 'N File/50 22.95 

Smith & Bellows Wooden Storage 
Bones lor 5" disks. Natural or cark finisfi 

For 50 disks 18. 

For 70 disks 21. 

For too disks 24. 

PLUS-"HEAD" disk cleaning kil 

|w/2 disks) 11.99 

IBM drive analyzer (Verbalim) 22.50 



MONITORS 

USI-20 Mfiz band width, 1000 lines 

resolution. Easily capable oi BO cliaracler 

display. 

*1200G (Pi-2)p12' green phosphor 

SPECIAL S85. 

*1200A (Pi-3)-12'' amber phosphor 

SPECIAL 89. 

AMDEK 

Video 310A-12" amber, 18 meg. 
TTL-IBM S1S5. 

ZENITH 

ZVM-124-12" amber-22 MHz, TTL 

lor IBM $150. 

Z\/M-135-Higfi res. RGB + composite 

monitor...., 470. 

ZVM-l35-l-CableforRGe 

moniiot 23. 

PANASONIC 

12" Green 20 MHz (Sound) S137. 

12" Amber 20 MHz (Sound) 145. 

ELECTROHOME 

ECM 1226-12" Green S95. 

eCM 1302-1-13" Color RGB 195. 

ECM 1302-2-13" Color (Hi Res.) 330. 

POWER DEVICES 

Datashield back-up power source 

200 PC-200 watt S265. 

300 XT-300 watt 390. 

"BITS" Power back-up-250W 695. 

Tiue unlnienuptable 

Brooks 6 Outlet— Surge Supres- 
sor/Nolse Filler 54. 

Computer Power lnc.-500 VA 1320. 

Tripp Lite 425 VA 390. 



'Dtdefviig Jntonnaiion: Oiler by ct«c^, lilasierCanl or VISA 
f eisnal cnedis talie 1 5 <li)S V) dear: IB na^ on cenied 
cTiicis or money orijcrs AW 3% shpjMig and (BwSng on al 
vdeisrnarMunKini Ual/UWPO Vmsyrequiieadili- 
tiiiial UiargH PA resDBitsadiltilt sales laiiUAiesiMs 
add 51i AI deiTis ftbpi B anabMt) Frees subjea u 
diafige AdiMtnaldieauilSMMeKKgidMediicsnnal 
nsttjnons Be(]ueslslorM1oniioynere(}ureiTientsinv«ed 



OUTPUT DEVICES I 

Printers by Star, Epson, C. Itoh, Amdek,! 

Panasonic, Okidata, Diablo, Brother: I 

Star Micronics Gemini 10X 

-10" carnage, F/T 120 CPS S258. 

Epson LO-1500-NEW 24-pln 

letter quality dot malrii CALL 

Epson RX-80-Tractor Feed, 
Graflrax t 289, 

OkidalaSZ CALL 

Amdek Printers 

5025 25 CPS Daisywhee! , 2K Bullcr CALL 

5040-40 CPS Daisywhcel, 2K Buller CALL 

5055-55 CPS Daisyvihed, 2K Buller CALL 

Brother HR-35 Daisywheel- 
25 CPS Bi-Direcltonal 889. 

Brother HR-25 Daisywheel- 
23 CPS Bi-Oireciional 649. 

Brother HR-15 Daisywheei- 
13 CPS Bi-Oiredional 389. 

Star Radix 10 600. 

Star Radix 15 695. 

C. Ilott 

Prowriter I (Parallel) CALL 

Slatwnter (40 CPS) CALL 

Diablo 620 (Daisywheel) CALL 

IBM Parallel Prinler Cable ,,..19. 

COMMUNICATIONS 

Mark X Auto Dial/Auto Answer $119. 

Anchor Mark Xll Smart modem 265. 

Hayes Smartmodem 1200B 459. 

[includes Smaiicom II soliware) 

Hayes SmartModem 1200/300 529. 

"Crosstalk" soltware 135. 

* Voad keyboard-phone software (or 
IBM PC and compatibles. Features 
mail merge, call reporting, "Note 
Pad" and more CALL 



commodore 
commodore 

WC 6420 Auto MOdefll lalso awilasie lor Alan 4 

Apple at slightly higher price] S 65. 

Tech Sketch Light Pen & Micro 

Illustrator 44, 

MSD Superdrives, single and dual CALL 
CBC 4/12 Analog to Digital 

4 ChanJi? Bii 179. 

Typitig Tutor III w/Leller Invaders 35. 

(Also IDT Apple S IBM) 
Paper Clip Word Processor 

CBM/C64 : 60. 

BO Column Display Card 

by "Balteries Included" 149, 

Oracle {Consultant) Data Base 

by "Batteries Included" 89. 

BusCard II 

by "Batteries Included" 149. 

Cable Irom BusCard to Parallel Pnniet 25. 

All other "Batteries Included" items 

in stock CALL 

FORTH lor PET/C 64 

(Full Fig, Model) by Cargile/Riley 50. 

Dilto Disk 64 (copy discs even if original Is 
copy protected) 36. 

STAT for PET/CBM/C64 95. 

CDmprehens:ve Slaltslical Analysis RiSulines 

*AB's C64 Upgrade Kit: includes BusCard 
IEEE CaDle S MSD Superdrrve 319. 

KMMM PASCAL IV. 1 (C64/PET) 95. 

NEW 64 -t PASCAL CALL 

FLEX-FILE II - User friendly. Set-up and 
maintain data base. Includes report writer 
& mail label routines 59. 

Petscan— Connect up to 37 CBM/PET compu. 
ters as networked cluster to shared drives 
Sprinters CALL 

C-Scan— Conned up to 8 computers (C 64, 
VIC 20, or similar buss) to shared drives and 
primers -- .,.,- -125. 



/ETC. 

Panasonic, Amdek. Hitachi & Other — Vj 

height, ttouble side drives from S149. 

*Data Technofogy TeamMate Drive-super 
new system Puis 3 3 MS on 5V« " floppy Foimals 
!o 2 8 For PC XT owneis. an aliernaiive lo hard disk 

4 disks back-up 10 megatiyles CALL 

*Winctiester Drives (10 MB) 799. 

Quadrain Quadboard^ Parallel pon, senai pori, 

clocltycalenaar 

Ho RAM S299, w;64K.S379. WJ384K-H99 

* AMDEK MAI graphics card for 

IBM PC 200. 

Hercules graphics board 359. 

Votrax speech synthesizers- 
Personal Speech System 249. 

AST-full line of IBM cards S boards CALL 

Keylronics 5150 keyboard 179. 

Hewlett Packard calculators, all models: 
LOW, LOW PRICES CALL 

Koala Pad (w/software) 98. 

4164 ChipMemory expansion for 

IBM, 64K 39. 

Interface Cables— 6, 10, 12 (t, all 

popular connectors CALL 

(Dealer inquiries invited) 

ORDER LINE, 9 AM-6 PM EST 

800-82!^-1^11 

(l(*t PA., 215-822-7727) 

CUSTOMER SERVICE 

215-822-7727 



FREE CATALOG! 

This ad space can accommodate only a 
lew ol Ihe excepiional values available | 



I from AB. Our latest catak>g is packed with j BL ^B ^OHMMUwdiS 
fantastic buys, top brands, thousands ol ^^ — ■■j»'-» 



items. For a tree copy call or write. 



252 BETHLEHEM PIKE 
COLMAR, PA 18915 



80, 44, 275, 60, 
300, 20, 319, 1 , 

1631500 DATA 204,0,0, 
, 204, 0,0,91, 1 
0, 0, 90, 204, 0, 

fl]31502 nftTA 7i7-iaa_ 



fl]31502 DATA 217, 144, i 
02, 140, -1 , 0, 0, 

Ifl31700 DATA 102,0,0,^ 
128,0,0, 40, 13^ 
, 40, 162, 108,0, 
, 80, -1 , , 0, 
1800 DATA 162, 121 ,' 
1 , 35, 162, 121 ,' 
1 , 35, 96, Bl , 60 



290, 50, 295, 55, 

-1,-1 

147, 217, 0,0, 18 

73, 0, , 95, 1S2, 

0, 70 

0, 25, 204, 136. 1 

,0 

40, 1 14, 0,0, 40, 
6, 0,0, 40, 0,0,0 
, 40, 153, 102, 76 



96,70, 121 , 96, 8 
96,70, 121 ,96, 8 
,70,-1,0,0,0 



Program 2: commodore 64 Acrobat 

Refer to "COMPUTEI's Guide For Typing In Programs" 
article before typing this program In. 

I POKB55 , : P0KE51 , : POKE56 , 60 : POKE52 , 60 : C 
LR:POKE828,0 : rem 155 

3 L=54272 :FORV=LTOL+24:POKEV,0:NEXT:POKEL 

+1,50:POKEL+24,143 : rem 128 

5 POKEL+5,17:POKEL+6,0:Sy=53253;POKE53252 

,167:POKE 2042,255:POKE53277,4 : rem 57 
7 GOSUB77:GOSUB365:SYS 16436 : POKE53265 , PE 

EK(53265)OR128 :rem 11 

9 GOSUB355 : POKE53281 , 0: POKE53275 , 4 : POKE53 

288,0 :rem 188 

II P0KE16645,15:PRINT"{CLR]" :SYS 16610:PO 
KE832,0:POKE53 289,0:POKE5 3 271,4 

:rem 251 
13 POKE53269, 7 : POKES 3248 , 150 :Y=5 3249 : POKE 

Y,173:POKE53280,1 :rem88 

15 PRINT" {home} {18 DOWN} {GRN} g40 £3" 

:rem 218 
17 LI=3:C=240:D=243;S=1:P=129:POKE828,0:D 

E=0 : POKE16404, : POKE53279 , :SC=0 : S1=0 

: rem 1 
19 POKE53 265,PEEK(53265)AND127:POKE5 3 278, 

0:FM=99 : rem 252 

21 FORA=CTOD:POKEV1,A:POKEV2,P ! rem 188 
23 PO=V3-PEEK(V4) : IFPO<V5THENPO=V5 

:rem 188 
25 P0KEV6 , PO : GETA$ : IFA$=R$ANDQ<= . THENA=D : 

C=247:D=250:Q=9:S=.9:P=33:S1=5 : rem 65 
27 IFA?=J$ANDQ<=.THENA=D:Q=18:S=3:S1=2 

:rem 31 
29 IFA$=S$ANDQ<=.THENA=D:C=252:D=252:Q=.4 

:S=.07:P=128:S1=2 :rem 142 

31 IF ( PEEK ( V7 ) <> V9 ) OR ( PEEK ( V8 ) <> V9 ) THENSC 

=SC+S1:S1=. :rem 191 

3 3 P0KEV2 , VA : POKEY, VB-Q : POKESY , VC-Q : Q=Q-S 

:IFQ<=.THENC=240:D=243:Q=0:P=129 

:rem 138 
35 IF(PEEK(VD)ANDVP)THEN47 : rem 97 
37 U=PEEK(V4)/VE:IFU=INT{U)THENP0KEVG,U+V 

H srem 247 

39 SC=SC+PEEKCVI) :POKEVI, . ; rem 119 
41 IFSC>FMTHENFM=FM+100:LI=LI+1 ;F0RQQ=15T 

O1STEP-1:POKE53280,QQ:NEXT : rem 44 
43 IF(PEEK(V7)<>V9)OR{PEEK(V8) <>V9) THENSC 

=SC+S1:S1=. :rem 194 

45 NEXT: GOTO 21 : rem 126 

47 POKE53265, PEEK(53265)OR128:POKEL+6,8a: 

POKE53269,3 : rem 5 

49 POKEL+4, 33:FORZ=244T0246 :POKE2040 ,Z : FO 

RTD=1T075:P0KEL+1, TO: NEXT: NEXT : rem 28 
51 POKE {2 SPACES }L+4, 32: POKEL+6,0 t rem 67 
53 PRINT" {WHT} {home} {20 DOWN} f 14 SPACES}S 



CORE"SC :rem 183 

55 POKE198,0:LI=LI-l:IFLI=0THEN69:rem 255 

57 PRINT" { WHT} {down} {11 SPACES} MEN REMAIN 
ING"LI :rem 98 

58 FORTD=1TO2000:NEXT : rem 56 

59 PRINT" {home} {20 DOWN} {39 SPACES}" 

:rem 166 

61 PRINT" {DOWN} {36 SPACES}" : rem 73 

62 PRINT" {home} {2 DOWN} "TAB ( 12 ) "HIT SPACE 

BAR" :WAIT198,1: PRINT" {home} {2 D0WN}"T 
AB(12)"{13 SPACES}" : rem 224 

63 POKE 16404, 0:POKE53265,PEEK{53265)AND1 
27 :rem 117 

6 5 F0RTD=lTOl 50 : NEXT : Q=0 : POKE 5 3288,0: POKE 
832,0:POKE53251,0:POKE53278,0 :rem 198 
67 POKE53279,0:POKE53269,7:GOTO 25 

:rem 177 
69 PRINT" {2 DOWN} {WHT} {4 SPACES}do YOU WA 
NT TO PLAY AGAIN? (Y/N)" ; rem 208 
71 GETA5:IFA$<>"Y"ANDA$<>"N"THEN71 

:rem 205 
73 IF A$="Y"THEN11 :rem 201 

75 POKE828,0:SYS828 : rem 116 

77 R$="F":J$="J":S?="S"!PRINT"{cLR}{WHT} 

{3 DOWN} {15 right} ACROBAT" : rem 40 
79 PRINT" {2 DOWN} {7 SPACES} {RVS }f{OFF} 
{3 SPACES} MAKES THE ACROBAT FLIP" 

:rem 198 
81 PRINT" {2 DOWN} {7 SPACES} {RVS} J {OFF} 
{3 SPACES} MAKES THE ACROBAT JUMP" 

:rem 212 
83 PRINT"{2 DOWN) {7 SPACES }{ RVS } S {OFF } 
{3 SPACES }MAKES THE ACROBAT SLIDE" 

: rem 20 

85 PRINT" {3 down} {12 SPACES} HIT E TO EDIT 

KEYS" :rem 160 

87 PRINT" {2 down} {10 SPACES} ANY OTHER KEY 

TO START" I rem 230 

89 GETA$:IFA$=''"THEN89 j rem 5 

91 IFA$<>"E"THEN99 -rem 2 

92 PRINT"{CLR}{2 DOWN) YOU MUST ENTER LET 
TERS BETWEEN A AND Z" srem 80 

93 PRINT" {2 down} {13 SPACES}KEY TO FLIP?" 
f :GOSUB600;R$=A$ :rem 50 

95 PRINT" {2 down) {13 SPACES}KEy TO JUMP?" 

; tGOSUB600:J$=A$ :rem 61 

97 PRINT" {2 down) {13 SPACES} KEY TO SLIDE? 

";iGOSUB600:S?=A$ :reml25 

99 PRINT" {2 down) {13 SPACES}PLEASE WAIT.. 

. " :rem 222 

101 FORA=15360TO16383!READBiPOKEA,BtNEXT 

irem 199 
103 Vl=2040jV2=54276tV3-15jV4=828 2V5=7!V6 

=16645!V7=1718!V8=1678iV9=32jVA=128 

I rem 52 
105 VB=173sVC=164:VD=53279:VE=3sVF=liVG=5 

1242:VH=49:VI=1000:RETURN ! rem 218 
107 DATA0, 0,0, 0,0, 0,0,0 :rem 102 

109 DATA0,0,0,0,0,28,0,0 : rem 162 

111 DATA28, 0,0, 248, 0,3, 112,0 : rem 112 
113 DATA6, 112, 0,12, 127, 0,0, 112 : rem 206 
115 DATA0,0, 112,0,0, 112,0,0 : rem 45 
117 DATA072,0,0, 132,0,0, 130,0 : rem 154 
119 DATA0, 130, 0,0, 132, 0,0, 136 : rem 157 
121 DATA0, 1,4, 0,0, 128, 0,111 : rem 53 
123 DATA0, 0,0, 0,0, 0,0,0 :rem 100 

125 DATA0,0,0,0,0,28,0,0 : rem 160 

127 DATA028, 0,0, 248, 0,1, 240,0 : rem 167 
129 DATAl, 240, 0,1, 255, 0,0, 112 :rem 162 
131 DATA0, 0,112, 0,0, 112, 0,0 : rem 43 
133 DATA72, 0,0, 132, 0,0, 130,0 ; rem 104 



68 COMPUTE! FebruQfY 1985 



135 DATAl, 2,0, 2, 4,0,4,8 : rem 124 279 

137 DATA0,2,4,0,0,0,0,111 -rem 210 281 

139 DATA0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 :rera 107 283 

141 DATA0,0,0,0,0,28,0,0 : rem 158 285 

143 DATA2S, 0,0, 248, 0,0, 240,0 : rem 116 287 

145 DATA0, 252, 0,0, 255, 0,0, 112 : rem 161 289 

147 DATA0,0, 112,0,0,112,0,0 : rem 50 291 

149 DATA72, 0,0, 136, 0,0, 136,0 :reni 121 293 

151 DATAl, 8, 0,2,8,0,4,8 : rem 132 295 

153 DATA0,2,4,0,0,0,0,111 : rem 208 297 

155 DATA0, 0,0, 0,0, 0,0,0 :rem 105 299 

157 DATA0,0,0,0,0,28,0,0 : rem 165 301 

159 DATA28, 0,0, 248, 0,1, 112,0 : rem 122 303 

161 DATA2, 114,0,4, 124,0,0, 112 : rem 157 305 

163 DATA0,0, 112,0,0, 112,0,0 : rem 48 307 

165 DATA96, 0,15, 192, 0,16, 64,0 : rem 188 309 

167 DATA0,64,0,0,64,0,0,64 : rem 26 311 

169 DATA0, 0,96, 0,0, 0,0, 111 : rem 16 313 

171 DATA0, 0,0, 0,0, 0,0,0 :rem 103 315 

173 DATA0, 0,0, 0,0, 28,0,0 : rem 163 

175 DATA28,0,0, 120,0,0, 112,0 : rem 108 

177 DATA0, 114, 0,0, 124, 0,0, 112 : rem 158 317 

179 DATA0, 0,112, 0,0, 112, 0,0 : rem 55 

181 DATA96, 0,0,96, 0,0,96,0 : rem 37 319 

183 DATA0,96,0,0,96,0,0,96 : rem 39 321 

185 DATA0,0, 112,0,0,0,0, 111 : rem 51 323 

187 DATA0, 0,0, 0,0, 0,0,0 :rem 110 3 25 

189 DATA0, 0,0, 0,0, 0,0,0 ;rem 112 327 

191 DATA0, 0,0, 0,0, 0,63, 128 : rem 13 329 

193 DATA0, 127,192,0,127,248,0, 112:rem 125 331 

195 DATA56,0, 112, 56,0, 112,0,0 : rem 171 333 

197 DATA96,0,0,96,0,0,96,0 : rem 44 335 

199 DATA0,96,0,0,96,0,0,96 : rem 46 337 

201 DATA0, 0,112, 0,0, 0,0, 111 :rem 40 339 

203 DATA0, 0,0, 0,0, 0,0,0 :rem 99 341 

205 DATA0, 0,0, 0,0, 0,0,0 trem 101 343 

207 DATA0, 0,0, 0,0, 0,63,0 : rem 160 

209 DATA0, 127, 128, 0,127, 128, 0,115:rem 122 345 

211 DATA128,0, 115, 128,0,99,128,0 trem 76 

213 DATA110, 0,0, 110, 0,0, 96,0 : rem 103 347 

215 DATA0, 96,0,0, 96,0,0,96 :rem 35 

217 DATA0, 0,112,0,0,0,0,111 : rem 47 349 

219 DATA0, 0,0, 0,0, 0,0,0 :rem 106 351 

221 DATA0, 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 jrem 99 353 

223 DATA0, 0,0, 0,0, 0,0,0 : rem 101 355 

225 DATA0, 63, 0,12, 127, 128, 6, lis ; rem 21 357 

227 DATA128,3,115,128,1,227, 128,0:rem 128 

229 DATA238, 0,0, 14,0,0,0,0 : rem 13 359 

231 DATA0, 0,0, 0,0, 0,0,0 :rem 100 

233 DATA0,0,0,0,0,0,0, 111 s rem 201 361 

235 DATA0, 0,0, 0,0, 0,0,0 :rem 104 

237 DATA0, 0,0, 0,0, 0,0,0 : rem 106 363 

239 DATA0, 0,0, 0,0, 1,0,0 : rem 109 

241 DATAl, 143,0,0, 223, 128, 0,115 :reiti 7 365 

243 DATA128,0, 35, 128,0, 195, 128,0 : rem 79 

245 DATA255, 0,0,62, 0,0,0,0 : rem 13 367 

247 DATA0, 0,0, 0,0, 0,0,0 trem 107 

249 DATA0,0,0,0,0,0,0,111 : rem 208 369 

251 DATA0, 0,0, 0,0, 0,0,0 :rem 102 

253 DATA0, 0,0, 0,0, 0,0,0 srem 104 371 

255 DATA0, 0,0, 112,0, 0,119,0 :rem 57 373 

257 DATAl, 199, 128, 1,206, 192, l,206:rem 137 

259 DATA96, 1,254, 48, 0,252, 0,0 j rem 190 375 

261 DATA0, 0,0, 0,0, 0,0,0 trem 103 377 

263 DATA0, 0,0, 0,0, 0,0,0 trem 105 379 

265 DATA0,0,0,0,0,0,0,111 trem 206 381 

267 DATA0, 0,0, 0,0, 0,0,0 trem 109 

269 DATA0, 0,0, 0,0, 0,0,0 trem 111 383 

271 DATA0,0,0, 124,0,0, 255,0 trem 59 

273 DATAl, 195,0,1,196,0,1,206 trem 180 385 

275 DATA0, 1,251, 0,0, 241, 128,0 trem 167 

277 DATA0,128,0,0,0,0,0,0 i rem 217 387 



DATA0, 0,0, 0,0, 0,0,0 jrem 112 

DATA0,0,0,0,0,0,0,111 J rem 204 
DATA0, 0,0, 0,0, 0,0,0 I rem 107 

DATA0, 0,0, 0,0, 0,0,0 J rem 109 

DATA0, 0,0, 0,0, 0,0,0 trem 111 

DATA0, 63, 0,12, 127, 128, 6, 115 trem 31 
DATA128, 3, 11 5, 128, 1,2 27, 128,0 trem 129 
DATA23S,0,0,14,0,0,0,0 trem 14 
DATA0, 0,0, 0,0, 0,0,0 trem 110 

DATA0,0,0,0,0,0,0, 111 . trem 211 
DATA0, 0,0,0, 0,0, 0,0 trem 114 

DATA0,0,0,0,0,0,0, trem 98 

DATA0, 0,0, 0,0,0,0,0 trem 100 

DATA0,0,0,0,0,0,0, trem 102 

DATA0, 96, 0,0, 240,0,0,255 trem 121 
DATA248,0, 31, 254,0,8,133,0 trem 230 
DATA7, 2, 128,0,2, 128,0, 5 : rem 73 
DATA0,0,10,0,0,27,0,0 trem 207 
DATA0,0,0,0,0,0,0, 32,2 24,0,97,16,0, 34 
, 8, 0, 34, 8,0, 34, 8, 0,34, 8, 0,34, 8,0, 33, 1 
6 trem 11 

DATA0, 112, 224, 0,0, 0,0, 0,0, 0,0, 0,0,0 

trem 93 
DATA0, 0,0, 0,0, 0,0, 0,0,0 trem 3 5 
DATA0, 0,0, 0,0, 0,0, 0,0,0 trem 28 
DATA012,0,0,50,7,128,9,8 trem 129 
DATA64, 6, 243,128,2,0, 128, 1 : rem 234 
DATA3, 0,0, 132,0,0, 120,0 trem 54 
DATA0,40,0,0,40,0,0,84 trem 16 
DATA0,0, 0,0,0,0,0,0 trem 101 

DATA0,0, 0,0,0,0,0,0 trem 103 

DATA0, 0,0, 0,0, 0,0,0 trem 105 

DATA0, 0, 0,0,0,0,0,0 trem 107 

DATA0, 0,0, 0,0, 0,0,0 trem 109 

DATA0,0, 3,255,0,63,255, 1 trem 123 
DATA25 5, 255, 01 5, 2 5 5, 2 5 5, 63, 25 5, 2 55 

trem 143 
DATA255,255,255,255,255,255,63,255 

trem 151 
DATA255,15,2 5 5,255,1,2 5 5,25 5,0 

trem 191 

trem 178 



rem 103 
rem 105 
trem 92 



DATA063,25 5,0,3,255,0,0,0 

DATA0,0,0,0,0,0,0, 

DATA0 ,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

REM MOUNTAIN MAKER 

O=50688 I F0RA=1T076 : READB: IFB<0THEN361 

trem 238 
0=0+l t POKEO , 7 8 t F0RC=1T0B-1 : 0=0-2 5 5 t PO 
KEG, 78tNEXTtNEXTtGOT036 3 trem 114 
0=0+l t POKEO, 77 t F0RC=1T0ABS ( B ) -1 1 0=0+2 
57 1 POKEO, 77 iNEXTi NEXT trem 129 
POKE51238,4tPOKE51239,liPOKE51240,25i 
RETURN trem 10 

F0RA=16384T016891 tREADI i POKEA, I tNEXTi 
RETURN t rem 6 

DATA162,15,169, 120, 141 , 23 , 64 , 169 

trem 37 
DATA4, 141, 24,64, 169, 192, 141,21 

trem 191 
DATA64, 160,39, 185,0,0, 153,0 trem 29 
DATA0, 136, 16, 247, 238, 21,64, 173 

trem 190 
DATA23,64,24, 105 , 40 , 141 , 23 , 64 : rem 129 
DATA173,24,64,105,0,141,24,64irem 134 
DATA202, 208, 2 22, 96, 32, 86, 64, 169 trem 1 
DATA199,141,22,208,169,16,141,17 

t rem 38 
DATA208,169,2 55,141, 15 , 212 , 169, 1 28 

trem 142 
DATA141,18,212,169,192,141,21,64 

t rem 33 
DATA169, 0,141, 20, 64, 96, 160,0 trem 88 

February 1985 COMPUTEl 69 



389 DATA169,32, 15 3,0,192, 200, 208, 250 

:rem 31 
391 DATA238,92,64,173,92,64,201,208 

:rem 250 
393 DATA208,2 36,169,192,141,9 2,64,169 

:rem 105 
395 DATA160,141, 18,208,169,27,141, 17 

: rem 38 
397 DATA208, 169, 127 , 141 , 13 , 220 , 169, 145 

: rem 141 
399 DATA141, 20,3,169,64,141,21, 3 : rem 84 
401 DATA169,129,141,13,220,141,26,208 

: rem 69 
403 DATA96, 2 34, 17 3, 25, 208, 41, 1,240 

:rem 181 
405 DATA42, 141, 25, 208, 206, 22, 208, 173 

:rem 21 
407 DATA22 , 208 , 201 , 192, 208, 26, 238, 20 

:rem 23 
409 DATA64,173, 20,64,201,216,208,8 

;rem 186 

411 DATA32,198,64,169,0,141,20,64:rem 135 

41 3 DATA32 ,0,64, 169 , 199 , 141 , 22 , 208 

: rem 188 
415 DATA76,188,254,76,109,65,238,60:rem 6 
417 DATA3, 173, 60, 3, 74, 74, 144, 18 :rem41 
419 DATA169, 2 5 5, 141,33,65, 169,0, 32 

: rem 196 
421 DATA91,65,169,l,141,41,208,76:rem 141 
423 DATA241,64,169,7,32,91,65,169:rem 153 
425 DATAl 92, 141, 3 3, 65, 169, 0,141, 41 

; rem 183 
427 DATA208,32,77,65,160,0,169,41:rem 143 
429 DATA133,251,169,206,133,252,32,68 

:rem 87 
431 DATA65, 24, 101, 251, 105, 15, 133, 251 

: rem 12 
433 DATAl 65, 251, 201 , 208, 144, 1 , 96, 173 

:rem 29 
435 DATA27,212,16,35,32,68,65,170:rem 141 
437 DATA189,243,65,145,25I,17 3,27,212 

; rem 93 
439 DATA201,192,144,214,32,68,65,74 

: rem 246 
441 DATA101,2 51,133,251,32,68,6 5,170 

: rem 22 
443 DATA189,243,65,145,251,208,195,198 

; rem 156 
445 DATA252,32,68,65,170,189,243,65:rem 
447 DATA145,251,208,182,17 3,27,212,74 

t rem 88 
449 DATA74,74,74,74,96,162,0, 169 : rem 115 
451 DATA32, 15 7, 0,206, 15 7, 0,205, 232 

: rem 173 
453 DATA208, 247,96, 162,0, 157,0, 216 

: rem 191 
455 DATA157, 0,217, 157, 0,218, 157, 0:rem 136 
457 DATA219, 232,208,241,96,173,64, 3 

;rem 249 
459 DATA208,60,173,60,3,201,6,144:rem 134 
461 DATA96,74,74,176,92,173,27,212 

:rem 208 
463 DATA201,254,144,85,169, 2 54,141,249 

; rem 143 
465 DATA?, 169, 1,141, 64, 3, 173, 27 : rem 44 
467 DATA212,16,7,169,170, 141,3,208 

:rem 189 
469 DATA208, 5, 169, 184,141, 3,208, 169:rem 
471 DATA80, 141, 2,208,169,2,141, 16:rera 131 
473 DATA208,169,1,141,40,208,56,173 

:rem 241 

70 COMPUTE! FebruarY 1985 



475 DATA2, 208, 233, 2, 144, 5, 141, 2 ; rem 26 
477 DATA208,208,30,173,30,208,169,25 5 

: rem 91 
479 DATA141,2,208,173,16,208,208,12 

:rem 237 
481 DATA169,0,141,2,208,169,0,141:rem 131 
483 DATA64,3,240,5,169,0,141,16 : rem 34 
485 DATA208,201,145,208,19,173,30,208 

: rem 82 
487 DATA41,3,201,3,240,10,169,2S3;rem 128 
489 DATA141,249,7,169,10,141,232,3 

:rem 192 
491 DATA76, 49, 234,42,87,81,88,90 ; rem 118 
493 DATA83,65, 160,255 : rem 71 

495 DATA 4,-4,4,-4,4,-4,4,-4,4,-4 : rem 49 
497 DATA 3,-3,4,-4,2,-2,3,-3,2,-2,4,-4,2, 
-2 ;rem 253 

499 DATA 2,-2,4,-4,4,-3,3,-4,4,-4,3,-3 

:rem 26 
501 DATA 3,-3,3,-3,2,-3,3,-2,2,-3,3,-2,4, 
-4 :rem 239 

503 DATA 4,-4,2,-4,4,-2,4,-4,4,-2,2,-4 

:rem 12 
505 DATA 4,-4,4,-4,4,-4,4,-4,4,-4 t rem 41 
507 DATA 4,-4,4,-4 : rem 100 

600 POKE198,0 :rem 195 

605 GETA$:IFA$<"A"ORA$>"Z"THEN605:rem 123 
610 PRINTA$ : RETURN t rem 163 

Program 3: vie Acrobot, Part i 

Refer to "COMPUTEI's Guide For Typing In Programs" 
articie before typing this program in. 

POKE52 , 26 : POKE56 , 26 : POKE55 , : POKES 1 , : P 
RINT"{CLR}{3 down} {8 spaces} ACROBAT" 

:rem 233 

1 PRINT" [2 DOWN} [5 SPACES}USE THESE KEYS" 

:rem 198 

2 PRINT" (2 down} {7 SPACES } {RVS } J tOFF} TO 
[SPACeJjUMP" :PRINT"fDOWN} {7 SPACES} 
{RVS}s[OFF} to slide"; PRINT" [down} 

{7 SPACES }.{RVS}F {off} TO FLIP" : rem 237 

3 PRINT" {2 down} {6 SPACES } PLEASE WAIT 
£wHT}" :rem 26 

8 FORA=7168TO7679!POKEA,PEEKCa+25600) :NEX 
T :rem 33 

10 READA;IFA=-lTHEN12 : rem 245 

11 F0RB=7168+A*8T07175+A*8:READC: POKES, C: 
NEXT:GOTO10 : rem 177 

12 READA:IFA=-1THEN15 : rem 250 

13 Q=Q+l:POKE6655+Q,A:GOT012 :rem 157 

15 S$= " LO "+CHR$ ( 34 ) + " AC "+CHR? ( 34 ) + " , 8 : " +C 
HR$(131):REM CHANGE 8 TO 1 FOR TAPE 

: rem 52 

16 FORI=1TOLEN( S5 ) : POKE630+I , ASC (MID$ ( S? , 
I)) :NEXT:P0KE198,I;END : rem 94 

21 DATA23,0,12,12,24,24,28,30,14 ; rem 54 
31 DATA24,12,10,10,10,18,50,34,1 : rem 48 
41 DATA25,0,0,6,6,8,29,46,76 : rem 140 
51 DATA26,12,12,12,60,72,8,8,12 : rem 19 
61 DATA27,0,0,3,3,30,44,76,143 : rem 224 
71 DATA28,12,10,17,18, 20,18,32,16:rem 120 
81 DATA29,0,0,6,6,4,28,28,30 -rem 133 
91 DATA30,140,10,18, 17 , 34, 68 , 130, 64 

: rem 225 
101 DATA33,0,28,62,51,27,12,120,0:rem 105 
111 DATA34,0,64,75,94,118,38,28,24 

: rem 189 
121 DATA35, 0,30, 48, 216, 204, 124, 56,0 

:rem 214 
131 DATA36, 24, 56, 100, 110, 122, 50, 2,0 



: rem 200 
141 DATA37,192,192,124,62,3,2,4,8:reni 130 
151 DATA38, 36, 24, 255, 133, 13 5, 13 3, 13 5, 25 5 

:rem 227 
161 DATA39, 60, 124, 205, 255, 252, 207, 125, 60 

:rem 22 2 
171 DATA40, 6 3, 71, 253, 133, 13 3, 133, 134, 2 52 

:rem 216 
181 DATA41, 60, 126, 223, 127, 63, 25 5, 126,60 

: rem 173 
191 DATA42,4,6,5,4,116,252,248,112 

: rem 177 
201 DATA43, 195, 231. 126, 60, 60, 126, 2 31, 195 

:rem 220 
211 DATA44, 24, 24, 102, 102, 24, 24, 60,0 

;rem 202 
221 DATA45, 0,60, 126, 126, 126, 126, 60,0 

: rem 8 
231 DATA46,1,2,4,8,16,32,64,128 : rem 26 
241 DATA47, 128,64, 32, 16,8,4,2,1 : rem 28 
251 DATA58, 127, 251, 192, 192, 192, 192, 192, 22 
4 :rem 85 

261 DATA59, 120, 252, 204, 196, 220, 2 20, 192, 22 
4,-1 ;rem 201 

271 DATA169,30, 133,252,169,44,133,251 

: rem 82 
281 pATA162,16,160,l,177,251,136,145 

: rem 28 
291 DATA251,200,200,192,22,208,245,189 

:rem 125 
301 DATA60, 3, 136, 145, 251, 24, 165, 251 

:rem 225 
311 DATA105, 22, 133, 251, 165, 252, 105,0 

; rem 7 
321 DATAl 33, 2 5 2, 202, 208, 221, 96, 169, 32 

:rem 75 
3 31 DATA160,16,153,60,3,136,16,250 

:rem 173 
341 DATAl 73, 240, 3, 201, 6, 208, 18, 173 

: rem 177 
351 DATA241,3,201,46,208,3,238,240 

;rem 174 
361 DATA3,169,46,141,241,3,76,113:rem 135 
371 DATA26,201,15,208,18,173,241,3 

:rem 178 
381 DATA201 , 47 , 208, 3, 206, 240, 3, 169 

:rem 182 
391 DATA47, 141, 241, 3, 76, 113, 26, 32: rem 133 
401 DATA148,224,165,141,16,231,76,63 

:rem 29 
411 DATA26, 173, 241,3, 172, 240, 3, 153 

srem 173 
421 DATA60,3,206,242,3,208,36,32 : rem 73 
431 DATA148,224,165,141,74,74,74,74 

:rem 249 
441 DATA74, 168, 24, 109, 243, 3 , 141 , 242 

; rem 235 
451 DATA3,74, 144,9, 185, 167, 26, 141jrem 146 
461 DATA61, 3, 76, 163, 26, 185, 167, 26 srem 150 
471 DATA141,62, 3,32,0, 26,96,38 srem 242 
481 DATA39,40,41,42,43,44,45,-1 srem 28 

Program 4: ViC Acrobat, Part 2 

Refer to "COMPUTEI's Guide For Typing In Programs" 
article before typing thiis program in, 

Bl=48:B2=50:B3=9:B4=8039: 85=8061 sB6=670 
2sB7=36879 srem 254 

1 GOSUB500 :G0T05 srem 238 

2 PRINT" {HOMEHwHT} {2 SPACES] SCORE "SC" 

1 3 spaces} MEN "Lis RETURN srem 



5 POKE36879, 8s POKE1008 , 9 : POKE1009, 47 

: rem 58 
10 GOSUB160SPOKE36878, 15 SPOKE36869, 255 

srem 196 
15 C=l sD=4 :T=240s Dl=8041 . 1 :D2=806 3 . 1 s Z=32 
sY=37sLI=3:FL=-l:Vl=36876:V2=3687 7 

; rem 204 

17 SC=0sGOSUB2 srem 87 

20 PRINT" (home) [2 DOWN} {3 SPACES } PRESS SP 

ACE BAR" SWAIT198, 1 : PRINT" {hOME} 

{2 down} {19 SPACES}" sGOSUB 165 srem 58 
25 FORA=CTOD3 0Q=QsOW=WsIFA<50RA>8THENRl=P 

EEK(D2+W-Q) :P0KED2-Q+W,L%(A, 2 ) srem 236 
30 IFA<>B3THENR2=PEEK(D1+W-Q) sPOKEDI+W-Q, 

L%(A,1) srem 103 

35 POKEV,TsGETA$sIFA$="J"ANDQ<=.THENA=DsQ 

=22:R=3:S1=2sT=0 srem 241 

37 IFG/B2=INT(G/B2)THENsW=W+1sIFW>11THENW 

=11 s rem 219 

40 POKEV, . sIFA$="F"ANDQ<=.THENA=D:C=5sD=8 

:Q=.lsS=.025:Sl=8:V=Vl srem 19 

45 IFA$= " S " ANDQ < = . THENA=D : C=9 : D=9 s Q= . 1 s S= 

.03sSl=2sT=0 srem 126 

50 IFPEEK(B4) <>Z0RPEEK(B5 ) <> ZTHENSC=SC+S1 

:S1=0:GOSUB2 srem 116 

60 IFRl>Y0RR2>YTHENA=DsFL=. srem 243 
65 G=G+1 :IFG/b1=INT{g/b1)THENPOKEB7,B3 

srem 30 
75 Q=Q-SsIFQ<=.THENQ=. : C=1 sD=4 sT=245 s V=V2 

srem 12 

80 R=R-1 5lFR=.THENQ=. srem 24 

85 IFA<50RA>BTHENPOKED2~OQ+OW,Z srem 254 

90 IFA<>B3THENP0KED1+0W-0Q,Z srem 31 

95 SYSB6sNEXT:P0KEB7, 8:IFFLGOT02 5srem 159 

100 POKE8040 ,32 s POKE8062 , 32 s FL=-1 s POKE804 

0+W, 32 :POKE8062+W, 32 :R1=0 sR2=0 : rem 55 

105 POKE8041+W, 32 s POKE8063+W, 58 s FORU=180T 

O110STEP-1 5 POKEVl , Us IFU=145THENPOKE80 

63+W,59 srem 198 

110 NEXT:LI=LI-1 : rem 208 

111 FORJ = 38805TO38805++WsPOKEJ,2 sFORR=lTO 
3 :FORTD = 250TO25 5 : POKEVl , TDsNEXT sSC=SC 
+10 srem 81 

114 G0SUB2 s NEXT s NEXT : POKEVl ,0:1 FLI =0THEN1 
20 srem 19 

115 GOTO20 srem 50 
120 POKE36879,8sGOSUB2 srem 35 
130 PRINT" {home} {20 D0i™}{6 SPACES}GAME 

VER" srem 34 

135 PRINT "{down} S TO START Q TO QUIT"; 

srem 113 
140 GETA$ s IFA$ <> "S"ANDA$<> "Q"THEN140 

srem 36 
145 IFA$="S"THENRUN srem 134 

150 POKEa28,0sSYS828 srem 158 

160 F0RA=lT09sREADL%{A,l) ,L%(A,2) s NEXT: RE 

TURN srem 223 

165 PRINT" {CLR} {18 DOWN] {GRN} (((( C (((((( ( 

((((((( C(("sW=0sGOSUB2 srem 170 
170 POKE1010 , 30 s FORA=lT022 s SYS6702 sNEXT: R 

ETURN :rem 138 

175 DATA23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 33, 32, 34, 

32,35,32,36,32,32,37 srem 223 

500 POKE36869,240sPOKE36879,B srem 116 
505 PRINT"{CLR} {4 D0WN){WHT}{2 SPACES )CH0 

OSE DIFFICULTY" s PRINT" {down] (1-3) 1 

{SPACE} IS THE MOST" SPRINT" {down} 

{2 SPACES]DIFFICULT" srem 160 

510 GETAS:IFA$<"1"ORA$>"3"THEN510 srem 58 
520 PRINT" { CLR 1 " s POKE 1011 , VAL ( A$ ) +2 s P0KE3 

6869, 255 sRETURN srem 164© 

February 1965 COMPUTEI 71 





Dinosaurs 



M. C. Ware 

Requirements: Apple Il-series 
with at least 48K RAM and a disk 
drive, or a Commodore 64 with a 
disk drive. 



Many computer programs tar- 
geted at preschoolers have been 
disappointing: They either teach 
alphabet letters or numbers, or 
merely "do something" for each 
keypress. 

But Dinosaurs is different. 
It's a set of educational games 
designed for children 2V2 to 5 
years old which is significantly 
more interesting than many ear- 
lier programs. 

Dinosaurs comes in a slip- 
case containing a disk, an in- 
struction booklet for parents, 
descriptions of the games, some 
suggestions for additional 
(noncomputer) activities for the 
children, and primary-level 
reading material about 
dinosaurs. 

When Katherine, my tester, 
arrived, I had the disk booted 
and the colorful title screen 
showing on the monitor. Kath- 
erine appeared to enjoy the title 
page, which is complete with a 
large dinosaur. I advanced to 
the menu screen by pressing 
RETURN. The five choices are 
arranged by difficulty, and each 
is represented on the menu by a 
picture indicating what the 
game is about. 

Identifying Dinosaurs 

In the first game, there are five 
dinosaurs across the top of the 
screen and a simple scene (trees, 

72 COMPUTE) Febmarv 1 985 



land) below them. One dinosaur 
then appears in the bottom 
scene and rises to an area just 
below the silhouettes. The 
child's task is to line up the 
dinosaur with the matching pic- 
ture (using left and right arrow 
keys) and then press RETURN. 

When all five dinosaurs 
have been matched, dinosaurs 
parade across the bottom of the 
screen, accompanied by unusual 
music. If uninterrupted, the 
same game begins again. If you 
don't want the same game, a 
keypress returns you to the 
menu. To save time, 1 made all 
the menu selections in my trial 
with Katherine. 

We went immediately to 
the second game (which became 
Katherine's favorite). In this 
one, the child must distinguish 
herbivores from carnivores. The 
screen shows a pile of bones 
and a pile of plants. When a di- 
nosaur appears, the child must 
move it one step to the right 
(for bones) or one step to the 
left (for plants), then press 
RETURN. If the child selects 
correctly, the dinosaur gets a 
bite of dinner. This game has 
the best animation of all the 
games in the package. 

Matching The Habitats 

The third game reveals a scene 
with land, water, and air. After 
a dinosaur appears, the goal is 
to move it to its proper habitat. 
To move a dinosaur to another 
setting (that is, air for the 
pteranodon and water for the 
ichthyosaurus and brontosaurus), 
you press the left and right arrow 
keys. After each correct answer, 
the dinosaur briefly moves back 
and forth in its environment. 
However, there are two 



problems with this game. First, 
the dinosaur originally appears 
on land, but the scene looks 
more like an underground tun- 
nel. In fact, Katherine often said 
"underground" when I asked 
her where something lived. Sec- 
ond, the creatures have all been 
designed facing to the right. 
They parade from left to right, 
in part to reinforce the child's 
reading patterns, but any child 
knows that when something 
swims or flies back and forth, it 
turns rather than just going for- 
ward and backing up. 

The fourth game, though 
touted as more complex, does 
not actually seem so — at least 
not without adult intervention. 
Several rotating windows at the 
top of the screen randomly re- 
veal dinosaurs (slot machine- 
style) until each window stops. 
There will be one, two, or three 
windows with matching dino- 
saurs. A scene appears at the 
bottom, showing an opening to 
a cave or tunnel. The opening 
shows a random parade of dino- 
saurs moving by, one at a time. 
When the child sees a match, he 
or she is supposed to press the 
RETURN key. Then the dino- 
saur hops up and appears at the 
top of the screen. The child con- 
tinues until all the windows are 
full. Then another parade of di- 
nosaurs marches by as a reward. 

With adult intervention, the 
child could be encouraged to 
count the windows, thus reveal- 
ing how many matching dino- 
saurs are needed. When all are 
matched, the child could be 
asked to count them all, or 
count the pairs. Without such 
assistance, however, this is not 
significantly different from the 
first game. 



The last game also involves 
trial and error, unless the child 
already knows something about 
dinosaurs and the alphabet. This 
time the child must position a 
bouncing ball above a dinosaur 
whose name is shown on the 
screen. If correct, the name and 
dinosaur move to the bottom of 
the screen. When all are 
matched, the reward is, once 
again, a dinosaur parade. 

Extra Activities 

As mentioned above. Dinosaurs 
includes a set of pictures to 
color, some easy-reading text 
about the dinosaurs, and a list 
of additional activities. It's hard 
to imagine many parents want- 
ing to tackle some of these ac- 
tivities (for example, making 
mock fossils with plaster of 
Paris). However, they might be 
useful in a preschool setting. 

Like most educational pro- 
grams for the very young, Dino- 



saurs requires an adult to get the 
program up and running. How- 
ever, some children could prob- 
ably learn to use it indepen- 
dently- or semi-independently 
after an adult carefully intro- 
duces it. 

As a home-educational 
package. Dinosaurs would serve 
families with children aged 4 to 
7, and younger children may 
also want to try it. If you're 
buying it for home use, you 
should realize that (as with 
many educational programs for 
young children) you should 
spend some time encouraging 
the child, clarifying the games, 
and reinforcing the learning. 
Overall, Dinosaurs is a worth- 
while package. 

Dinosaurs 

Advanced Ideas, Inc. 

2550 Ninth Street, Suite 104 

Berkeley, CA 94710 

$34.95 Commodore 

$39.95 Apple © 



The Syn Series For Atari: 

SynCalc, SynTrend, And SynFile+ 



Arthur Leyenberger 

Recjuiremenfs: Anxj Atari com- 
puter with at least 4SK RAM and 
a disk drive. Part of SynTrend 
also requires Atari BASIC. 



It was a year and a half ago that 
Synapse announced the Syn Se- 
ries of software at the June 1983 
Summer Consumer Electronics 
Show (CES). This very ambi- 
tious collection of software was 
going to include programs for 
word processing, data base 
management, spreadsheets, tele- 
communications, stock charting, 
graphics, and calendar-keeping. 
All of the programs were going 
to use similar file structures so 
they could share data. Proto- 
types of several of the programs 



were shown, and they looked 
easy to use and full of features. 

By January 1984, at the 
Winter CES in Las Vegas, Syn- 
apse had struck a deal with 
Atari for the three major pro- 
grams in the series, SynCalc, 
SynTrend, and SynFile-\- would 
be produced by Synapse and 
marketed exclusively by Atari. 
The word processor, SynText, 
was canceled to keep it from 
competing with Atari's 
AtariWriter, and Synapse was 
free to market the remainder of 
the Syn Series on its own. 

After a long wait, the 
spreadsheet, graphics, and data 
base programs are finally avail- 
able. As promised, SynCalc, 
SynTrend, and Synfj7e+ can 



share the same data files. Also, 
the three application programs 
are compatible with AtariWriter 
so that data can be embedded 
within reports and cosmetically 
formatted. However, in the 
wake of Jack Tramiel's purchase 
of Atari, Synapse will be distrib- 
uting the entire Syn Series after 
all. 

Let's take a closer look at 
these programs' strengths and 
weaknesses. 

SynFile^ 

SynFile-'i- is an outgrowth of 
two previous Synapse data base 
programs. The original one, 
FileManager 800, has been 
around for several years. It was 
fairly easy to use but lacked so- 
phisticated features such as field 
totaling. This problem was ad- 
dressed by the improved pro- 
gram, FileManager-\- , which 
became quite popular. 

SynFile+ shares many fea- 
tures with the earlier programs, 
but has been totally rewritten in 
Forth, resulting in faster sorting 
and record access. Also, it uses 
the full 48K of memory to add 
significant features (the new XL 
computers have 64K, but Syn- 
apse apparently wanted to keep 
the program compatible with 
older Ataris as well). 

SynFile-^ is totally menu- 
driven and memory-resident. It 
is very easy to use and does not 
require you to swap disks when 
accessing different functions of 
the program. One of the more 
useful new features is that your 
data file disk can be formatted 
in any of three disk densities: 
single density, Atari 1050 en- 
hanced density, and true double 
density. Choosing enhanced or 
double density allows you to 
store more records on the disk 
than allowed by previous ver- 
sions of the program. You can 
store your data on up to 16 
disks — a lot of capacity, but also 
a lot of swapping. 

There are other new and 
useful features in SynFiie+. 
Mailing labels can now be 

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get as much usaljle tjrot;i<iinrniii^; power as the 
Cotnniodore 64 cnrnputei" l^astei cnntrni switi lies nn 
cover Gold Edge connectnrs, tiye year warranty (FREf. 
$29 95 CAHrRIDGE GAME) 

FLOPPY DISK SALE M<t 

Lowest prices in the U S A " Single sided, single density, 
with hub nnijs. ciuaiity t^tjaranfeed' (lOQbulkpack 98c 
ea I iBiiK nl 10 il?O0) 

COM-64 4 SLOT EXPANSION BOARD $39.95 

t ,iHv In use, switc:h selectable, reset txitton and LELl 
iiiLiiLjtor — saves your computer and caitnflf^es 
List $ /9 00 Sale S39.95 Coupon $36 95 

9" GREEN SCREEN MONITOR $69.00 

[>( I'lli'iil [|ii.ility SANYO ea'»y In ii'.ifl SUciiluiiiiis > .'4 
iiH's (ii.'Cii PlTrjspliDiDiis 'icri'i'n with .liiti K'lni' iiiet.i 
cabinet! Saves your TV PLUS $9 95 Toi i ijnnecliiv; 
i.able Com 64 or VIC 20 



U" GREEN OR AMBER MONITOR S99.00 

"luLir choice ol j;ieen ui anitjei si reen ninmtoi tuu 
quality, SANYO 80 columns X 24 line's, easy to lead, anti 
Kiare. faster scannini;' PI US $9 95 lor co'inectnin; caljie 
Com b'-l 01 VIC ..'(1 



PHONE ORDERS 

BAM ■ 8PM Weekdays 
9AM - 12N Saturdays 



• LOWEST PRICES • 15 DAY FREE TRIAL • 90 DAY FREE REPLACEMENT WARRANTY 
• BEST SERVICE IN U.S.A. • ONE DAY EXPRESS MAIL • OVER 500 PROGRAMS • FREE CATALOGS 



Add S10.00 lor shipping, handling ond insuronce. Illinois residents 
pleose add 6". rax Add S20.00 lor CANADA. PUERTO RICO HAWAII. 
ALASKA APO-FPO orders. Canadian orders must be m U.S. dollars. 
WE DO NOT EXPORT TO OTHER COUNTRIES. 

Enclose Coshiers Check. Money Order or Personof Check. Allow 14 
days lor delivery, 3 to 7 days for phone orders. I day express rriaiM 
VISA - MASTER CARD — COD, 



IWE LOVE OUB CUSTOMERS! 



ENTERPRIZES 

BOX 550, BARRINGTON, ILLINOIS 60010 
Phone 312/362-5244 to ordar 



NEW 128K —MEGA BYTE DUAL DISK DRIVE-80 COLUMN 

COMPUTER SYSTEM SALE! 

HOME • BUSINESS • WORD PROCESSING 




LOOK AT ALL YOU GET FOR ONLY $ 79 5« 
® Bl 28 COA^MODORE 1 28K 80 COLUMN COMPUTER 
@ 4023 - 100 CPS 80 COLUMN BIDIRECTIONAL PRINTER 

(3) 8050 DUAL DISK DRIVE (over 1 million bytes) 

(4) 12" HI RESOLUTION 80 COLUMN MONITOR 

• BOX OF 10 LORAN LIFETIME GUARANTEED DISKS 

• 1100 SHEETS FANFOLD PAPER 

. ALL CABLES NEEDED FOR INTERFACING 

TOTAL LIST PRICE 



LIST PRICE 

$ 995.00 

499.00 

1795.00 

249.00 

49.95 

19.95 

102.05 

$3717.95 




PLUS YOU CAN ORDER THESE BUSINESS PROGRAMS AT SALE PRICES 



P rog ra mmers 

Reference 

Guide 

List S29.95 

Sale S24.95 



Professional 80 Column 
Word Processor 
Professionol Dota Base 
Accounts Receivable 
Accounts Payable 



LIST 

5149.95 
$149.95 
S149.9S 
$149.95 



SALE 

$99.00 
$94.00 
$99.00 
$99.00 



SYSTEM 
PRICE 
S19.00 
S19.00 



Payroll 
Inventory 
General Ledger 
Finonciol Spread Sheet 
Order Entry 



LIST 
$149.95 
$149.95 
$149.95 
S149.95 
5119.95 



SALE 
$99.00 
$99.00 
$99.00 
$99.00 
S99.00 



PRINTER REPLACEMENT OPTIONS 

(replace the 4023 with the following at these sale prices) 



Olympia Executive Letler Quality Printer 
Comstar Hi -Speed 160 CPS 15 '3" Business Printer 
Telecommunications Deluxe Modem Package 
IEEE to Centronics Parallel Printer Interface 



LIST SALE 

5699.00 $379.00 

5779.00 $469.00 

S199.00 $139.00 

5179.00 5139.00 



IS DAY FREE TRIAL. We give you l:5doys to try out this SUPER SYSTEM PACKAGE!! If it doesn't meet your expectations, just send it back 
to us prepaid and we will refund your purchase price! ! 

90 DAY IIVIMEDIATE REPLACEMENT WARRANTY. If any of the SUPER SYSTEM PACKAGE equipment or programs fail due to faulty 
workmonship or material we will replace it IMMEDIATELY at no charge ! ! 



Add $50.00 for sfiipping and fiandling!! 

WE DO NOT EXPORT TO OTHER COUNTRIES 

Enclose Costiiers Check Money Order or Personol Check. Allow 14 (joys lor 
dehvery. 2 10 7 days tor phone orders. 1 day express moil ! We otcepl Viso 
and MosterCord- We ship C O.D. 10 continerlal U.S. addresses only. 



wEL0v£0ijocusro«£»5. 



ENTERPRIZES 

BOX 550, BARRINOTON. ILLINOIS 60010 
Phont 312/3825244 lo ordtr 






DAISY WHEEL PRINTER SALE! 



■JUKI 



DELUXE LETTER QUALITY 
'DAISY WHEEL PRINTERS" 




. 



Letter Quality Printer 



■JUKr 

DELUXE COMPUTER PRINTER 



List Price S399 



SALE $249 




• Superb "Daisy Wheel" Computer 
Printer 

• 100 Characters 

• Bi-directional with special print 
enhancements-many type styles- 
$18.95 

• Pitch 10, 12, 15 CPI 

• Print Speed up to 12 CPS 

• Print line width: 115, 138, 172 
characters 

• 13" Extra large carriage 

• Drop in cassette ribbon 
(repiacement S8.95) 

• Centronics parallel RS 232 
Serial interface built in (specify) 



■JUKI 

DELUXE "COMBINATION" 
PRINTER/TYPEWRITER 



List Price $499 SALE $299 

< Superb Computer Busmessprmter 
combined with world's fmest 
electronic typewriter! 

Two machines in one — just a flick 
of the switch! 
Superb letter quality corre- 
spo.ndence— home, office, word 
processinfj! 

13" Extra large carriage 
Drop in cassette ribbon — 
replacement $8.95 
Precision daisy wheel printing — 
many type styles! $18.95 
Pitch selector-10. 12, 15 CPS, 
Automatic relocate key! 
Automatic maffjin control and 
setting! Key in buffer! 
Centronics parallel of RS 232 
Serial interface built-in (specify! 



15 Day Free Trial - 90 Day Immediate Replacement Warranty 



• COMMODORE 64 COMPUTER INTERFACE ONLY $49,00 



■ ATARI INTERFACE S79.00 



f 



ADD $10.00 for shipping and handling!! 



I Enclose Cashiers Check. Money Order or Personal Check Allow [ 
I 14 days for delivery. 2 10 7 days for phone orders. 1 day express ' 
I mail! Canada orders musi be in US dollars VISA — MASTER j 
I CAI^ACCEPT_EO. We ship CO D- | 



ENTERPRIZES - ^ -- - -^ 

BOX 550. BARRINQTON, ILLINOIS 60010 
Phon* 312/382-5244 to order 



FANTASTIC COMPUTER PRINTER SALE!!! 



COMSTAR T/F 

Tractor 
Friction 
Printer 




only 



COM-STAR 



7i 



it it 



• Lowest Priced, Best Quality, Tractor- Friction Printers in the U.S.A. 

• Fast 80-120-160 Characters Per Second • 40, 46, 66, 80, 96, 132 Characters Per Line Spacing 

• Word Processing • Print Labels, Letters, Graphs and Tables • List Your Programs 

• Print Out Data trom Modem Services • "The Most Important Accessory for Your Computer" 



-- DELUXE COMSTAR T/F 
80 CPS Printer — $169.00 

This COMSTAR T/F (Tractor Friction) 
PRINTER IS exceptionally versatile It 
prints 8 ''.■" X 11 ■■ standard s\£e single sheet 
stationary or continuoLJS leed computer 
paper Bi-directional, impact dot matrix. 
80 CPS. 224 characters (CenlroniCS 
Parellel Interface). 

Premium Quality 120-140 CPS 

10XC0M-STAR PLUS + 

Printer $239.00 

rue COM STAR PLUS+ gives you all the 
teatures of the COMSTAR T/F PRINTER 
plusa 10" carriage. 120 140CPS.9x9 dot 
matrix withdoublestrikecapability tor 18k 
18 dot matrix (near letter quality), high 
resolutton bit image (120 x 144 dot 
matrix), underlining, back spacing, left 
and right margin settings, true lower 
decenders with super and subscripts, 
onnts standard, italic, block graphics and 
special characters it gives you print 
quality. and features found on printers 
costing twice as much!! (Centronics 
Parallel Interface) (Better than Epson 
FX80) List $499 00 SALE S239.00 



Premium Quality 120-140 CPS 
15y2X COMSTAR PLUS+ 
Business Printer $339.00 

Has ah the ieatures of the 10 COM STAR 
PLUS + PRINTER plus IbVi" carriage and 
more powerful electronics components to 
handle large ledger business forms' 
(Better ttian Epson FX 100) List $599 
SALE $339.00 

Superior Quality 

10" COiVl-STAR+ H.S. 

HIGH SPEED 160-180 CPS 

Business Printer $359.00 

This Super High Speed Com-Star+ Business 

Printer has all the features of the 10" COM- 
STAR+ PRINTER with HIGH SPEED 
BUSINESS PRINTING 160-180 CPS, lOO'i. 
duty cycle, 8K Suffer, diverse character 
fonts, special symbols and true decenders, 
vertical and horizontal tabs. A RED HOT 
BUSINESS PRINTER at an unbelievable low 
price (Serial or Centronics Parallel 
Interface) List $699.00 Sale $359.00 



Superior Quality 

15V2" COMSTAR PLUS+ H.S. 

High Speed 160 - 180 CPS 

Business Printer $459.00 

This Super High Speed COIVI-STAR+ IS'/j" 

Business Printer has all the teatures of the 

10" COM-STAR BUSINESS PRINTER witha 

15-/./' Carriage and more powerfu 

electronic components to handle larger 

ledger business forms! Exclusive bottom 

feed. (Sereal Centronics Parallel Interface) 

List $799.00 Sale $459.00 



HOIympia 



• 15 Day Free Trial - 1 Year Immediate Re 



& 



Executive Letter Quality 
DAISY WHEEL PRINTER $369.00 

This istheworids finest daisy wheel pnnier 
Fantastic Letter Quality, up to 20 CPS 

bidirectional, wii: handle 144" forms 

width! Has a 256 character print buffer. 

special print enhancements, built m 
tractor-feed (90 day warranty) Centronics 
Parallel and RS232C Interface List S699 

SALE $369. 

lacement Warrant 



•PARALLEL INTERFACES 



For VIC-20 and COM 64 - $49 00 For Apple computers - £79 00 Atari Interface— $79.00 B-128 Commodore $139.00 



Add SI'' 50 'or thippins. handling ond intgront*. tllinoi* r»iid»n1i 
pUo.*pdd &'/. ia> Add S29 00 for CANADA PUERTO RICO. HAWAII. 
ALASKA Af OFPO ord»i-i. Canadian ofdtri mull b* in U.S. dollart. 
W£ DO NOT EXP9RT TO OTHER COUNTRIES. 

Encloi* Cathi»ri Ch»ek. Mon»y Ord«r of Panonol Ch«k. Allow 14 
doyt lor d«lrv*rr. 2 to 7 doyi 'or pKen* ordart. I day •iprait moil i 
VISA-MASTER CARD-We Ship COD lo U S Addresses Only 



■OX 5S0, BARRINQTON, ILLINOIS M010 
PItont 912/302S244 to ordtr 



COMSTAR PLUS+ ABC:iDERf3HiaKI-Mls|Of=»aRSTlJVWXVZ 

Print Example ABCPEFSHl JKLMM0P0R8TUVWXYZ 1 23^0^73^0 



printed from one to four labels 
across. When setting up labels 
or reports, the screen can be 
scrolled horizontally up to 232 
characters. The print format line 
is a template for specifying the 
horizontal layout of your report. 
The location of field names un- 
der the print format line deter- 
mines how the columns will be 
placed horizontally. You can use 
up to 40 field names. 

Another worthwhile feature 
of SynFile+ is that it can read 
and write data files in DIF (data 
interchange format). This lets 
you pass your data base infor- 
mation to such programs as 
SynCalc, SynTrend, and VisiCalc. 
Also, you can bring DIF data 
into SynFile + . In addition, 
when creating a report or mail- 
ing list, you can direct the out- 
put to the screen, printer, or a 
text file on disk. This text file 
has a .TXT name extension and 
can be accessed by AtariWriter. 

Versatile Field Types 

SynFile+ contains quite a few 
new field types. In addition to 
the usual text, numeric, com- 
puted, and dollar fields, condi- 
tional and table lookup fields 
are allowed. Conditional fields 
contain a code that is cross- 
referenced to a text entry. Based 
upon the value of a previously 
specified relationship, one of 
several text entries will be 
printed in your report. Similarly, 
table lookup fields contain a 
code that is cross-referenced to 
a list of previously defined alter- 
natives. At report time, the 
matching table entry is printed 
instead of the particular code. 
Other new field types in- 
clude record numbers initially 
assigned and incremented by 
the computer, counters (similar 
to record numbers except you 
specify the starting value and 
the increment), and the date. 
Once a date has been entered, it 
will automatically appear on 
succeeding records so you don't 
have to enter it for each record. 
A handy feature. 



l>E5eSIPLL_C0Hptit*r Chair. 

t eusii 

I Ocpri 

HflHCi 5-cacor Corp 

a&ORESil as5 EHnet ST., 
CiTYf Kewarh — , ^ 

5TftTE! HJ 
zip: 7114. 
i5H0U*IT:S„190,l9 
fiEIM5UR5E&lS___0.00 



— I calculate 



Retrieving a record ivith Synapse 
Softzuare's SynFile+. 

SyitFile+ comes with a pro- 
gram disk, a tutorial disk, and a 
121 -page attractively packaged 
manual. The tutorial disk is a 
clearly presented, step-by-step 
introduction to all aspects of the 
program. The manual is well- 
written and contains such useful 
features as a quick reference 
card, glossary, and index. 

SynFile+ does have some 
inadequacies, though. First, it 
cannot read previously created 
FileManager 800 and File- 
Manager+ files. If you're con- 
verting to SyjiFile+, you have to 
retype all of the data into the 
new program. Fortunately, Syn- 
apse is working on a utility that 
will convert the older format 
files into SynFile+ format and 
also provide backups. It's ex- 
pected to be available late this 
year. 

Another weakness is that 
SynFile+ has no report- writer 
function to let you generate 
multiple sublevels in a report, 
each with its own subtotal. 
Again, Synapse promises a 
utility/enhancement disk by the 
end of the year with a sophisti- 
cated report generator. 

These few complaints aside, 
SynFile+ is an excellent data 
base program for the Atari com- 
puter. Its compatibility with the 
other Syn series software, ease 
of use, and number of new fea- 
tures make it definitely worthy 
of consideration for Atari users 
seeking a quality data base 
manager. SynFile+ also works 
automatically with the Axlon 
128K Rampower and Mosaic 
64K Select boards. 



SynCatc 

Of the three Syn Series pro- 
grams reviewed here, SynCalc is 
clearly the best, offering excel- 
lent features and the best value. 
Compared to the existing 
spreadsheet programs for the 
Atari computer, SynCalc simply 
cannot be matched. 

SynCalc lets you create vari- 
ous worksheets of text and data 
for such applications as income 
taxes, budgets, checkbook bal- 
ancing, forecasting, and prepar- 
ing tables. 

The spreadsheet itself is a 
grid of 255 rows and 128 col- 
umns, forming over 32,000 cells 
for entering data. Each cell can 
contain text, numbers, or a for- 
mula. As numbers are entered, 
results are recalculated and dis- 
played instantly. 

Text and data can be easily 
manipulated throughout the 
grid. Formulas, numbers, and la- 
bels can be copied from one po- 
sition to other positions. Two 
parts of the spreadsheet can be 
viewed simultaneously by using 
the vertical and horizontal split- 
screen feature. 

What makes SynCalc espe- 
cially attractive is its ease of use. 
Pop-up menus display the cur- 
rent mode and available func- 
tions. With experience, you can 
eventually issue direct com- 
mands without referring to the 
menus. 

When using the menus, the 
commands are always displayed 
at the top of the screen. For ex- 
ample, to copy cells Al through 
A5 to locations Bl through B5, 
you'd have to select a total of 
six menu entries. Alternatively, 
you can type /C A1:A5 B1:B5. 
You can type cell addresses di- 
rectly or move the cursor to a 
cell and press RETURN. 

Flexible Formatting 

There are several features 
unique to this spreadsheet pro- 
gram for the Atari computer. 
Variable-width columns let you 
format and display your 



78 C0MPUTE1 February 1985 



worksheet more flexibly. If a 
particular cell's contents exceed 
the width of the column, you 
can still display the entire entry. 
This text overflow feature may 
be turned off if desired. Cells 
can be justified left, right, or 
centered. If you change column 
widths, the justifications are 
automatically readjusted. 

Numeric cells can be dis- 
played in a variety of formats: 
Fixed-point, floating-point, engi- 
neering, and scientific notation, 
each with up to ten decimal 
places displayed. A leading dol- 
lar sign can be added and com- 
mas inserted to make large 
numbers more readable. There 
are just too many format op- 
tions to describe here, 

A very powerful feature of 
SynCalc is the ability to sort data 
entries in alphabetic or numeric 
order. Sorts can be either as- 
cending or descending. Once 
you deiine the block of cells to 
be sorted, you specify a column 
for sorting and the upper-left 
cell of the destination block. Al- 
though SyuCalc can sort on only 
one column, you can perform 
multiple sorts by repeating the 
process. 

SynCalc also lets you use 
one- or two-drive systems; se- 
lect menus and filenames by 
pressing just the cursor key 
(without the CONTROL key); 
and perform table lookups, con- 
ditional tests, and statistical 
functions. Also, you can format 
disks from the main menu and 
save worksheets in either DIF 
format (for use with SynFile+ 
and SynTrend) or text format (for 
use with AtariWriter). I've used 
the AtariWriter output feature 
many times and think it is one 
of the best features of SynCalc. 

The 148-page manual is di- 
vided into introductory, tutorial, 
reference, and index sections. 
Screen shots help clarify exam- 
ples, and a quick-reference card 
is included. 

Syncalc is an excellent prod- 
uct. It has many more features 
than VisiCalc and is much easier 




Setting up a home budget spreadsheet 
with SynCalc. 

to use. The ability to access 
VisiCalc files and to integrate 
Vifith the other Syn products and 
AtariWriter makes SynCalc a 
"must-have" program for nearly 
everybody. Once you start using 
the program, you'll find more 
uses for it than you expected. 

SynTrend 

SytiTrend is actually composed 
of two separate programs, 
SynGraph and SynStat. 
SynGraph is a high-resolution, 
color-graphing program, and 
SynStat is a statistical program 
for analyzing trends in your 
data. The package comes with 
two program disks and a two- 
section manual. 

SynGraph can be used to 
create four different types of 
graphs: line plot, bar chart, scat- 
ter plot, and pie chart. It will ac- 
cept data in SynStat, SynFile+, 
SynCalc, and VisiCalc file for- 
mats. Once generated, graphs 
can be saved to a disk and 
printed. 

SynGraph requires BASIC 
and works with either one or 
two disk drives. Working with 
the program is essentially a two- 
step process. First, you compile 
the data files that will be used 
to create the graphs. Second, 
you choose the type of graph to 
make. 

The line graph, scatter plot, 
and bar chart can each display 
up to three different factors (sets 
of data). Each factor must exist 
in a separate data file. The pie 
chart is created from a single 
data file, and compares the data 
points against others within the 



same file. You can choose labels 
for titles, X-Y axes, factor 
names, and pie chart slices. X-Y 
coordinates may be displayed in 
either whole numbers or 
decimals. 

Specific scales can be en- 
tered for all but the pie charts. 
When displaying line and scat- 
ter plots, autoscaling results in 
numbers in integer format and 
divisions of 5 and 10 for X and 
Y, respectively. Autoscaled bar 
graphs yield decimal format 
numbers, Y divisions of 10, and 
a cluster pattern. A cluster pat- 
tern places the factors (a maxi- 
mum of three) next to each 
other along the X axis, whereas 
a stacked pattern places the fac- 
tors atop each other. Any of the 
graphs can be rescaled at any 
time. 

Labeled Pie Charts 

Pie charts may contain up to 12 
slices and are used for graphing 
one factor. Each slice is labeled 
(up to seven characters) with its 
percentage of the whole. If you 
don't name the slices, the pro- 
gram defaults to labeling them 
A, B, C, etc. 

The strengths of SynGraph 
are the ease of entering and 
editing the data and creating the 
graphs, and the straightforward 
documentation. Also, the ability 
to save graphs for future use 
and a slide-show program that 
can recall the saved graphs in 
sequence are useful features. 

Unfortunately, SynGraph 
has a few weaknesses. Files can- 
not be deleted, renamed, or cat- 
alogued without exiting to DOS. 
The only printers it supports are 
those from Epson, NEC, and C. 
Itoh. There is no support for 
Okidata printers, and problems 
have been reported using the C. 
Itoh 8510 Prowriter. Synapse is 
aware of these problems and is 
working on a fix. And finally, 
the program requires the BASIC 
cartridge but does not alert 
users of the older 800 and up- 
graded 400 computers if they 
forget to plug it in. 

February 1 985 COMPUTEI 79 



IT ALL ADDS UP... 



IBM SYSTEMS 
starting as lo'w as 

$1399 

64K, 1-DS/DS DRIVE 
KEYBOARD 





PC COMPATIBLES 

ZENITH BAITTO 




[NTBRB 

NECsMnm^^^-,- $639, 

NEC 3BB0 $1399.00 

HEC 8850 $1749.00 

BVt" 320K Floppy 8189.00 

visiooup 

ViaiCaJo IV S159.00 

IDBAdisk 

BMB to 4eMB Bird drives ■.■.'llh 
removable Cartridge bat:k up 

as low as.- -. .- .- tiass.oo 

AST HESEAHCH 

Six Pak Plus from SS49.00 

Mega Plus from SHSa.OO 

I/O Plus from 8139.00 

qVAQRAM 
New Quadbo&r(l...as low as. ...$249.00 

Quadilnk 64K S4'?9.00 

Quadboard II as low as S249.00 

Quad 513 Plus., as low as $259.00 

Quadcoior I S^S.OO 

Cll^onograp^l 589.99 

Parallel Interface Board S^S.SS 

64K RAM Chips Kit $39.98 

EARASISE 

Multi-Display Card S339.00 

Modular Grapliics Caitl.. *3i9.00 

B?I 
Open Access S339.00 

HARTAKS 

Harvard Project Manager $399.00 

PFS 

IBM/AFJPI.E 

Write SB9 99 

Graph $89.99 

Report... S79.99 

File S89 99 

Plan $89.99 

BLUCIHONIG AB.TS 
Gat OFganizBd §130 00 



1-2-3 $309.00 

HATES 

PlBasfl (Data Base} $369,00 

MAI 
General Ledger. Payroll. Inventory. 
AcGOUTits Pay at) le.aecelv able... -CALL 

1UGR02K0 

WordStar Professional Pacli, $279.00 

MICRDMIU 

R.Base 4000 - $379.00 

MULTIMAM! IWT. 

U-Jlf. M;r-!' S389 00 

MICHOSTUF 

CrosstaUc S 105 00 

KICSOSOI'T 

MultiPlaii $139 00 

ASHTON-TATB 

f^raTnework , $379.00 

dEASE I! upgrade $139 00 

dBASB 11 $399.00 

dSASE in. .. -.,.$389.00 

Friday! $179,00 

lUS 

EasyWnter 11 $249.00 

EasySpeller $119,00 

EasyFller $229,00 

COHTINENIAI, SOU WAKE 

1st Class Mall/Form Latter $79.99 

Home Accounting Plus $8899 

PSOFESaiONAI. SOFIWARZ 

PC Plus/The Boss 3209.00. 

STWAPSE 

File Manager $59.99 

FOX * OELI.EH 

dGraph -. $139.00 

Quick Code $139-00 

aUUl S49.99 

Srafox. - $139.00 

ALPHA SOTTWAEE 

Eiectronic De.sk $219.00 

BOHLAND 
TurSo Pascal $49.00 



FC-IBO Deslntop CALL 

FC-ieO Portable CALL 

COLUMBIA 

SasktopB , CALL 

Portables CALL 



MCB BSO $690.00 

HBG 660-8 $749.0qs 

MBC S5B $949.0Qi 

MBC 68S-2 $1009.00 ~ 

COHONA 

Desktops CALL 

Portables CALL 



APPIiE 



APPLE lie BIAHTE& PACK 

64K Apple He. Disk Drive & ControUor, 
80 Ooiuinn Card. Monitor II * DOS 3.3 
CALL 



APPLE lie OALE3 

APPI.£ tic CAI.1.T 

HicIHTOSH CALL 



, MONITORS 

300 Grean $129.00 

300 Amber $149.00 

310 Amber IBM Plug $169.00 

Color 300/audio.,- $369.00 

Color SOO Composlte/ROBAfCRSaaa.OO 
Color 600 Ht-Bes (S40 « 240)-S439.00 
Color 700 Rl^Bes (730 « 34O).S499.00 
Color 710 Long Phosphor 5579,00 

BMC 
1201 Plus (IB" Orsen Hl-Rea),SSB.99 

91S1U Color $239,00 

9191 Color + $249.00 

NAP 
IS" Amber $69.99 

NEC 

JB 1206 Green $109.00 

JB 1301 Oresn $139.00 

JB 1205 Amber .8149.00 

JB laiS Color $249.00 

JC 1216 RGB $379.00 

JC 1460 Color 8369.00 

PRIBCEIOH ORAPRICS 

MAX-ia Amter $199 00 

HX-13 RGB $489.00 

SB 12 SGB .$629.00 



SAKASA 

SCIOO Color $349,00 

SG-1000 Qroen $189 00 

SA-1000 Amber $139.00 

TAXAR 

100 12" Green $135,00 

13J IBM Green $149.00 

100 13" Amber $135.00 

122 IBM Amber S!59,0C 

310 Oolor HQB $369,00 

400 Med-aos RGB 8319.00 

415 Hi-Res RGB $439.00 

420 Hl-Rss RGB (IBM| $469.00 

USI 

Pi 1. 9" Sreen *99.99 

Pi 2. 12" Green 8119.99 

Pi 3, 13" Amber $139.99 

PI 4, 9" Amber .,., .$119.99 

1400 Color SH49-99 

qUADRAM 
Quadchrome 8400 Color $489.00 

ZEHITB 

ZVM 122 Amber 889.99 

ZVM 133 GrfO;i $84.99 

ZVM 124-lBM Amber *14S,00 

ZVM ISS.RGBi'Color $453.00 



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DISKETTES 



8Vi" MD 1 


$19 99 


S'/i" MD-2 


829.99 


6" FDI 


839.99 


6" FD-2 


&ta OQ 




VERBATIM 

5'/4" SS,'DD 


$21 99 


6IA" DS/DD 

BIB 

Si's- Disk Hsad Clenner .. 


$39.99 

-S14 99 



Elephant S'A" SS/SD -..$15-99 

ElephaEC S'.'t" SS.DD $17 99 

Elephant 5'.'," DS'DD $34.99 

Elephant EMSP 6>M $34.99 

DISK HOLDERS 
INNOVATIVE OONCBPTB 

Fhp-inFile 10 $3.99 

Fllp-in-File 50 $17.99 

Flip-in-File 50 waosk 824.99 

F:;p.;r_-Fii9 (400-800 ROM) $17.99 



MODEMS 

ANCHOR 

Volksmodem $59.99 

Mark IL Serial $79.99 

Mark VII (Auto Ans.'Auto DlaI)S99 99 

Mark XII (1300 BaudJ $359.00 

Mark TRS-80..; 899.99 

9 Volt Power Supply ., $9,99 

HATE8 



Smartmodem 

SiTiai'lrnodein 
Smartmodem 
Micromodem 
Micromodem 



NOVATION 

J-Cat $99.99 

Cat -, $139.00 

.Smart, Cat 103 $179,00 

SHiaPt Cat 103r2i2..iii ,.$399.00 

Auto Cat 8219.00 

212 AutoCat $549.00 

Apple Cat 11. -, - $249.00 



300 $199.00 313 Apple Cat $449.00 



1200 $479-00 

1300B $399.00 

lis , 8369.00 

100 $299 00 



Smart Com i: $75 

Chronotjrap.": 



Apijle Cat 212 Upgrade $E,';9 00 

Smart Oat Plu,-; $339.00 

ZENITH 

ZT-1 $339.00 

ZT-10 $309.00 

S199.C0 ZT-11 S369.00 




^^, west 

^^1800-648-3311 R 



"In FV call (703)568-5664 ' 



Order Status Number; 536-5664 

P.O.Box 6689, Dept.105 

Statellne, NV 89449 



n Ontario/Quebec 800-288-3974 
j Other Prouinces80Q-268-4559 

In Toronto call (416) 326-0866 

Itelex; 06-218960 

3805 Dunwln Drive, Unit 3B, Dept.105 

Misslssauga, Ontario, Canada L5L1T1 




DINERS CLUB 



800-233-8950 ^g) 



In PA call (717)327-9575 
Order Status Number; SS7-9676 



Customer Service Number; 337-1460 
477 E. 3rd St.. Dept.105, WUUamSport, PA 17701 
Open purchase orders accepted with net 30 days terms, subject to credit approval. Next day shipping on all stocK items. No risk, no deposit 
on C.O.D. orders and no wafting period for certified checks or money orders. Add 3% (minimum $S) shipping and handling on all orders? 
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Call today for our catalog. 



...THE BEST PRICES 





PRINTERS 



:oM 



glOO Atari Interface Prtntert 169.00 
E-55Q Atari B14jrectlonal....$aS9.00 

GP-lOO Parallel Interface $189.00 

GF.700 Atari Color Printer.. .4489.00 

GP-550 Parallel Printer SE69.00 

BMC 

401 Letter Quality 8589,00 

BX-80 Dot Matrts $239.00 

BX-IOQ Dot Matrix $859.00 

CJTOH 

Prowrlter B510P S339.00 

Prowritar iSSOP .$669.00 

Aid (13 cp3) Son of Starwrlter$4T9.00 

Hot Dot Matrix CALL 

FlO-40 Starwrlter $849.00 

F10.56 Prlntmaster $1099.00 

GOMBXX 

ComWnterll Letter Quality.. $449. 00 

DIABLO 

620 Letter Quality $749.00 

630 API Letter Quality $1849.00 

OAIBTWaiTBK 

3000 $S49.00 

BPSOH 

HX-flO, EX-80FT, RX-lOO CALL 

FX-eO, FX-lOO CALL 

LQ 1600. JXBO Color CALL 

JUKI 

6100 $449.00 

6300 8779.00 

MAHNXSMAH TALI.T 

160L $589,00 

IBOL - $749.00 

Spirit 80 $3S9.00 



INTERFACES 



PRACTICAL PEHIFHERALS 

Qraphcard $84.99 

Serial] Card $109-00 

Mlcrobuffor U *■ $179.00 

Mlcrobuffer aBK $199.00 



OEAHOE HICBO 

Grappler CD (064) $99.99 

Grappler + (Apple) $109.00 

Grappler 16K+ (Apple) $189.00 

qUADIL&M 
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$139.00 

We carry Interfaces &nd c&bSes fcr mcs: ccmpi:ier5 on the market, '.cday Call to dGter:r.ir.e 
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NEC 



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HEWLETT 
PACKARD 

4:1CV S189.9S 

41CX SS49.99 

as 71B $4i9,gs 

HP lie sea 99 

HP laC $9K 99 

H? 150 $92 99 

HP leC $92 99 

K? 75E S999 99 

HPIl. Module $98.99 

HPIL Cassette or Printer $359.99 

Card Reader $143-99 

Extended Function Module, -..$63. 99 

Time Module $63.99 

We stock the full line of 
HP calculator products 



PC-8R01 Portable CoinptitarSB09. 00 

PC-6K31 Disk Drive S61900 

PC-8a21A Thermal Printers.,Sl49,0D 

PC-8281A Data Reeorder $99.99 

PC-8201-06 8K BAM Chips.. -SlOS.OO 
PC-8S06A 32K ftAM Cartrldge$329.00 

SHARP 

PC-1380. $169.99 

PC-1261 $159.99 

PC-1260 $109.99 

PC-ISOOA $16E.99 

FC-1S50A $88.99 

CE-12B Printer/Cassette $128.99 

CE-150 Color Printer Cassettes 171. 99 

CE-15I 4K BAM-,- .$29.99 

CE-ISS 8K RAM $49,99 

CE-161 16K RAH $134.99 

CE.BOO ROM Library ea $29.99 



KOALA 

Atari (ROM) $79.99 IBM $99.99 

C-64 $79.99 Apple/Franklln $85.99 



HOME COMPUTERS 



NSC 

2010/15/30...-. $719.00 

3610/15/30 $1299.00 

7710/15/30 $1699-00 

8027 $349 00 

OXIDATA 
62, 83, 84, 92, 93. 2350. 2410. .CALL 

OklmatB-64 $209.00 

Oklmate-Atan $209.00 

OLTMPIA 

Compact S $469.00 

Compact RO - $499.00 

Needlepoint Dot MatriK $329.00 

PANASONIC 

1090 - $239.00 

1091 $309.00 

1092 $449.00 

1093.-. $649.00 

SMITH COBONA 

TP-1000 $449.00 

Tractor Feed $119.00 

ailiVER HERD 

400 Letter Quality $279.00 

300 Letter Quality $346.00 

550 Letter Quality $45900 

770 Letter Quality $799,00 

STAB 

Gemini lOX $269.00 

Gemini IgX $379.00 

Radix 10 $349.00 

Radix IS $649.00 

Powenype $329.00 

TOSHIBA 

1340 $799.00 

1361 81389.00 



A 

ATARI 




CALL WHILE SUPPLISS LAST 
600XL & 800XL 



860 Interface $109.00 

1010 Rooordar. $49.99 

1020 Color Printer $79,99 

1Q2S Dot Matrix Printer $199.99 

1027 Letter Quality Printer. $269.99 
1030 Direct Connect Modem. ...$B9-99 

lOSO Disk Drive $179.99 

Touch Table/Software $64.99 

Light Pen/Software $72.99 

CX22 Track Ball $39.9 

7097 Atari Logo $74.99 

4018 Pilot (Home).,, $67.89 

405 Pilot (Educ) $99,99 

S036 Atari Writer $49,99 

5049 VlElCalc. - $59-99 

MEMOR'S- BOARDS 

Axlon 32K - $44,99 

Axlon 4eK $69,99 

Axlon 126K $269,99 

Microblls a4K (BOO) $109,00 

SWP 

ATR-8000-18K Z60 CP/M $349.00 

ATHaO00-64K Z80 CP/M $499,00 

BIT 3 
Full View 80 $238,00 



CX30Paddl8s $11.99 

CX40 J<^)rgtick $7,99 

40U Star Raiders $12.99 

4022 Pac Man $16.99 

4025 Defender ,-$33,99 

8026 Dig Dug $32-99 

6031 Donkey Kong $33.99 

8034 Pole Position $32.99 

8040 Donk^ Kong Jr, $32.99 

8043 Ms Paoman $32.99 

8044 Joust $32.99 

8046 Pengo - $16.99 

8052 Moon Patrol $32,99 

4003 Assembler $34.99 

8126 MicroEofl Basic I or II $64.99 

DISK DRIVES 

Indus GT Drive (Atari) $879.00 

Sana 1000 $249.00 

Trak AT.D2 - $389.00 

Trak AT-D4 $539.00 

HODBUS 

Micro Bits MB-UOD $129,99 

INIBRFACBS 
Mloroblts MB-U50 $79.99 



0^ commodore 



CBM aoaa $639.oo 

GBM 8096 SBB9-00 

CBM 9000 $999,00 

B12B-aO $99.00 

8032 to 9000 Upgrade,- $499,00 

2031 LP Disk Drive $299,00 

8050 Disk Drive $999.00 

ease Disk Brtve $1349,00 

4023 Printer ,,$329,00 

80B3 Prtntfir $589,00 

6400 Printer $1449,00 

Z-BAM $369.00 

Silicon Office $499.00 

The Manager $199.00 

BATTBBIZS INCLITIIIID 

Paperclip w/Spell Pack $84.99 

The Consultant DBMS $69.99 

Bus Card It $149.00 

80 Col Display $149.00 

DISK 9BIVB8 

MSD 8D1 $349.00 

MSD SD2 $399,00 

Indus GT/C64 $279.00 

PBBBONAL PBBIPKZHALS 
Super Sketch Graphics Pad $39.99 



8X-a4 Portable $749, 

Camniodore Flue 4...., ,...$269. 

CBM 64 $199, 

C1B41 Disk Drive $249. 

C1530 Datasette $59. 

OIBBO Color Prlnteiypiotter.. $129 

M-801 Dot Matrix Printer $219, 

C1S26 Dot Matrix/Serial $299. 

C1702 Color Monitor $2H9. 

CieOO VIC Modem $59. 

C1650 Auto Modem $89. 

Simons Basic $29. 

MCS 801 Color Printer $499. 

DPS UOl Daisy Printer $459. 

PTS 

File (64) $59, 

Report (641 S59. 

PHZCISIOH SOI'TWARS 

Superhaae 64 $59. 

PB0FB68I0NAI. SOFTWARE 

Word Pro 3 Plus $159. 

Word Pro 3 Plus ,,.. $169 

Word Pro 4 Plus-'5 Plus eaeli.SS39. 

Info Pro $179. 

Administrator $399. 

Povfer -$69, 

Word Pro 64 Plus - SB9. 

Fleet System II $59 



00 

00 

.00 

.99 
-00 
.00 
,00 
,00 
,9S 
,99 
,99 
,00 
,00 



00 

00 

00 
00 
,00 
,99 







west 
800-648-3311 

In WV call (702)588-5654 
Order Status Numtier; 

P.O.BOX 8689, Dept.ia5 

Statellne, NV 89449 



DINERS CLUB 

688-5664 



Canada 

Ontario/Quebec 800-268-3974 
Other Provinces800-SBS-4559 

In Toronto call (416) 828-0866 

Kelex: 0e-31896Q 

2S0S Dunwln Drive, Unit 3B, Dept.105 

Mlssissauga, Ontario, Canada L5L1T1 






east 
800-233-8950 

In PA call (717)327-9575 B 



Order Status Number: 327-9576 

Customer Service Number: 337-1450 

477E.3rdSt., Dept.105,WIHlaitiSport,PA 17701 



CANADIAN OBDEBS; All prices are subject to shipping, tax and currency nuotuatioas. Call for exact pricing In Canada. INTERNATIONAL 
ORDEBS: All orders placed with US- offices for delivery outside the Continental United States must be pre-paid by certified check only. 
Include 3% (minimum $5) shipping and handling. EDUCATIONAL DISCOUNTS: Additional discounts are available to qualified Educational 
Institutions. APO & FFO: Add 3% (minimum $6) shipping and handling. 



Overall, SynGraph is a 
usable program for graphing 
data, assuming you have a com- 
patible printer. Its ability to ac- 
cess SynCalc, SynFile+, and 
VisiCalc data make it more than 
just another graphics program. 

SynStat 

SynStat is a completely menu- 
driven program for manipulat- 
ing and analyzing data. You 
have a choice of descriptive 
analysis, or simple or multiple 
regression analysis. Up to four 
disk drives may be used. 

Since SynStat can read or 
write DIF format files, you can 
analyze VisiCalc data and use 
VisiCalc to read files created 
with the SynStat data editor. 
Also, you can format disks di- 
rectly from the main menu 
without going to DOS. 

The data editor contains 
several useful commands for 
transforming columns. Data in 
one column may be added to 
data in a second column, with 
the results appearing in a third 
column. Likewise, columns of 
data may be subtracted, multi- 
plied, or divided and the results 
placed in a third column. You 
can add or multiply columns by 
a constant, with the results re- 
placing the original numbers. 
The natural logarithm of a col- 
umn of data can also be 
obtained. 

SynStat's descriptive analy- 
sis displays eight pieces of infor- 
mation: The number of observa- 
tions, minimum and maximum 
values, the range of values, the 
average, standard deviation, 
variance, and the standard error. 

Regression analysis is a 
common statistical technique to 
confirm or deny a hypothesis 
concerning the relationship be- 
tween two or more variables. A 
separate file is used for the in- 
dependent and dependent vari- 
ables, and they must contain 
exactly the same number of ob- 
servations. SynStat first displays 
a summary of the data. The co- 
efficient and standard error of 

82 COMPUTEI February 1985 




the estimate are given for each 
of the variables. It also displays 
an overall r-squared (coefficient 
of determination), adjusted r- 
squared, and standard error. 

If you use two independent 
variables, SynStat displays a 
screen of partial correlation co- 
efficients. This information is 
used to determine how closely 
the two independent variables 
are related to each other. The fi- 
nal screen is called the residual 
analysis screen. Here the actual, 
predicted, and residual values 
are shown for the data being 
analyzed. 

The documentation contains 
some tutorial information on re- 
gression analysis, but you 
should already be familiar with 
the topic before using the pro- 
gram. Any introductory statistics 
textbook should do. 



The SynStat manual con- 
tains a glossary and index in ad- 
dition to its tutorial and 
reference section. Since SynStat 
is part of the SyuTrend package, 
careful thought should be given 
to its usefulness in meeting your 
needs. 

Syn Series Quality 

As a whole, SynFile+, SynCalc, 
and SynTrend represent quality 
software for the Atari computer. 
Each has useful features, such 
as rapid cursor movement and 
straightforward menu screens, 
and is easy to use. Their ability 
to share data with each other 
and to work with AtariWriter are 
valuable assets. The only feature 
one might wish for is 80-column 
capability with the Bit-3 and 
Austin-Franklin 80-column 
boards. According to Synapse, 
there will be new versions of 
the programs that will work 
with Atari's 80-column board in 
the 1090XL expansion box, 
when or if the box is released. 
These programs have taken a 
long time to finally arrive, but 
the wait has been worth it. 

SynPile-F $79.95 

SynCalc $79.95 

SynTrend $69.95 

Synapse Software 

5221 Central Avenue 

Richmond, CA 94804 © 



PC- Write Word Processor 
For PC & PCjr 



Sheldon Leemon 

Requirements: IBM PC ivilh at 
least 64K RAM, any DOS, and a 
disk drive (128K RAM and DOS 
2.0 or higher recommended); or an 
Enhanced Model PCjr with DOS 
2.1. 



Although an IBM PC (and even 
a PCjr) cannot be considered an 



inexpensive computer, some- 
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down payment after you buy 
the software needed to operate 
it. Word processing, for ex- 
ample, is one of the most popu- 
lar apphcations for personal 
computers. But many of the 
most popular commercial word 



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COMPUTE! 
Subscriber Services 

Please fielp us serve you better. If you 
need to contact us for any of tfie reasons 
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ttie Toll Free number listed below. 



COMPUTE! 
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processing programs for IBM 
computers cost $400 or more. 
That's why it's so refreshing to 
find a program like PC-Write — a 
professionally designed, full- 
featured word processor that is 
practically free for the asking. 

PC-Write is not commercial 
software in the usual sense. It is 
distributed yia the shareioare 
concept. You're allowed to copy 
and share the PC-Write disk, 
which contains both the pro- 
grams and documentation. In- 
deed, such copying is 
encouraged, because it's the pri- 
mary means of distributing the 
program. 

If you don't know anyone 
who can share PC-Write with 
you, it is available from many 
user groups, bulletin board sys- 
tems, and from the publisher, 
Quicksoft, Quicksoft charges a 
minimal $10 fee to cover the 
cost of the disk, postage, and 
handhng. That's a price that is 
hard to beat. 

However, shareware — or 
user-supported software, as it is 
also known — is not just an exer- 
cise in altruism. Rather, it is a 
marketing approach that some 
software authors developed as 
an alternative to the more tradi- 
tional channels of commercial 
software distribution. Its propo- 
nents like to compare it with 
public television. Under the 
shareware concept, quality soft- 
ware is made freely available to 
the public without obligation. 
You can make as many backup 
copies as you want and try out 
the program at your leisure. If, 
after using the program for a 
while, you decide that it's suit- 
able, you're encouraged to sup- 
port the efforts of the software 
developer by making a voluntary 
contribution. Though a specific 
amount is usually suggested, 
any contribution is appreciated. 

Chain-Letter Software 

PC-Write gives the shareware 
concept a special twist. If you're 
satisfied with PC-Write, you're 
asked to register your copy of 



the program by sending $75 to 
Quicksoft. This $75 fee is rather 
modest compared to the price of 
comparable word processors, 
and it buys you more benefits 
than you usually get with com- 
mercial software. You receive 
not only a copy of PC-Write 
personalized with your registra- 
tion number and a bound man- 
ual, but also a telephone 
number you can call with ques- 
tions about the software, a copy 
of the Pascal and machine lan- 
guage source code, and the next 
major update of the program. 

The personal registration 
number is the key to the most 
unusual benefit. Whenever you 
share your personalized copy of 
PC-Write with someone, their 
copy will bear your registration 
number. If that person subse- 
quently registers PC-Write, 
Quicksoft mails you a $25 com- 
mission. There's no limit to the 
number of commissions you can 
earn. Therefore, an aggressive 
registrant can actually make 
money by distributing the pro- 
gram to friends and associates, 
like the software equivalent of a 
(legal) chain letter. 

As attractive as this innova- 
tive marketing concept sounds, 
it is bound to generate some 
skepticism about the quality and 
commercial value of the program. 
You get what you pay for, right? 
Well, not always. 

First, PC-Write was pro- 
grammed by a pro. Designer 
Bob Wallace has been writing 
text editors since 1969. He has a 
master's degree in computer sci- 
ence and worked for Microsoft 
for a number of years, where he 
wrote much of the MS-Pascal 
compiler and runtime package. 
{PC-Write and many other com- 
mercial programs are written in 
MS-Pascal.) 

Second, a careful examina- 
tion of PC-Write bears out Wal- 
lace's observation that in order 
to make money from voluntary 
contributions, a program must 
be very good indeed. 



Separate Editor And 
Printer Driver 

Like all word processing pro- 
grams, PC-Write lets you enter, 
edit, and format text to print it 
exactly the way you want it. 
Unlike most word processors, 
however, PC-Write splits these 
functions between two separate 
programs to save memory. This 
requires you to save your file, 
exit the editor program, and 
then load the printer driver pro- 
gram before you can print your 
document. Fortunately, if you 
have more than 128K of mem- 
ory and are using DOS 2.0 or 
higher, you can keep the editor 
and your text in memory while 
running the printer program. 

The editor program does 
most of the real work. It lets 
you enter text and format the 
appearance of each line on the 
screen. All the usual capabilities 
are supported, such as adjust- 
able margins, centering, and 
right-margin justification. The 
PC-Write printer driver is used 
only to divide these lines of text 
into pages and to properly place 
headers and footers. Except for 
special features such as boldfac- 
ing, underlining, and subscripts, 
your text is printed exactly as it 
looks on the screen. Any line 
length can be specified, but only 
80 columns will appear on the 
screen at once. To see widths 
greater than 80 characters, you 
must scroll the text window 
right or left. 

The editor portion of PC- 
Write is responsive and very 
powerful, boasting a wide range 
of features. You can enter text in 
either insert mode (new charac- 
ters make room by pushing old 
characters to the right), or 
overstrike mode (new characters 
replace old characters). You tog- 
gle between the two modes with 
the Scroll Lock key on the PC 
or the Function-S combination 
on the PCjr. 

The wide range of cursor 
control commands is very logi- 
cally assigned to the special 



84 COMPUTEI Februaiy 1985 



keys on the IBM keyboard or to 
double-key combinations. For 
example, the left and right 
arrow keys by themselves move 
the cursor left or right one char- 
acter; when pressed with a Shift 
key, they move the cursor to the 
left or right of the screen; and 
when pressed with Shift and 
Control, they move the cursor 
left or right one word. Other 
combinations let you move the 
cursor to the top or bottom of 
the screen, the beginning or end 
of the document, forward or 
backward one paragraph, and 
allow you to scroll the whole 
screen up or down one line or 
page at time. You can even 
mark the current cursor position 
so you can return there later by 
pressing another double-key 
combination. In addition, the 
program internally numbers 
each line of text. You can see 
the current line number by 
pressing Shift-F9 and jump di- 
rectly to another line by enter- 
ing its number. 

For all of the editing com- 
mands, PC-Write makes special 
provisions for the PCjr keyboard 
so multiple keystrokes aren't re- 
quired to emulate the full PC 
keyboard. 

On-Line Help Screen 

Since so many cursor com- 
mands may be a litde hard to 
keep track of, pressing the Fl 
key brings up a help screen that 
details all of the special key as- 
signments. You can customize 
the program, too — permanently 
assigning any command se- 
quence to one of the Control 
key combinations. That way, if 
you are already used to another 
word processor, you can set up 
PC-Write to emulate it (the de- 
fault assignments correspond to 
those used by WordStar). 

PC-Write also lets you move 
the cursor to a specific word or 
series of words using the Search 
command. You merely designate 
a search string by pressing F9 
and typing in the word or 
phrase. From then on, a single 



keypress moves the cursor 
either forward or backward to 
the next occurrence of that 
string in the document. You can 
even use certain wild card char- 
acters in your search string. An 
F5 character will match any let- 
ter or digit, an F6 will match 
any character except a letter or 
number, an ¥7 will match any 
one character, and an F8 will 
match an end-of-line character. 
For example, the search string 
"comput[F5]" could be used to 
find both "computer" and 
"computing" 

You can also designate a re- 
placement string. Hitting the 
FIO key replaces the next occur- 
rence of the search string with 
the replacement string, and 
Shift-FlO replaces all occur- 
rences of the search string 
within the text. There is even an 
unreplace feature so you can 
switch them back in case you 
made a mistake! 

PC-Write makes it easy to 
delete, move, and duplicate text. 
There are single-key commands 
for deleting a character, a word, 
or a line. For deleting or moving 
larger blocks of text, the F6 key 
lets you start defining sections 
of your document (this text ap- 
pears in inverse video). You can 
use all of the program's power- 
ful cursor movement keys to ex- 
tend the defined area. For 
example, a whole paragraph can 
be marked by pressing F6 and 
Control -PgDn (next paragraph). 
When you've defined the para- 
graph, you can delete it by 
pressing a single key. 

Whenever you delete more 
than one character at a time, the 
erased text is moved to a hold- 
ing area so it can be inserted 
somewhere else. This feature 
can also be used to retrieve text 
that was removed by mistake. 
Defined blocks can be saved on 
disk or printed out, and text can 
be merged into a document 
from a disk file. You can also 
duplicate a defined block of text 
elsewhere in the document. 



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Mail to: University Microfilms International 

300 North Zecb Road, Box 91 Ann Arbor. MI 48106 



February 1935 COMPUTEI 85 



Convenience Features 

In addition to its clean imple- 
mentation of standard editing 
features, PC-Write contains 
many nice extras which are 
usually found, if at all, in only 
the most comprehensive (and 
expensive) word processors. 
There is a single keystroke com- 
bination which transposes two 
letters, rather than making you 
delete one letter, move the 
cursor, and type it in again. 
Likewise, the F8 key switches 
lowercase letters to uppercase 
and vice versa. 

When loading a file, the 
program lets you choose 
whether you want an automatic 
backup file created. A keyboard 
macro feature lets you define 
any key or combination of keys 
as any series of characters. This 
means you can insert commonly 
used phrases, such as your 
name, with a single keystroke. It 
also means you can customize 
the program's command se- 
quences to make them easier to 
remember, and frequently used 
combinations of these com- 
mands can be available by 
pressing one key. The keyboard 
macros can even be made a per- 
manent part of the PC-Write 
editor by saving them in a disk 
file. 

The level of customization 
possible ^vith PC-Write is truly 
staggering. You can create spe- 
cial characters which will send 
any sequence of command codes 
to the printer, allowing you to 
create overstrike characters or 
even dot-matrix graphics charac- 
ters. You can designate how 
special characters will appear on 
the screen, so that underlined 
text, for example, can be dis- 
played in boldface, inverse, or 
blinking characters. If you're 
using a color monitor, you can 
set the foreground and back- 
ground colors for regular text, 
marked text, text which appears 
between printer control charac- 
ters, and the status line. 

If you're a programmer, the 



possibilities are endless. Because 
you can obtain the source code 
for PC-Write by registering your 
copy, virtually any modification 
can be made. 

Excellent Support 

The author's commitment of 
support is as important as the 
program's many fine features. 
One of the advantages of the 
shareware system is that it 
opens up dialogue between the 
software author and users. You 
can report bugs and suggest im- 
provements, and the unconven- 
tional method of distribution 
frees the author to make 
changes as often as he wishes. 
PC-Write has undergone a num- 
ber of revisions within a short 
period of time. Some of the 
more recent enhancements in- 
clude the keyboard macros and 
the special font characters for 
turning on boldfacing and 
underlining. 

Inevitably, there are still 



some features of PC-Write that 
aren't perfect. Even if your com- 
puter has enough RAM (at least 
128K) to hold both the editor 
program and printer driver in 
memory at once, you still can't 
switch back and forth. It's also 
inconvenient to have to exit the 
editor to DOS whenever you 
need to see a disk directory. 
And it would be nice if 
microspace justification were 
added to the printer driver. 

These problems are less im- 
portant, however, when viewed 
in context of the program's 
overall excellence. Moreover, 
because of the ongoing support 
of PC-Write, there is a pretty 
fair chance that even these flaws 
will be cleaned up in a future 
revision. 

PC-Write 

Quicksoft 

219 First Avenue North, #224 

SenttU; WA 98109 

$20 (program disk) 

$75 (registered copy) © 



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A niBLIC SERVICE MESSAGE FROM THE INTEftlML REVEIfUE SERVICE 



86 COMPUTEI February 1985 



You never know who you will meet 
or what will be said when you're on 
American People/Link. 



AMERICAN PEOPLE/LINK^" users meet a lot of 
different people. That's because PEOPLE/LINK— the 
nation's first all entertainment videotex 
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communicate with other users throughout the country 
from the privacy of their own homes. 

Sometimes these electronic conversations are 

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always keep your interest as you talk to friends and 
make new ones. PEOPLE/LINK's recreational programs 
include: 

PARTYLINE — Meet people and talk live with other 
PEOPLE/LINK members throughout the country in 

groups or privately. 



CLUB-LINK — Join or start a club or group devoted to 
a favorite hobby, rock group, lifestyle, etc. 

WHO-IS-WHO — locate other users with similar interests. 

And there's much more with programs like NETMAIL, 
our person-to-person electronic mail, PEOPLESCAN, 
the national bulletin board system, and play games such 
as poker, blackjack, checkers, chess, backgammon, and 
bridge (color graphics are available for most popular 
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computer whiz or even know how to type to use 
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Plus/Term For VIC & 64 

Gregg Peele, Assistant Programming Supervisor 



Here's a top-notch terminal program that lets you 
access almost any computer or information service 
over the phone with your Commodore 64 or VIC-IO. 
Its features include key redefinition, word wrapping, 
1200 bps support, uploading, and downloading. 
Written in BASIC and machine language, the pro- 
gram works on any 64 or VIC with at least 16K 
RAM and a modem. 



There's a lot more out there than you think. 

Sure, you can use your home computer to 
play games, write letters, and balance your bud- 
get. But telecomputing — communicating with 
other computers over the phone lines — can let 
you do even more. "Plus/Term" and a modem 
turns your home computer into a full-fledged 
communications terminal. You can link up with 
the personal computers of your friends, the 
mainframe computer at work or at school, elec- 
tronic bulletin boards, on-line data bases, and 
commercial information services such as Compu- 
Serve, The Source, and Dow Jones News/ 
Retrieval. 

Plus/Term is designed to make your com- 
puter emulate an asynchronous ASCII terminal. An 
asynchronous terminal does not require special 
timing (sync) characters, and doesn't require the 
receiving terminal to operate in step with your 
system. ASCII (American Standard Code for 
Information Interchange) is a standard character 
code that computers use to understand each 
other. Most microcomputer communications are 
asynchronous and in ASCII. 

Typing Plus/Term 

Plus/Term consists of two parts: a BASIC pro- 
gram that displays menu options, and a machine 
language routine that handles the actual commu- 
nications. The BASIC program (Program 1) is the 
same for both the VIC and 64, but the machine 

88 COMPUTEI February 1 985 



language programs are different. 

First, type in the BASIC portion (Program 1) 
and save it on tape or disk. To type in the ma- 
chine language portion, you must use the MLX 
machine language editor located elsewhere in 
this issue. Starting and ending addresses for 
Plus/Term are 50152 and 52561 for the Com- 
modore 64 (Program 2), and 6144 and 8456 for 
the VIC-20 (Program 3). Before loading MLX to 
enter Program 3, VIC users must enter the 
following line in direct mode (without a line 
number) and press RETURN: 

POKE 44,35:POKE 256*35,0:NEW 

Save the machine language portion on tape 
or disk using the filename referenced in line 100 
of the BASIC program (PLUS/TERM.Ml). 

To start Plus/Term, run the BASIC program. 
It automatically loads the machine language part 
from tape or disk using the filename in line 100. 
If you're using tape, change the ,8,1 listed after 
the filename to ,1,1- 

Important: Before loading the BASIC portion 
into the VIC, enter this line without a line num- 
ber and press RETURN: 

POKE 44,35:POKE 256*35,0:NEW 

You must enter this line every time you start 
the VIC version of Plus/Term, 

Entering Terminal Mode 

When you run Plus/Term, the program asks you 
to specify a baud rate. The baud rate, more prop- 
erly known as bps (bits per second), is the speed 
at which a modem communicates. Inexpensive 
modems — including most of those sold for the 
Commodore 64 and VIC-20 — can transmit and 
receive information at speeds ranging from 110 
to 300 bps (about 10 to 30 characters per sec- 
ond). Modems costing $400 or more can usually 
be switched to 1200 bps to speed up communica- 
tions by a factor of four. 



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Drive Mon-Disk Drive 

assembler/disassembler. For 

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The Doc-Disk Doctor that reads 

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Sync Maker-Place a sync mark 

on any track out to 41. Also 

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Sync Reader-Check lor Sync 

bits on any track out to 41. 

Change Drive No.-Changes 

drive number (7-30). 



Disk Logger-Finds starling track, 

sector; start and end addresses. 

Disk Match-Compare any two 

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New Wedge-Easier to use DOS 

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Set up and operate your own bulletin board with a single 1541 
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Remember that the computer at the other 
end of the phone line must be transmitting and 
receiving at the same speed as yours. You can't 
send and receive at 1200 bps if the other com- 
puter has only a 300 bps modem. Many elec- 
tronic bulletin boards and commercial 
information services are capable of communicat- 
ing at both 300 and 1200 bps. Some even rec- 
ognize your baud rate when you first sign on 
and adjust themselves accordingly. But you still 
have to set Plus/Term for the proper baud rate 
each time you run the program. 

After you specify the baud rate, Plus/Term 
enters terminal mode. A cursor appears at the 
upper-left corner of the screen. The Commodore 
64 version of Plus/Term has a blinking underline 
cursor, and the VIC version has a solid block 
cursor. 

To see how terminal mode works, try typing 
these two sentences: 

This is a test of the Plus /Term softzvare. It is de- 
signed to provide lots of options for use with many 
systems. 

Notice how Plus/Term handles words that 
are typed at the end of a line. Rather than split- 
ting words, Plus/Term moves the entire word to 
the next line. This feature, known as word wrap, 
makes text easier to read. It's found on most 
word processors. 

You can turn word wrap on or off at any 
time by calling up a menu. All the main features 
in Plus/Term are controlled from a main menu 
and its submenus. When you're in terminal 
mode, you can flip the screen to the main menu 
whenever you want by pressing the f7 special 
function key. 

Plus/Term Main Menu 

Here's what it looks like: 

PARAMETERS 

1. WORD LENGTH 

2. STOP BITS 

3. BAUD RATE 

4. PARITY 

5. DUPLEX 

6. DEFINE KEY 

7. TERMINAL OPTIONS 

8. RETURN TO TERMINAL 

9. RETURN TO BASIC 

The first five options control communica- 
tions parameters. Plus/Term defaults to these 
settings: 

8-bit word length 
1 stop bit 
300 baud 
No parity 
Half duplex 

Always set your modem to full duplex while 
using Plus/Term. That way you can control the 

90 COMPUTEI February 1985 



duplex setting with the program. To change 
Plus/Term from half duplex to full duplex, press 
the numeral 5 key to select option 5 from the 
main menu. The menu goes away and a submenu 
appears. Again, press the appropriate key to se- 
lect the option you want (half or full duplex); 
your choice will be highlighted in reverse video. 
Press RETURN to go back to the main menu. 

All of the other options in Plus/Term work 
the same way. Just select an option from the 
main menu and usually another menu will 
appear. 

If you change baud rates from within 
Plus/Term, all other parameters revert to their 
default values. Usually you need to set the baud 
rate only when first running the program. 

Never press RUN/STOP-RESTORE in the 
64 version of Plus/Term when the menu is on 
the screen. If you do, the program halts. You can 
restore it by typing POKE 648,4 and pressing 
RETURN, but you'll have to type blindly because 
the operating system thinks the screen is at a dif- 
ferent location. 

Terminal Mode Commands 

You can return to terminal mode from the main 
menu by selecting option 8 (option 9 exits 
Plus/Term to BASIC). Notice that the text you 
left on the screen is still there. 

Other keys besides i7 execute commands in 
terminal mode. You must press three keys 
simultaneously: Hold down SHIFT and CTRL, 
then press the appropriate command key (this se- 
quence makes it possible for you to send special 
control codes in terminal mode by pressing CTRL 
and a character key). Here are the terminal mode 
commands: 

Change background color. 

Change border color. 

Change text color. 

Open buffer (start storing characters in 

memory). 

Close buffer (stop storing characters in 

memory). 

Save buffer contents on disk or tape. 

Load buffer contents from disk or tape. 

Zero (erase) buffer. 

Notice that some of these commands involve 

the manipulation of a buffer. A buffer is an area 
in memory set aside to store data. If the buffer is 
open (CTRL-SHIFT-0), all the characters sent 
and received by your computer are stored in 
memory. The contents of the buffer can then be 
saved on disk or tape or sent to a printer. This 
feature lets you download (receive) text files and 
programs from remote computers. You can also 
upload (send) files to other computers. We'll dis- 
cuss these procedures in a moment. 

The buffer is 30,720 bytes long (about 30K) 
on a Commodore 64, and 7860 bytes long (about 



CTRL-SHIFT-B: 

CTRL-SHIFT-F: 
CTRL-SHIFT-K: 
CTRL-SHIFT-O: 

CTRL-SHIFT-C: 

CTRL~SHIFT-S 
CTRL-SHIFT-L 
CTRL-SHIFT-Z 



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7.6K) on a VIC-20 with the 16K memory expan- 
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pieces to be assembled later. If the buffer fills up 
when you're downloading, a screen prompt asks: 
SAVE BUFFER, YES OR NO? // you answer no, 
the contents of the buffer are erased. Press CTRL-Q 
to continue your conversation with the other 
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Terminal Options 

option 7 on the main menu, TERMINAL OP- 
TIONS, controls some of the most useful features 
of Plus/Term. Here's what the terminal options 
submenu looks like; 

1. DIRECTORY (DISK) 

2. COMM TO COMM 

3. COMM TO ASCII 

4. WORD WRAP 

5. NORMAL SCREEN 

6. PRINT BUFFER 

7. LINEFEED WITH RETURN 

Option 1 (DIRECTORY) simply lets you call 
a disk directory without leaving Plus/Term. 

Options 2 and 3 (COMM TO COMM and 
COMM TO ASCII) toggle between each other. 
Option 3 is the default setting. Plus/Term nor- 
mally translates Commodore codes into ASCII 
and vice versa. If you select option 2, Plus/Term 
stops converting Commodore codes to ASCII. 
This is useful when communicating with other 
Commodore systems or when transferring files, 
as we'll see in a moment. Option 3 also lets you 
save or load key redefinitions with a tape or disk 
drive. After you've customized the keys as de- 
scribed below, select option 3 and follow the 
screen prompts. 

Options 4 and 5 (WORD WRAP and NOR- 
MAL SCREEN) also toggle back and forth to turn 
word wrap on or off. 

Option 6 (PRINT BUFFER) lets you access 
the most powerful features of Plus/Term. You 
can print the contents of the buffer on the screen 
or a printer, or send it through the RS-232 port 
(which may be connected to your modem or a 
serial printer). Whenever you're printing the 
buffer, you can pause the action by pressing the 
SHIFT key, slow it by pressing CTRL, or stop it 
by pressing the space bar. Since some printers 
may enter graphics mode if certain character 
codes are sent, you may need to modify the 
OPEN statement in line 1900 to lock your printer 
into text mode. 

Option 7 (LINEFEED WITH RETURN) lets 
you disable the linefeed character that normally 
accompanies the RETURN character. Normally 
when you press RETURN, two things happen: 
The cursor jumps to the left side of the screen 
and also moves down a line. The downward 

92 COMPUTEI February 1985 



cursor movement is a linefeed. Some remote 
computers automatically send a linefeed when 
they receive a RETURN, so the extra linefeed is 
unnecessary. If option 7 is highlighted, the RE- 
TURN character will include a linefeed. Selecting 
this option toggles linefeeds on and off. 

Customizing Plus/Term 

We've already mentioned key redefinition briefly- 
This is a feature usually found only on the better 
terminal programs, and it requires "^some explana- 
tion. Basically it lets you customize Plus/Term 
for communicating with a specific remote com- 
puter. To use this feature, select option 6 on the 
main menu. 

Here's why it's important. When Plus/Term 
is in normal ASCII mode, all characters you type 
are translated into the standard ASCII codes 
before they are sent over the phone line. This as- 
sumes that the other computer also is sending 
and receiving the same ASCII codes. But some 
computers occasionally depart from ASCII. For 
instance, some systems use ASCII code 127 as a 
delete character, while pressing the INST/DEL 
key on a Commodore 64 generates ASCII code 
20. The result will be a failure to communicate. 

Plus/Term lets you redefine any key on the 
keyboard to send out any ASCII code you want. 
To redefine the INST/DEL key to send the 
ASCII code 127 that the other computer expects 
instead of the ASCII code 20, first you'd select 
option 6 from the main menu. The following 
submenu appears: 

CHANGE VALUES 

1. GOING OUT 

2. COMING IN 

Since you want to change the value you're 
sending out, select option 1. A screen prompt 
asks you to press the key you want to redefine; 
press INST/DEL. Plus/term tells you that the 
key currently sends an ASCII 20 and asks you to 
type in the code you want. Type 127 and press 
RETURN. The main menu reappears. 

It's that easy. Now the INST/DEL key sends 
an ASCII 127 instead of 20. 

Two-way Translating 

You're only half done, though. When Plus/Term 
sends the 127 over the phone line, the other 
computer will accept it as a delete key, all right. 
But then- the remote computer echoes the code 
back to your computer (we won't get into the 
technical reasons). Plus/Term knows that it's 
supposed to send a 127 instead of a 20, but it 
doesn't know how to translate the 127 coming 
back into the 20 that your computer recognizes 
as a delete key. Instead of deleting characters on 
your screen, pressing INST/DEL would make 
back-arrows appear. 



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The solution, as you may have guessed, is to 
customize Plus/Term further so it translates the 
key in both directions. Select option 6 from the 
main menu again, then choose option 2 on the 
submenu {COMING IN). Now you can match 
the incoming code with the appropriate Com- 
modore code. When the program asks you which 
code you want to change, type 127. When it asks 
you for the new value, type 20. Pressing RE- 
TURN brings you back to the main menu. 

Don't forget that the function keys (except 
for f7, which calls the main menu) can also be 
redefined. If you want to save the new defi- 
nitions so you don't have to repeat the process 
each time you run Plus/Term, select option 3 
from the terminal options menu as described 
above. 

Uploading And Downloading 

As we mentioned, one of Plus/Term's most 
powerful features is the ability to exchange files 
with other computers. 

Downloading is as simple as opening the 
buffer (CTRL-SHI FT-O in terminal mode), clear- 
ing it out if necessary (CTRL-SHIFT-Z), and clos- 
ing it when you've received everything you want 
(CTRL-SHIFT-C). Then you can save the buffer 
on tape or disk by pressing CTRL-SHIFT-S, or 
print it out from the terminal options menu. 

Since the RS-232 routines share zero page 
locations with the tape input/output routines, 
tape users must be off-line to perform any type 
of tape I/O. 

To upload a file, reverse the process. Clear 
the buffer if necessary by pressing CTRL-SHIFT- 
Z; load the file you wish to transmit by pressing 
CTRL-SHIFT-L; go to the terminal options menu 
and select option 6 (PRINT BUFFER); and send 
the file to the RS-232 port, where your modem is 
connected. 

However, there are some complications — im- 
posed by the computer, not the program. 
Transferring text files is easy: Usually they're al- 
ready stored in ASCII format by the word 
processor, and they can be loaded into another 
word processor after the transfer is complete. But 
BASIC program files present a problem. 

Most computers, including Commodores, can 
store programs on tape or disk in two formats: 
ASCII and tokenized. Tokenized files are abbre- 
viated versions of ASCI! files. A program must 
be tokenized before it will run on a VIC or 64. 
Unfortunately, the VIC and 64 lack a command 
to load an ASCII file back into the computer and 
convert it to a tokenized file. After you transfer a 
program you won't be able to run it. 

The Tokenizer Solution 

To overcome this limitation, we've included a 

94 COMPUTEl February 1985 



short tokenizer utility (Program 4) which con- 
verts ASCII files to tokenized files. However, it 
only works if you have a disk drive. Therefore, if 
you're using a tape drive, you can upload BASIC 
programs with Plus/Term but not download 
them in a form your computer can execute. 

To convert a tokenized BASIC program file 
into an ASCII file for uploading, use the follow- 
ing procedure. First, before running Plus/Term, 
load the program you wish to transfer into the 
computer. Then type the following and press 
RETURN: 

OPEN 8,8,8,"0:FILENAME,P,W":CMD8:LIST [for disk] 
OPEN 8,1,8,"0:FILENAME,P,W":CMD8:LIST [for tape] 

(Replace FILENAME with your own filename, of 
course.) 

When the cursor returns, type the following 
and press RETURN: 

PRINT#8:CLOSE8 

The program has now been converted into a 
Commodore ASCII file which can be uploaded. 

Sending A File 

Now follow these steps: 

1. Run Plus/Term and enter terminal mode. 

2. Zero (erase) the buffer (press CTRL-SHIFT-Z). 

3. Load your file into the buffer (press 
CTRL-SHIFT-L). A screen prompt will ask you 
to enter the filename, and another prompt asks if 
you want to load from tape or disk. 

4. When the disk stops whirring (and the red 
busy light goes off), close the buffer (press 
CTRL-SHIFT-C). 

5. Establish your communications link with the 
remote computer (you could have done this dur- 
ing step 1, if desired). Notify the person at the 
other end of the line that you're ready to send 
the program file. The other system must be set to 
receive Commodore ASCII. If the other person 
has Plus/Term, both of you should adjust your 
parameters for COMM TO COMM (selection 2 
on the terminal options menu described above). 
The person at the other end should then open 
and zero his buffer (CTRL-SHIFT-O and 
CTRL-SHIFT-Z). 

6. Now press the f7 key to exit terminal mode 
and reach the main menu. Select option 7 to call 
up the terminal options menu. Choose option 6 
(PRINT BUFFER) and send the file through the 
RS-232 port (where your modem is connected). 
After a while, you'll be asked to press any key to 
continue. After you press a key, the transfer is 
complete. 

As the file is transmitted, it is listed on the 
screen of the remote computer. When the word 
READY appears, the upload is finished. The 



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buffer can then be closed (CTRL-SHIFT-C) and 
saved on tape or disk (CTRL-SHIFT-S). If the file 
is a BASIC program, remember to use the 
Tol<enizer utility to convert it from ASCII to a 
tokenized file before running it. 

Using The Tokenizer 

Type in Program 4 with MLX. Use a starting ad- 
dress of 828 and ending address of 971, 

To use the Tokenizer, load the file produced 
by MLX into memory. Type NEW, press RETURN, 
type the following line, and press RETURN: 
SYS 828,"0:FrLENAME" 

(Substitute the filename for the file you wish to 
tokenize.) 

The file should list on your screen and end 
with a syntax error. This is normal; ignore the 
error. If the uploading/downloading process has 
been successful, you will have a ready-to-run 
BASIC program in memory that you can save on 
disk or tape. 

80-Column Compatibility 

Many mainframe computers expect communica- 
tions terminals to display 80 columns of text per 
line, so they format output in that fashion, if you 
want an 80-column display, Plus/Term is 
compatible with the "Screen-80" program pub- 
lished in the September 1984 issue of COMPUTEl's 
GAZETTE. 

There are only a few operating differences in 
80-column mode: Word wrap doesn't work, any 
information on the screen is erased when you 
leave terminal mode to access the menu, and you 
must restart the computer to svtdtch back to 40 
columns. Otherwise, Plus/Term and Screen-80 
make a good team. 

Program 1 : Plus/Term basic Portion For 
VIC & 64 

Refer to "COMPUTEI's Guide To Typing In Programs" 
before entering this listing. 

100 CL0SE2:IF Q=0 THEN Q=l ;LOAD"PLUS/TERM 

.ML",a,l jretn 127 

110 POKE680,1 : PRINT "{CLR]"; :SYS 65517:IF 

E SPACE} PEEK(781)=22THEN LO=6144 :QC=46 

08:GOTO130 srem 16 

120 LO = 50152 :QC=52736 : rem 122 

130 FU = 787 :reni 18 

140 NA = 831 :RT$="{RVS}" : rem 148 

150 WL$ ( 1 )= " { RVS ] " : SB$ (!)="{ RVS ] " : PA$ ( 1 )= 

" t RVS ] " : DI$ { 2 ) =" E RVS } " s CA5 ( 2 ) = " { RVS } " 

:FS?(1)="[rvs]" ;rem 131 

160 POKES 3281, 12:POKE5 3 280,12:PRINT"' {CLR} 

{ ELK 3 " : POKE646 ,0 :A$=CHR$ ( 13 ) +" [DOWN] 

{10 RIGHT]" :rem 25 

170 PRINTCHR$(14) ;CHR$ (8) : rem 161 

180 IF PEEK{185) <>99THENFZ=1 :GOTO200 

: rem 106 

190 SySLO+6 :rem 149 

200 SYS65517:IF PEEK( 781 )=22THEN A$=CHR$ ( 

13)+" tDOWN}":GOTO220 : rem 39 



210 A$=CHR$(13)+"{DOWN] {10 RIGHT}" 

: rem 141 
220 IF FZTHENFZ=0:GOTO540 : rem 11 

230 POKE53281,12;POKE532a0,12 :PRINT"{CLR} 

"rA$;"{2 RIGHT} PARAMETERS" : rem 59 
240 PRINTA$;"1. WORD LENGTH " ;A$ ;" 2 . STOP 

( SPACE i BITS ";A$;" 3. BAUD RATE" r 

; rem 94 
250 PRINTAS,-"4. PARITY" ; A5 j "5 . DUPLEX" ;A$ 

;"6. DEFINE KEY"; : rem 23 3 

260 PRINTA$r"7. TERMINAL OPTIONS" ; A? ; "8 . 

{SPACE}RETURN to TERMINAL",- : rem 149 
270 PRINTA$;"9. RETURN TO BASIC" : rem 86 
280 GET M1$:IF MI$=""THEN 280 : rem 209 
290 IF VAL(M1?)<1 OR VAL(M1$)>9 THEN 280 

:rem 36 
300 ON VAL(M1$) GOTO 310,450,540,710,860, 

970,1230,1760,1800 : rem 152 

310 REM WORD LENGTH : rem 118 

320 PRINT"(CLR}";A$;"{3 RIGHT} {6 D0WN}W0R 

D LENGTH" : rem 211 

330 PRINTA$;WL$(1);"{2 RIGHT}l, 8 DATA BI 

TS" :rem 168 

340 PRINTA$;WL$(2) ;"{2 RIGHT]2. 7 DATA BI 

TS" :rem 170 

350 PRINTA$;WL$(3) ; "{2 RIGHT}3. 6 DATA BI 

TS" :rem 172 

360 PRINTA$rWL$C4) ; "{2 RIGHT}4. 5 DATA BI 

TS" srem 174 

370 POKE198,0 :rem 199 

380 GET MA?: IF MA$=""THEN 380 : rem 243 

390 IF MA5=CHR$(13)THEN200 :rem 145 

400 FOR T= 1 TO 4tWL$(T)="" :NEXT:WLS(VAL( 

MAS))= "{RVS}" :rem 127 

410 IF VALCMA$)<1 OR VAL(MA?)>4 THEN 380 

;rem 58 
420 POKE659, ( PEEK( 659 ) ANDl 59 ) OR(VAL ( MA5 )* 

16) :rem 219 

430 POKE198,0 srem 196 

440 GOTO310 :rem 101 

450 PRINT"{CLR}"rA$r "{RIGHT} {11 DOWN} STOP 

BITS ";SB$ (1) ; "1"; "{OFF} OR ";SB${2) 

;"2"; "{OFF}?"; : rem 247 

460 POKE198,0 :rem 199 

470 GET MB$:IF HB5=" "THEN470 : rem 245 

480 IF MB$=CHR$(13)THEN200 : rem 146 

490 FOR T= 1 TO 2 : SB$ (T )=" " :NEXT : SB$ ( VAL( 

MB$))= "{RVS}" :rem 107 

500 IF VAL(MB$)<10R VAL ( MB? ) >2THEN470 

;rem 58 
510 IF VAL(MB$)=1THENP0KE659, (PEEK(659)AN 

D127):GOTO 530 : rem 139 

520 POKE659,PEEK(659)OR128 : rem 236 
530 POKE198,0:GOTO450 :rem 209 

540 PRINT"{CLR}";A$; "{up] {RIGHT}BAUD RATE 

S";A5;BR$(1);"1. 50 BAUD"; : ren 20 
550 PRINTA$;BR$(2) ; "2. 75 BAUD" ; A? ; BR$ ( 3 ) 

;"3. 110 BAUD"; :rem 73 

560 PRINTA$;BR?(4) ;"4. 134.5 BAUD";A$;BR$ 

(5);"5. 150 BAUD"; : rem 229 

570 PRINTA$;BR$(6);"6. 300 BAUD" ; A$ ; BR$ ( 7 

);"'7. 600 BAUD"; : rem 13 4 

580 PRINTA$;BR?(8) ;"8. 1200 BAUD" ; A$ ; BR? ( 

9); "9. 1800 BAUD"; : rem 242 

590 PRINTA$;BR?(10) ;"10. 2400 BAUD"; A?; 

: rem 
600 MC?="":INPUT"ENTER SELECTION" ; MC? 

:rem 236 
610 IF MC$=""THENMC5=STR$(PEEK(645) ) 

:rem 254 
620 IF VAL(MC$)<10R VAL(MC? ) > 10THEN5 40 

: rem 108 



96 COMPUTE! February 1985 



630 SYS65517:IFPEEK(781)=22THEN POKE659,( 
PEEK ( 659 )AND240)ORVAL{MC?) : rem 171 

6 40 TM(1)=50:TM(2}=75:TM(3)=110:TM(4)=134 

.5:TM(5)=150:TM(6)=300:TM{7)=600 

:rem 200 
650 TM(8)=1225:TM(9}=1800:TM(10)=2400 

:rera 199 
660 NT=1022730/TM(VAL{MC$) )*. 5-100 : POKE66 

2, NT/256 :rem 207 

670 P0KE661, (NT/256-INT(NT/256) )*256:POKE 

645,VAL(MC$) :CL0SE2 : rem 240 

680 OPEN2,2,3,CHRS(PEEK(659) ) +CHR? ( PEEK( 6 

60) )+CHR$( PEEK (661) ) +CHR5 ( PEEK ( 662 ) ) 

: rem 7 
690 FOR T= 1 TO 10: BR$ (T ) =" " :NEXT: BR5 (PEE 

K(645))= "{RVS]" :rem 200 

700 GOTO110 J rem 98 

710 PRINT"{CLR}"rA5;"l5 DOWN] PARITY" ? A? ;P 

A$(l);"l. NO PARITY"; : rem 234 

720 PRINTA5;PA$(2),-"2. ODD PAR SNT/RCVD"; 

; rem 37 

7 30 PRINTA5;PA5(3) ;"3. EVN PARITY"; 

: rem 221 
740 PRINTA5;PA$(4);"4. MRK PAR SNT/NO CHK 

:rera 130 
750, PRINTA$;PA$(5) ; "5. SPC PAR SNT/NO CHK 
"? :rem 129 

760 GET MD$:IF MD$=""THEN 760 : rem 253 
770 IF MD$=CHR$(13)THEN200 : rem 150 
780 FOR T= 1 TO 5 : PA$ ( T)=" " :NEXT:PA$ (VAL( 
MD$))= "{RVS}" :rem 106 

790 IF VAL(MD5)<10R VAL(MD5 ) > 5THEN760 

: rem 78 
800 ON VAL(MD5)G0T0 810,820,830,840 

: rem 69 
810 POKE660, (PEEK(660)AND31)OR32:GOTO850 

: rem 64 
820 POKE660, (PEEK{660)AND31 )OR96:GOTO850 

: rem 75 
830 POKE660, (PEEK(660)AND31)OR160:GOTO850 

: rem 116 

840 POKE660, (PEEK(660)AND31)OR224:rem 102 

850 GOTO710 :rem 110 

860 PRINT"{CLR}";A$;"f6 DOWN) (4 RIGHT3DUP 

LEX"; A?; : rem 168 

870 IF PEEK(787)THENDI$(1)="{RVS}":DI$(2) 

="":GOTO890 : rem 66 

880 D1?(1)="":DI?(2)="(rVS}" : rem 85 

890 PRINT DI$(1);"1. FULL DUPLEX "; A? ; Dl S ( 

2) "2. HALF DUPLEX" : rem 2 28 

900 GET ME$:IF ME5=" "THEN900 : rem 247 

910 IF ME?=CHR$( 13)THEN200 : rem 147 

920 FOR T= 1 TO 2 :DI$ (T)=" " :NEXT: DI$ ( VAL( 

ME?) )= "{RVS 3" :rem 9 2 

930 IF VAL(ME$)<10R VAL(ME$ ) > 2THEN900 

: rem 69 
940 IF VAL(ME$)=1THENPOKE660,PEEK{660)AND 

239:POKEFU,l :GOTO960 : rem 160 

950 POKE660,PEEK(660)OR16:POKE FU , 

;rem 15 
960 GOTO860 : rem 118 

970 PRINT"[CLRJ";A$" {6 DOWN]CHANGE VALUES 

";A$; :rem 159 

980 PRINT"1. GOING OUT";A5;"2. COMING IN" 

; : rem 7 5 

990 GET MF?:IF MF?=" "THEN990 : rem 11 

1000 IF MF$=CHR$(13)THEN200 : rem 187 

1010 IF VAL(MF$) <1ORVAL(MF$)>2THEN990 

: rem 118 
1020 ONVAL(MF$)GOTO 1030,1120 : rem 56 



10 30 PRINT"{CLR} (8 DOWN}" ; "PRESS THE KEY 
[ SPACE }Y0U want to CHANGE ": POKEl 98 , 

: rem 109 
1040 GET KY5:IF KY$=" "THEN1040 : rem 115 

1050 KY = PEEK(QC+256+ASC{KY$ ) ) : rem 148 
1060 PRINT" {4 DOWN] THAT SENDS A CHR? ( " ; 

; rem 47 
1070 PRINTRIGHT${STR$(KY) ,LEN(STR$(KY) )-l 
) + " ) " :rem 190 

1080 INPUT" [4 D0WN}REPLACE WITH";RK$ 

: rem 21 

1090 IF VAL(RK$)>255THEN 1030 ; rem 27 

1100 POKEQC+256+ASC(KY$),VAL(RK$ ) :rem 137 

1110 GOTO 200 :rem 142 

1120 INPUT"{CLR] [8 DOWNJCODE TO CHANGE"rI 

C? :rem 2 

1130 IF IC$=""THEN970 :rem 84 

1140 IF VAL(IC5)>255ORVAL(IC5)=0 THEN 112 

irem 248 

1150 PRINT" (4 D0WN]N0W A CHR${"; : rem 117 

1160 IC = PEEK(QC+VAL( IC$) ) : rem 170 

1170 PRINTRIGHT$(STR${ IC) ,LEN( STR$ ( IC ) ) -1 

)+" )" :rem 143 

1180 INPUT "{4 DOWN] CHANGE TO CHR$";NK$ 

:rem 36 
1190 IF NK$=""THEN970 : rem 103 

1200 IF VAL(NK$ )>25 5THEN 1120 :rem 16 

1210 POKE QC+VAL(IC$) ,VAL{NK$) : rem 179 

1220 GOTO200 :rem 144 

1230 PRINT "ECLR}"rA$; "{4 D0WN}{4 RIGHT}0 
PTIONS";A$ ; "1 . DIRECTORY (DISK)"; 

: rem 23 
1240 PRINTA5;CA$( 1) ; "2. COMM TO COMM" ; 

;rem 51 
1250 PRINTA?;CA$(2) ; "3. COMM TO ASCII"; 

: rem 115 
1260 PRINTA$;FS$(1 ) ; "4. WORD WRAP"; 

:rem 199 
1270 PRINTA$; FS5(2) ; "5. NORMAL SCREEN"; 

:rem 221 
1280 PRINTA$;"6. PRINT BUFFER"; : rem 34 

1290? PRINTA$;RT$;"7. LINEFEED W/ RETURN" 

: rem 7 3 
1300 GET OP$:IF 0P5=""THEN 1300 : rem 103 
1310 IF OP$=CHR$(13)THEN200 : rem 203 

1320 IF VAL(0P?)=2THENCA$( 1)=" [RVSl":CA${ 
2)="" :rem 141 

1330 IF VAL(0PS)=3THENCA$(2)="{RVS]":CA§( 



1) = 



I rem 143 



1340 IF VAL(0P$)=4THENFS$(1)="[RVS]":FS${ 

2)="" :rem 187 

1350 IP VAL(0P$)=5THENFS$(2)="(RVS]":FS$( 

1)="" :rem 189 

1360 IF VAL(0P$)=7 THEN POKE 680,-{PEEK(6 

80)=0) :rem 235 

1370 IF PEEK(680)THENRT$=" [rvs] ":GOTO1390 

:rem 58 
1380 RT$="" srem 23 

1390 IF VAL(0P$)<10R VAL(OP$ ) >7THEN1300 

:rem 192 
1400 ON VAL(0P$)G0T0 1410,1540.1550,1780, 
1790,1810,1230 :rem 38 

1410 PRINT"{CLR}":OPEN1,8,0,"$0" : rem 75 
1420 GET #1,T5,T? : rem 67 

1430 GET #1,T$,T? : rem 68 

1440 S=ST;IF S<>0 THENCLOSEl :G0T0 1500 

: rem 213 

1450 GET #1,LU5,HI$: : rem 10 

1460 LU=ASC(LU?+CHR$ (0) ) :HI=ASC (HI$+CHR$ ( 

) ) : LN=LU+HI* 256 : LN$=MID$ ( STR$ ( LN ) , 2 

) :rem 244 



February 1 985 COMMITS 97 



1470 
1480 

1490 
1500 



1510 

1520 

15 30 
1540 
1550 
1560 

1570 
1580 
1590 
1600 

1610 
1620 

1630 

1640 

1650 

1660 

1670 
1680 
1690 

1700 
1710 

1720 

1730 
1740 



1750 
1760 
1770 
1780 
1790 
1800 
1810 



1820 

1830 

1840 
1850 

1860 

1870 

1880 
1890 
1900 
1910 



PRINTLN$+" "; : rem 19 3 

GET#1,B$:IF B$="" THEN PRINT:G0T0143 
: rem 58 

PRINTB$; :GOTO1480 : rem 60 

OPEN15 ,8,15: INPUT! 15 , EN , EM$ , ET , ES : CL 
OSElSsIF ENTHENPRINTEN;EM$;ETrES 

: rem 42 
PRINT" {RVSlPRESS RETURN TO CONTINUE 
{off}" :rem 17 7 

GET T5:IF T? OCHR5 ( 13 ) THEN1520 

: rem 136 
GOTO1230 :rem 200 

POKE NA, 1;GOTO12 30 : rem 30 

POKENA,0 :rem 2 29 

PRINT"fCLR} [6 DOWN}" rA$; "ASCI I OPTIO 
NS";A$;"1. LOAD CONFIG"; : rem 217 

PRINTA?;"2. SAVE CONFIG", -A?; :rem 94 
PRINT" 3. RETURN TO MENU" : rem 184 

GET CN$;IF CN$=" "THEN1590 : rem 97 

IF VAL(CN$)<1ORVAL(CN$)>3THEN1590 

:rem 165 
ON VAL(CN$)GOTO1620,1630, 1640: rem 61 
GOSUB 1650:SYS PEEK( 764) +256*PEEK ( 76 
5) :GOSUB1740:GOTO1230 : rem 46 

GOSUB 1650:SYS PEEK ( 766 ) +256*PEEK{ 76 
7) :GOSUB1740:GOTO1230 : rem 51 

GOTO1230 :rem 202 

PRINT"{clr}";A$; " tRVS3D{0FP}lSK OR 
[RVS3t{0FF}APE";A$; : rem 104 

GET DV$:IF DV$ <> "T " ANDDV? <> "D"THEN16 
60 t rem 147 

INPUT"F1LENAME";FI5 : rem 209 

IF LEN(FI5 )>16THEN 1670 : rem 227 

IF LEFT9(DV$,1 )="D"THEN D=8:GOTO 171 
: rem 3 

D=1 :rem 122 

FOR T= 684 TO 684+LEN (FI$ )-l : POKET ,A 
SC(MID5(FI9,T-683,1)) :NEXT : rem 203 
POKE679,D: POKE763 , D: POKE681 ,LEN{FI$) 
:POKB682,172:POKE683,2 : rem 214 

RETURN :rem 171 

OPEN15 ,8,15: INPUT* 15 , EN , EM5 , ET , ES : CL 
OSE 1 5 : PRINT : I FENTHENP RINTEN ; EM? ; ET ; E 
S : rem 247 

rem 114 
:rem 6 
rem 154 
: rem 46 
:rem 48 
rem 160 
(PEEK(55; 



FOR T=l TO 1500 :NEXT: RETURN 

PRINT" {CLR}" :SYSLO 

GOTO 200 

POKE703,0:GOTO1230 

POKE703,1:GOTO1230 

END 

BY=PEEK (706) +256* PEEK (707)- 

+256*PEEK(56)) :PRINT"[CLR) fDOWN}";A$ 

;BY? :rem 76 

PRINT"BYTES IN BUFFER" r A?; : PRINT" TO 

TAL BYTES"; : rem 160 

PRINT(PEEK( 249) +256*PEEK( 250)) -(PEEK 

(55)+256*PEEK(56) ) : rem 239 

PRINTA5; "PRINT TO" : rem 110 

PRINTA$;"1. RETURN";A$?"2. RS232 "rA 

$t"3. SCREEN" ;A$; "4. PRINTER"; 

;rem 89 
GET ZE$!ZE=VAL(ZE$) :IF ZE<iOR ZE>4 T 
HEN 1860 :rem 4 

PRINT" Iclr} ": IF ZE=1 THEN1230 

:rera 255 
IF ZE=2 THEN 1910 : rem 104 

IF BY=0THEN1990 : rem 107 

OPEN5,ZE ; rem 252 

FOR T = PEEK(55)+256*PEEK(56)TO(PEEK 
(7 06)+2 56*PEEK(7 07))-l:POKE212,0 

:rem 18 7 



(653)=1 THEN1920 : rem 216 

(197)=60THENFORT=0TO0:rem 192 
(653)=4 THEN FOR J= 1 TO 1000 

:rem 141 

2 THENPRINT#2,CHR${PEEK(T) ) ; 

70 :rem 68 

,CHR5(PEEK(T)); : rem 56 

: rem 16 
2 THEN PRINT* 5: CLOSE 5 

:rem 165 
,0:PRINTA$; "PRESS ANY KEY TO 
CONT" :rem 224 

IF JS=""THEN2000 :rem 185 
30 :rem 194 



Program 2: Plus/Term ml Portion For 64 

Refer to the "MLX" article before entering this listing. 



1920 


IF PEEK 


1930 


IF PEEK 


1940 


IF PEEK 




J NEXT 


1950 


IF ZE = 




: GOTO 19 


1960 


PRINT#5 


1970 


NEXT 


1980 


IF ZEO 


1990 


POKE198 




( SPACE } 


2000 


GET J? : 


2010 


GOTO 12 



50152 
50158 
50164 
50170 
50176 
50182 
50188 
50194 
50200 
50206 
50212 
50218 
50224 
50230 
50236 
50242 
50248 
50254 
50260 
50266 
50272 
50278 
50284 
50290 
50296 
50302 
50308 
50314 
50320 
50326 
50332 
50338 
50344 
50350 
50356 
50362 
50368 
50374 
50380 
50386 
50392 
50398 
50404 
50410 
50416 
50422 
50428 
50434 
50440 
50446 
50452 



032 


075 


204 


076, 


169 


000 


141 


100, 


103 


196 


141 


084, 


002 


141 


191 


002, 


003 


169 


231 


141, 


169 


204 


141 


,253, 


008 


141 


254 


,002, 


141 


255 


002 


169, 


021 


208 


169 


006, 


208 


173 


038 


003, 


208 


015 


173 


039, 


002 


208 


008 


169, 


094 


205 


076 


127, 


000 


141 


094 


,205, 


141 


136 


002 


rl69, 


024 


208 


169 


,003, 


221 


141 


,002 


,221, 


013 


000 


221 


,141, 


120 


169 


,051 


,133, 


208 


141 


101 


,196, 


196 


,160 


,000 


,185, 


153 


,255 


,255 


,200, 


238 


,101 


,196 


,238, 


173 


,104 


,196 


,201, 


234 


,169 


,055 


,133, 


152 


,162 


,064 


,157, 


202 


,016 


,250 


,169, 


085 


003 


169 


,013, 


007 


032 


168 


,196, 


141 


194 


002 


,133, 


019 


003 


169 


,038, 


141 


195 


002 


,076, 


160 


255 


152 


,192, 


024 


192 


193 


,144, 


233 


128 


076 


,201, 


065 


144 


012 


192, 


006 


024 


105 


032, 


196 


169 


000 


153, 


136 


192 


255 


208, 


255 


152 


192 


128, 


192 


096 


144 


005, 


032 


076 


242 


196, 


144 


012 


192 


091, 


024 


105 


128, 


076, 


169 


000 


153, 


000, 


192, 


255, 


208, 


217, 


094, 


205 


240, 


008, 


141, 


085, 


205, 


032, 


032, 


048, 


200, 


032, 


032, 


228, 


255, 


201, 


003, 


076, 


202, 


197, 



,251,196,042 

,196,141,217 
,205,133,082 
,141,063,022 
,252,002,030 
,002,169, 176 
,169,205,023 
,001,141,215 
,141,033,090 
,201,210,095 
,003,201,163 
,001,141,059 
,196,169,147 
,169,004,155 
,023,141,160 
,013,002,229 
,169,003,061 
,000,221,162 
,001,169,215 
,141,104,213 
,255,255,123 
,208,247,140 
,104,196,157 
,224,208,196 
,001,088,032 
,064,003,216 
,255,141,141 
,141,248,029 
,169,000,204 
,055,141,048 
,133,056,062 
,008,197,013 
,219,176,042 
,006,056,021 
,196,192,182 
,096,176,103 
,076,201,124 
,000,207,155 
,217,160,092 
,176,024,113 
,056,233,175 
,192,065,001 
,176,008,083 
,242,196,237 
,206,136,136 
,096,174,108 
,169,147,091 
,248,201,146 
,204,255,011 
,000,208,170 
,141,107,234 



9S COMPUTEI February 1985 



50458 

50464 
50470 
50476 
50482 
50488 
50494 
50500 
50506 
50512 
50518 
50524 
50530 
50536 
50542 
50548 
50554 
50560 
50566 
50572 
50578 
50584 
50590 
50596 
50602 
50608 
50614 
50620 
50626 
50632 
50638 
50644 
50650 
50656 
50662 

50668 

50674 
50680 
50686 
50692 
50698 
50704 
50710 
50716 
50722 
50728 
50734 
50740 
50746 
50752 
50758 
50764 
50770 
50776 
50782 
50788 
50794 
50800 
50806 
50812 
50818 
50824 
508 30 
50836 
50842 
50848 
50854 
50860 
50866 
50872 



:205 


,201 


,136 


,208 


,006 


,072, 


!032 


,175 


,203 


,104 


,096 


,174, 


:141 


,002 


,224 


,005 


,208 


,115, 


:201 


,015 


,208 


,011 


,162 


,001, 


:142 


,098 


205 


,032 


,248 


,197, 


:076 


,202 


rl97 


,201 


,003 


,208, 


:011 


,169 


,000 


,141 


,098 


,205, 


:03 2 


,028 


198 


,076 


,202 


,197, 


:201 


,026 


,208 


,016 


,169 


,000, 


:141 


,194 


,002 


,165 


,056 


,141, 


:195 


,002 


,032 


,066 


,198 


,076, 


:202 


,197 


,201 


,019 


,208 


,006, 


:032 


,124 


198 


,076 


,202 


,197, 


:201 


,012 


,208 


,006 


,032 


,185, 


:199 


,076 


202 


,197 


,201 


,002, 


:208 


,006 


,238 


,033 


,208 


,076, 


:202 


,197 


201 


,011 


,208 


,006, 


:23a 


,134 


,002 


,076 


,202 


,197, 


:201 


,006 


,208 


,006 


,238 


,032, 


:208 


,076 


,202 


,197 


,201 


,021, 


;208 


,011 


,173 


,024 


,208 


,073, 


:002 


,141 


,024 


,208 


,076 


,202, 


:197 


,162 


002 


,032 


,201 


,255, 


:173 


,107 


,205 


,07 2 


,168 


,174, 


;063 


,003 


208 


,006 


,185 


,000, 


:207 


,076 


182 


,197 


,104 


,072, 


:032 


,210 


255 


,104 


,172 


,019, 


;003 


,208 


011 


,141 


,085 


,205, 


:072 


,032 


204 


,255 


,104 


,032, 


:106 


,201 


032 


048 


,200 


032, 


:204 


,255 


162 


002 


,032 


198, 


:255 


,032 


228 


255 


,201 


000, 


:208 


003 


076 


008 


197 


174, 


:063 


003 


208 


006 


041 


127, 


:168 


185, 


000 


2 06 


141 


085, 


:205 


,072 


032 


,204 


,255 


,104, 


:032 


,106 


201 


076 


,008 


,197, 


:160 


,000 


152 


,07 2 


,185 


,013, 


:198 


,141 


085 


,205 


,032 


,248, 


:201 


,104 


168 


,200 


,192 


,015, 


:208 


,238 


096 


,013 


,091 


,066, 


:085 


,070 


070 


,069 


,082 


,032, 


;079 


,080 


069 


,078 


,093 


,013, 


:160 


,000 


152 


,072 


,185 


,049, 


:198 


,141 


085 


,205 


,032 


,248, 


:201 


,104 


168 


200 


,192 


,017, 


:208 


,238 


096 


,013 


,091 


,066, 


:085 


,070 


070 


,069 


,082 


,032, 


:067 


,076 


079 


,083 


,069 


,068, 


;093 


,013 


160 


,000 


,152 


,072, 


:ia5 


,087 


198 


,141 


,085 


,205, 


:032 


,248 


,201 


,104 


,168 


,200, 


:I92 


,017 


208 


,238 


,096 


,013, 


:091 


,066 


,085 


,070 


,070 


,069, 


:082 


,032 


090 


,069 


,082 


,079, 


:069 


,068 


093 


,013 


,160 


,000, 


:152 


,072 


185 


,2 36 


,199 


,141, 


:085 


,205 


03 2 


248 


,201 


,104, 


:168 


,200 


192 


014 


,208 


,238, 


:160 


,000 


152 


,072 


,185 


,251, 


:199 


rl41 


085 


205 


032 


248, 


:201 


104 


168 


200 


,192 


013, 


:208 


238 


032 


228 


255 


240, 


:251 


201, 


089 


240 


,007 


201, 


:078 


208, 


243 


076 


106 


199, 


:169 


000 


141 


095 


20 5 


160, 


:000 


152, 


072 


185 


009 


200, 


:141 


085, 


205 


032 


248 


201, 


:104, 


168, 


200 


192 


011, 


208, 


:238, 


032, 


204, 


255, 


160 


000, 



086 


50878 


048 


50884 


221 


50890 


130 


50896 


204 


50902 


175 


50908 


174 


50914 


033 


50920 


182 


509 26 


011 


50932 


143 


50938 


157 


50944 


159 


50950 


236 


50956 


219 


50962 


117 


50968 


179 


50974 


209 


50980 


057 


50986 


021 


50992 


075 


50998 


037 


51004 


239 


51010 


039 


51016 


123 


51022 


246 


51028 


206 


51034 


073 


51040 


125 


51046 


051 


51052 


035 


51058 


159 


51064 


116 


51070 


160 


51076 


247 


51082 


084 


51088 


094 


51094 


062 


51100 


139 


51106 


116 


51112 


210 


51118 


168 


51124 


178 


51130 


134 


51136 


175 


51142 


154 


51148 


246 


51154 


204 


51160 


244 


51166 


042 


51172 


203 


51178 


005 


51184 


78 


51190 


027 


51196 


016 


51202 


247 


51208 


067 


51214 


219 


51220 


114 


51226 


176 


51232 


016 


51238 


245 


51244 


063 


51250 


113 


51256 


040 


51262 


162 


51268 


016 


51274 


060 


51280 


037 


51286 


049 


51292 



: 140, 101, 205, 032, 048, 200, 148 

: 03 2, 228, 2 5 5, 201, 000, 240, 128 
: 246, 201, 013, 240, 048, 201, 127 
:020,20a, 01 1,17 2, 10 1,20 5, 157 
: 240, 233, 206, 101, 205, 076, 251 
:239, 198, 20 1,031, 144, 2 23, 232 
: 201, 091, 176, 219, 172, 101, 162 
: 205, 153, 238, 002, 238, 101, 145 
: 2 05, 141, 085, 205, 32, 248, 130 
: 201, 17 2, 101, 205, 19 2, 01 6, 107 
: 240, 197, 076, 193, 198, 172, 046 
: 101, 20 5, 140, 099, 205, 160, 14 2 
:000,1B5,020,200, 141,085, 125 
: 205, 140, 100, 205, 03 2, 248, 17 4 
:201, 172,100,205,200,192,064 
: 014, 208, 236, 03 2, 228, 25 5, 229 
: 240, 2 51, 201, 084, 240, 007, 029 
: 20 1,068, 240, 008, 07 6, 027, 144 
: 199, 162,001,076,050,199,217 
: 162, 008, 169, 010, 160, 000, 045 
: 032, 186, 255, 17 3, 099, 205, 236 
: 162, 238, 160, 002, 03 2, 189, 07 5 
;255, 169,000, 141,021,208,092 
: 169, 147, 032, 210, 25 5, 169, 030 
: 147, 141, 085, 205, 032, 248, 168 
: 201, 174, 095, 205, 208, 029, 228 
: 169, 000, 141, 021, 208, 174, 035 
: 194, 002, 172, 195, 002, 169, 062 
: 055, 032, 216, 255, 165, 055, 112 
: 14 1,194, 002, 16 5, 056, 141, 039 
: 195, 002, 076, 142, 199, 169, 129 
: 000, 166, 055, 164, 056, 032, 081 
: 2 13, 2 55, 142, 194, 002, 140, 048 
: 195, 002, 162, 000, 134, 055, 168 
: 160, 038, 132, 056, 169, 001, 182 
: 141, 021, 208, 169, 000, 162, 07 7 
: 064 ,157, 064 , 003 , 202 , 016 , 144 
: 250, 169, 255, 141, 085, 003, 035 
: 160, 003, 185, 181, 199, 141, 007 
: 085, 205, 152, 072, 032, 248, 194 
:201, 104,168,136,016,240,015 
: 096, 01 3, 07 5, 079, 01 3, 160, 104 
: 000, 140, 101, 2 05, 185, 34, 083 
: 200, 141, 085, 205, 032, 248, 079 
: 201, 238, 101, 205, 172, 101, 192 
: 205, 19 2, 014, 208, 23 4, 03 2, 065 
: 228, 255, 201, 000, 240, 249, 103 
; 201 , 089 , 240 , 007 , 201 , 078 , 008 
:240, 138,076, 209,199, 162, 222 
: 001, 141, 095, 205, 032, 165, 099 
; 1 98 , 096 , 013 , 091 , 066 , 085 , 015 
: 070, 070, 069, 082, 03 2, 070, 121 
: 085, 076, 076, 093, 01 3, 013, 090 
: 08 3, 05 5, 086, 069, 03 2, 089, 164 
: 32, 079, 082, 32, 078, 063, 112 
: 01 3, 01 3, 070, 07 3, 076, 069, 06 6 
:078, 065,077,069, 058,013, 118 
: 013, 084, 06 5, 080, 069, 03 2, 107 
: 079, 082, 032, 068, 073, 083, 187 
; 07 5, 01 3, 01 3, 07 6, 079, 06 5, 097 
:068,0 32, 089,0 32,0 79,082, 164 
: 03 2, 078, 06 3, 01 3, 17 4, 094, 242 
: 205, 240, 006, 162, 000, 141, 036 
: 02 1,208, 096, 17 3, 054, 205, 045 
:048,015, 201,040, 144,024,022 
: 169, 000, 141, 054, 205, 238, 107 
: 055, 205, 076, 092, 200, 2 38, 172 
: 054, 205, 206, 05 5, 205, 048, 08 5 
: 023, 169, 039, 141, 054, 2 05, 205 
: 173, 055, 205, 048, 013, 201, 019 

February 1985 COMPUTE! 99 



51298 
51304 
51310 
51316 
51322 
51328 
51334 
51340 
51346 
51352 
51358 
51364 
51370 
51376 
51382 
51388 
51394 
51400 
51406 
51412 
51418 
51424 
51430 
51436 
51442 
51448 
51454 
51460 
51466 
51472 
51478 
51484 
51490 
51496 

51502 
51508 
51514 
51520 
51526 
51532 
51538 
51544 
51550 
51556 
51562 
51568 
51574 
51580 
51586 
51592 
51598 
51604 
51610 
51616 
51622 
51628 
51634 
51640 
51646 
51652 
51658 
51664 
51670 
51676 
51682 
51688 

51694 

51700 
51706 



025 


,144 


,012 


,206 


,055 


,205, 


032 


,234 


,232 


,076 


,113 


,200, 


2 38 


,055 


,205 


,169 


,000 


,141, 


051 


,205 


,173 


,054 


,20 5 


,010, 


010 


,141 


,050 


.205 


,014 


,050, 


20 5 


,045 


,051 


,205 


,024 


,173, 


050 


,205 


,105 


,024 


,141 


,000, 


208 


,173 


,051 


,205 


,105 


,000, 


141 


,016 


,208 


,173 


,055 


,205, 


010 


,010 


,010 


,141 


,086 


,205, 


024 


,173 


,086 


,205 


105 


,050, 


141 


,001 


,208 


,165 


162 


,201, 


014 


144 


,013 


,133 


162 


,173, 


033 


208 


,041 


,015 


141 


039, 


208 


076 


,192 


200 


173 


134, 


002 


141 


,039 


208 


165 


162, 


201 


028 


,144 


004 


169 


000, 


133 


162 


172 


055 


205 


185, 


240 


236 


133 


209 


185 


056, 


205 


133 


210 


096 


172 


054, 


205 


177 


209, 


201 


032, 


208, 


003 


076 


105 


201 


162 


000, 


Ml. 


209, 


157, 


169, 


003, 


072, 


024 


165 


210, 


105 


212 


133, 


210, 


177, 


209, 


157, 


129, 


003, 


056, 


165, 


210, 


233, 


212, 


133, 


210, 


136, 


232, 


224, 


039, 


240, 


011, 


104, 


201, 


032, 


208, 


220, 


142, 


053, 


205, 


076, 


020, 


201, 


104, 


076, 


105, 


201, 


174, 


053, 


205. 


200, 


169, 


032, 


145, 


209, 


200, 


202, 


208, 


248, 


173, 


055, 


205, 


201, 


024, 


208, 


006, 


032, 


234, 


232, 


206, 


055, 


205, 


238, 


055, 


205, 


169, 


000, 


141, 


054, 


205, 


174, 


053, 


205, 


168, 


202, 


202, 


189, 


169, 


003, 


141, 


083, 


205, 


024, 


165, 


210, 


105, 


212, 


133, 


210, 


189, 


129. 


003, 


141, 


134, 


002, 


072, 


152, 


072, 


138, 


072, 


032, 


093, 


202, 


104, 


170, 


104, 


168, 


104, 


056, 


165, 


210, 


233, 


212, 


133. 


210, 


200, 


202, 


016, 


213, 


206, 


054, 


205, 


096, 


174, 


098, 


205, 


208, 


003, 


076, 


248, 


201, 


160, 


000, 


141, 


085, 


205 


166, 


251, 


142 


096, 


205, 


166 


252 


142, 


097 


20 5 


174, 


194, 


002 


134 


251 


174 


195, 


002 


134 


252 


145 


251 


072, 


174 


096 


205 


134 


251 


174, 


097 


205 


134 


252 


056 


165, 


249 


237 


194 


002 


141 


088, 


205 


165 


250 


237 


195 


002, 


013 


088 


205 


208 


021 


162, 


002 


032 


201 


255 


169 


r019. 


032 


210 


255 


,032 


204 


,255, 


032 


104 


,198 


,032 


066 


,198, 


104 


096 


,104 


,201 


020 


,240, 


011 


,238 


,194 


,002 


,208 


,046, 


238 


,195 


,002 


,076 


,248 


,201, 


141 


,085 


,205 


,173 


,194 


,002, 


229 


,055 


,141 


,088 


,205 


,173, 


195 


,002 


,229 


,056 


,013 


,088, 


205 


,240 


,019 


,072 


,056 


,173, 


194 


,002 


,233 


,001 


,141 


,194, 


002 


,173 


,195 


,002 


,233 


,000. 


141 


,195 


,002 


,104 


,173 


,085, 


205 


,174 


,094 


,205 


,240 


,072, 



233 


51712 


223 


51718 


150 


51724 


046 


51730 


080 


51736 


064 


51742 


147 


51748 


114 


51754 


176 


51760 


102 


51766 


033 


51772 


018 


51778 


041 


51784 


141 


51790 


141 


51795 


137 


51802 


228 


51808 


088 


51814 


241 


51820 


058 


51826 


226 


51832 


003 


51838 


249 


51844 


061 


51850 


103 


51856 


233 


51862 


055 


51868 


012 


51874 


195 


51880 


217 


51886 


214 


51892 


090 


51898 


198 


51904 


186 


51910 


158 


51916 


035 


51922 


077 


51928 


217 


51934 


107 


51940 

51946 


134 


51952 


243 


51958 


127 


51964 


004 


51970 


122 


51976 


102 


51982 


179 


51988 


159 


51994 


136 


52000 


056 


52006 


224 


52012 


152 


52018 


033 


52024 


041 


52030 


190 


52036 


095 


52042 


082 


52048 


142 


52054 


046 


52060 


187 


52066 


127 


52072 


138 


52078 


240 


52084 


081 


52090 


035 


52096 


223 


52102 


229 


52108 


075 


52114 


176 


52120 


216 


52126 



: 162, 000, 142, 021, 208. 201, 222 
: 013, 240, 008, 162, 001, 142, 060 
: 244, 17 3, 076, 043, 20 2, 16 2, 14 4 
: 001, 142, 244, 173, 072, 120, 002 
:162. 054, 134, 00 1,03 2, 210, 105 
: 164,0 32,068, 168,0 32, 125,107 
: 164, 16 2, 05 5, 13 4, 00 1.088, 128 
: 104, 174. 102, 2 05, 134, 2 5 1,2 44 
:174, 103, 20 5, 134, 25 2, 03 2, 180 
: 2 10, 002, 166, 251, 142, 102, 159 
: 205, 166, 252, 142, 103, 205, 109 
: 162. 000, 142. 244, 173, 096, 115 
: 173, 08 5, 205, 20 1,03 2, 144, 144 
: 091 , 201 , 127 , 144 , 007 , 201 , 081 
: 160, 176, 003, 076, 17 0,20 2, 103 
: 32, 065, 203, 172, 05 5, 2 05, 054 
: 18 5, 240, 236, 13 3, 20 9, 18 5, 004 
: 056. 205, 133, 2 10, 172, 054, 164 
: 205, 17 3, 084. 20 5, 240, 01 0,001 
; 173, 083, 205, 009, 128,145,089 
: 209, 076, 129, 202, 17 3, 083. 224 
: 205, 145, 209, 24, 165, 2 10, 060 
:105, 212, 133, 2 10, 173, 134, 07 5 
:002, 145, 209, 056, 165, 210, 157 
:233, 212, 133, 210, 173, 054, 135 
: 205, 201, 039, 208, 008, 174,217 
: 191, 002, 208, 003, 032, 216, 040 
: 200, 2 38, 054. 2 05, 032, 048, 171 
: 200, 096, 17 3. 085. 20 5, 20 1,104 
: 032, 176, 074, 201, 010, 208. 107 
:003,23a, 055, 20 5. 201, 013, 127 
: 208, 005, 072, 32, 15 5, 203, 09 3 
: 104, 20 1,014, 208, 010, 07 2, 03 3 
: 169, 002, 01 3, 24, 2 08, 141, 243 
:024, 208, 104, 201, 01 7, 208, 198 
: 003, 2 38, 055, 205, 201, 018, 162 
: 208, 005, 162, 001, 14 2, 084, 050 
: 205, 201, 019, 208, 008, 162, 001 
: 000, 14 2, 054, 205, 142, 05 5, 058 
J 205, 201, 020, 208, 005, 072, 177 
; 032, 085, 203, 104, 201, 029, 126 
: 208, 003, 238, 054, 205, 201, 131 
: 14 1,208, 005, 07 2, 03 2, 15 5, 09 7 
: 203, 104, 201, 142, 208, 010, 102 
: 072. 173, 024, 208, 041, 25 3, 011 
: 141, 24, 208, 104, 20 1,1 45, 069 
:20a, 003, 206, 05 5, 205, 20 1,1 30 
: 146, 208, 005, 162, 000, 142, 177 
: 084, 205, 201, 147, 208, 016, 125 
: 072, 32, 068, 2 29, 169, 000, 096 
: 141, 054, 205, 141, 05 5, 20 5, 07 7 
: 032, 048, 200, 104, 201, 157, 24 
: 203, 003, 206, 054, 205. 03 2, 25 2 
:04a, 2 00, 096, 17 3, 08 5, 2 05, 101 
: 072, 041, 12 8, 074, 14 1,08 7, 099 
: 205, 104. 041, 063, 013. 087, 075 
: 205, 14 1,083, 20 5, 09 6, 17 2, 2 14 
: 055, 2 05, 185, 240, 2 36, 133, 116 
: 209. 185, 056, 20 5, 13 3, 2 10, 06 6 
: 172, 054, 205, 2 40, 05 1,0 56, 108 
: 169, 039, 237, 054, 205, 170, 210 
: 177, 209, 136, 145, 209, 200, 162 
: 024. 16 5, 2 10, 10 5, 2 12, 13 3, 19 7 
: 2 10, 177, 209, 136, 145, 209, 184 
;056, 165, 2 10, 23 3, 212, 133, 113 
: 2 10. 200, 200, 202, 2 24, 255, 145 
:208,224, 169,032, 160,039,204 
: 145, 209, 2 06, 054, 2 05, 3 2, 2 29 
: 048, 200, 096, 17 4, 168, 00 2, 07 2 
: 240, 003, 2 38, 055, 205, 159, 044 



1 00 COMPUTEI February 1 985 



52132 

52138 

52144 

52150 

52156 

52162 

52168 

52174 

52180 

52186 

52192 

52198 

52204 

52210 

52216 

52222 

52228 

52234 

52240 

52246 

52252 

52258 

52264 

52270 

52276 

52282 

52288 

52294 

52300 

52306 

52312 

52318 

52324 

52330 

52336 

52342 

52348 

52354 

52360 

52366 

52372 

52378 

52384 

52390 

52396 

52402 

52408 

52414 

52420 

52426 

52432 

52438 

52444 

52450 

52456 

52462 

52468 

52474 

52480 

52486 

52492 

5 2498 

52504 

52510 

52516 

52522 

52528 

52534 

52540 

52546 



000, 


141, 


054, 


205, 


032, 


048, 


094, 


205, 


240, 


204, 


174, 


054, 


205, 


172, 


055, 


205, 


162, 


002, 


169, 


019 


032, 


204, 


255 


169, 


203 


169, 


000, 


168 


141 


231, 


141 


232 


203, 


153 


255 


255, 


203 


233 


232, 


173 


2 29 


203, 


088 


,205 


,240. 


203 


,238 


,231, 


.238 


,229 


,203, 


076 


,227 


,203, 


021 


,208 


,169, 


•002 


,173 


,000, 


:141 


,000 


,221, 


:041 


,015 


,141, 


,033 


,208 


,141, 


:032 


,208 


,141, 


134 


,002 


,141, 


:024 


,185 


,217, 


:180 


,185 


,000, 


:000 


,136 


,016, 


094 


,205 


,208, 


:141 


,119 


,204, 


:118 


,204 


,168, 


!201 


,255 


,169, 


:255 


,032 


,204, 


!204 


,169 


,216, 


120 


,169 


,054, 


:255 


,255 


,153, 


:173 


,121 


.204, 


!088 


,205 


,173, 


219 


,013 


,088, 


:238 


,118 


,204, 


:208 


,223 


,238, 


122 


,204 


,076, 


:024 


,185 


,217, 


181 


,185 


,000, 


■000 


,136 


,016, 


133 


,001 


,088, 


141 


,033 


,208, 


141 


,134 


,002, 


141 


,032 


,208, 


136 


002 


169, 


208 


169 


003, 


141 


002 


221, 


000 


221 


141, 


023 


141 


024, 


167, 


002 


174, 


001, 


032, 


186, 


002, 


162, 


172, 


189, 


255, 


169, 


206, 


032, 


213, 


199, 


096, 


173, 


251, 


002, 


160, 


255, 


173, 


169, 


L60, 


002, 


032, 


206, 


133, 


254, 


253, 


169, 


253, 


207, 


032, 


216, 


199, 


096, 


000,1 


000, 


000, 


004,1 


004, 


004, 


004,1 


005, 


005, 


005, ( 



,205,141,084,021 

,200,096,173,156 

,003,076,074,100 

,205,140,090,025 

,205,140,089,030 

,032,201,255,027 

,210,255,032,149 

,216,141,229,140 

,141,228,203,132 

,203,169,176,026 

,185,255,255,215 

,056,173,228,070 

,141,088,205,058 

,233,219,013,032 

,017,238,228,240 

,203,208,223,024 

,238,232,203,067 

,169,000,141,058 

,192,141,136,115 

,221,041,252,199 

,173,024,208,027 

,024,208,173,124 

,091 ,205,173,123 

,092,205,173,129 

,093,205,160,019 

,000,153,000,125 

,181,153,217,212 

,241,096,173,220 

,250,169,176,154 

,169,000,141,088 

,162,002,032,006 

,017,032,210,210 

,255,141,121,084 

,141,122,204,138 

,133,001,185,006 

,255,255,056,067 

,233,233,141,205 

,122,204,233,131 

,205,240,034,167 

,238,121,204,241 

,119,204,238,098 

,117,204,160,013 

,000, 153,000,227 

,180,153,217,058 

,241,169,055,021 

,173,091,205,101 

,173,093,205,013 

, 173,092,205,169 

,169,004,141, 123 

,001,141,021,160 

,013,002,221,056 

,169,003,013,251 

,000,221,169,204 

,208,096,173,123 

,251,002,160,220 

, 255,173,169,030 

, 160 ,002 ,032 ,006 

,000, 170, 160, 169 

,255,032,147,117 

,167,002,174,049 

,001,032,186,132 

,002,162,172,183 

,189,255,169,063 

,169,000,133,157 

,162,255,160,008 

,255,032,147,163 

,000,000,000,087 

,004,004,004,070 

,005,005,005,087 

,006,006,006,099 



52552 ; 006, 006, 006, 006, 007, 007, 110 
52558 ! 007, 007, 007, 013, 013, 013, 138 

Program 3: Plus/Term ML Portion For VIC 

Refer to the "MLX" article before entering this listing. 



6144 
6150 
6156 
6162 
6168 
6174 
6180 
6186 
6192 
6198 
6204 
6210 
6216 
6 2 22 
6228 
6234 
6240 
6246 
6252 
6258 
6264 
6270 
6276 
6282 
6288 
6294 
6300 
6306 
6312 
6318 
6324 
6330 
6336 
6342 
6348 
6354 
6360 
6366 
6372 
6378 
6384 
6390 
6396 
6402 
6408 
6414 
6420 
6426 
6432 
6438 
6444 
6450 
6456 
6462 
6468 
6474 
6480 
6486 
6492 
6498 
6504 
6510 
6516 
6522 



032 


,023 


,032 


,076 


,200 


,024, 


169 


016 


,141 


,136 


,002 


169, 


194 


,141 


,005 


,144 


,169 


,140, 


141 


,252 


,002 


,169 


,032 


,141, 


253 


,002 


,169 


,171 


,141 


,254, 


002 


,169 


,032 


,141 


,255 


,002, 


169 


,001 


,141 


,102 


,033 


,032, 


120 


,028 


,169 


,147 


,141 


,093, 


033 


,032 


,252 


,029 


,169 


,000, 


141 


,091 


,033 


,133 


,055 


,169, 


064 


,133 


,056 


,169 


,035 


,133, 


044 


,169 


,000 


,141 


,191 


,002, 


141 


,107 


,033 


,141 


,000 


,035, 


169 


,000 


,141 


,063 


,003 


,032, 


117 


,024 


,169 


,000 


,141 


,092, 


033 


,141 


,093 


,033 


,141 


,094, 


033 


,169 


,000 


,141 


,019 


,003, 


165 


,055 


,141 


,194 


,002 


,165, 


056 


,141 


,195 


,002 


,076 


,200, 


024 


,006 


,016 


,160 


,255 


,152, 


192 


,219 


,176 


,024 


,192 


,193, 


144 


,006 


,056 


,233 


,128 


,076, 


150 


,024 


,192 


,06 5 


,144 


,012, 


192 


,096 


,176 


,006 


,024 


,105, 


032 


,076 


,150 


,024 


,169 


,000, 


153 


,000 


,019 


, 136 


,192 


,255, 


208 


,217 


,160 


,255 


,152 


,192, 


128 


,176 


,024 


,192 


,096 


,144, 


006 


,056 


,233 


,032 


,076 


,191, 


24 


,192 


,065 


,144 


,012 


,192, 


091 


,176 


,008 


,024 


,105 


,128, 


076 


,191 


,024 


,169 


,000 


,153, 


000 


,018 


,136 


,192 


,255 


,208, 


217 


,096 


,032 


,052 


,028 


,032, 


204 


,255 


,174 


,141 


,002 


,224, 


004 


,240 


,017 


,224 


,005 


,240, 


055 


,032 


,228 


,255 


,201 


,000, 


240 


,003 


,076 


,197 


,025 


,076, 


243 


,025 


,164 


,197 


,192 


,128, 


176 


,226 


,185 


,094 


,236 


,056, 


233 


,064 


,048 


,218 


,240 


,216, 


160 


,000 


,162 


,000 


,136 


,208, 


253 


,202 


,208 


,250 


,076 


,197, 


025 


160 


000 


,162 


,000 


136, 


208 


253 


,202 


,208 


250 


076, 


243 


025 


166 


,197 


224 


041, 


208 


,008 


072 


,032 


160 


026, 


104 


076 


194 


,025 


166 


197, 


224 


021 


208 


008 


07 2 


032, 


185 


027 


104 


076 


194 


025, 


166 


197 


224 


035 


208 


019, 


072, 


024 


173 


015 


144, 


105, 


016 


141 


015 


144 


009, 


008, 


141, 


015 


144 


104 


076, 


194, 


025, 


166 


197 


224 


044, 


208, 


018, 


072 


173, 


134 


002, 


041, 


007, 


024 


105, 


001, 


041, 


007, 


141, 


134, 


002, 


104, 


076, 


194, 


025, 


166, 


197, 


224, 


042, 


208, 


30, 


072, 


024, 


173, 


109, 


033, 


041, 


007, 


024, 


105, 


001, 


141, 


109, 


033, 


173, 


015, 


144, 


041, 


248, 


013, 


109, 


033, 


009, 


008, 


141, 


015, 


144, 


104, 


076, 


194, 



,131 
,127 
,037 
,243 
,246 
,119 
,002 
,225 
,051 
,164 
,138 
,101 
,017 
,230 
,115 
,113 
,205 
,056 
,010 
,215 
,092 
,001 
,207 
,225 
,083 
,137 
,060 
,154 
,250 
,035 
,200 
,031 
,233 
,143 
,180 
,172 
,219 
,071 
,153 
,183 
,235 
,144 
,158 
,229 
,181 
,142 
,014 
,020 
,085 
,137 
,125 
,071 
,133 
,224 
,164 
,002 
,009 
,225 
,186 
,027 
,167 
,113 
,024 
,028 

February 1985 COMPUTEI 101 



6528 
6534 
6540 
6546 
6552 
6558 
6564 
6570 
6576 
6582 
6588 
6594 
6600 
6606 
6612 
6618 
6624 
6630 
6636 
6642 
6648 
6654 
6660 
6666 
6672 
6678 
6684 
6690 
6696 
6702 
6708 
6714 
6720 
6726 
6732 
6738 
6744 

67 50 
6756 
6762 
6768 
6774 
6780 
6786 
6792 
6798 
6804 
6810 
6816 
6822 
6828 

68 34 
6840 
6846 
6852 
6858 
6864 
6870 
6876 
5882 
6888 
6894 
6900 
6906 
6912 
6918 
6924 

69 30 
6936 
6942 

102 COMPUTEI February 1985 



025. 


166, 


197, 


224, 


052, 


208, 


013, 


072, 


162, 


001, 


142, 


107, 


033, 


032, 


028, 


026, 


104, 


076, 


194, 


025, 


166, 


197, 


224, 


34. 


208, 


013, 


072, 


162, 


000, 


142, 


107, 


033, 


032, 


064, 


026, 


104, 


076, 


194, 


025, 


166, 


197, 


224, 


033, 


208, 


018. 


072, 


162, 


000 , 


142, 


194, 


002, 


166, 


056, 


142, 


195, 


002, 


032, 


102. 


026, 


104, 


076, 


194, 


025. 


076, 


206, 


024, 


076, 


003, 


025, 


072. 


201, 


136, 


208, 


005, 


104. 


032, 


152, 


031, 


096, 


162, 


002, 


032. 


201, 


255, 


174, 


063, 


003. 


208, 


009, 


104, 


072, 


168, 


185. 


000, 


019, 


076, 


228, 


025, 


104, 


072, 


032, 


210, 


255, 


104, 


172, 


019, 


003, 


208, 


006 


141, 


093, 


033, 


032. 


109, 


029, 


032 


052, 


028, 


032. 


204, 


255 


162 


002, 


032, 


198. 


255, 


032, 


228, 


255, 


201, 


000. 


208, 


003, 


076, 


200, 


024, 


174. 


063, 


003, 


208, 


006. 


041, 


127. 


168, 


185, 


000, 


013, 


141, 


093, 


033, 


032, 


109 


029 


076, 


200. 


024, 


160 


000 


152 


072 


185, 


049, 


026 


141 


093 


033 


032, 


252, 


029 


104 


168 


200 


192, 


015, 


208 


2 38 


96 


013 


091, 


066, 


085 


070 


070 


069 


082, 


032, 


079 


080 


069 


078 


093, 


013, 


160 


,000 


152 


072 


185 


085, 


026 


rl41 


093 


033 


032 


252, 


029 


,104 


168 


200 


,192 


017, 


208 


,238 


096 


013 


,091 


066, 


085 


,070 


070 


069 


,08 2 


032, 


067 


,076 


079 


083 


,069 


068, 


093 


,013 


,160 


000 


,152 


072, 


185 


,123 


,026 


,141 


,093 


033, 


032 


,252 


,029 


,104 


,168 


,200, 


192 


,017 


,208 


,238 


,096 


,013, 


091 


,066 


,085 


,070 


.070 


,069, 


082 


,032 


,090 


,069 


,082 


,079, 


069 


,068 


,093 


,013 


,160 


,000, 


152 


,072 


,185 


,240 


,027 


,141, 


093 


,033 


,032 


,252 


,029 


,104, 


168 


,200 


192 


014 


,208 


238, 


160 


,000 


152 


07 2 


185 


255, 


027 


141 


093 


033 


032 


252, 


029 


,104 


168 


200 


,192, 


013, 


2 08 


238 


032 


228 


,255 


240, 


251 


,201 


089 


240 


,007 


201, 


78 


,208 


243 


076 


,132 


027, 


169 


,000 


141 


106 


033 


160, 


000 


,152 


072 


185 


,027 


028, 


141 


,093 


033 


032 


,252 


029, 


104 


168 


200 


192 


,011 


208, 


238 


,032 


204 


255 


,160 


000, 


140 


,104 


033 


032 


,2 28 


255, 


201 


,000 


240 


249 


,201 


013, 


240 


,048 


201 


020 


,208 


011, 


172 


,104 


033 


240 


,236 


206, 


104 


,033 


076 


016 


,027 


201, 


031 


,144 


226 


201 


,091 


176, 


222 


,172 


104 


033 


,153 


050, 


033 


,238 


104 


033 


,141 


093, 


033 


,032 


252 


029 


,172 


104, 


033 


,192 


016 


,240 


,200 


07 6, 


229 


,026 


172 


,104 


,033 


140, 



,232 

,119 

,183 

.218 

,237 

,012 

,022 

,151 

,110 

,131 

,021 

,195 

,220 

,186 

,005 

,226 

,127 

,223 

,138 

,107 

, 128 

,154 

,032 

,051 

,230 

,236 

,134 

,099 

,236 

,246 

,204 

,214 

,206 

,135 

,018 

,026 

,240 

,024 

,078 

,195 

,129 

,114 

,06 3 

,052 

,027 

,191 

,179 

,150 

,216 

,232 

,110 

,099 

,149 

,186 

,037 

,154 

,020 

,073 

,085 

,250 

,112 

,198 

,211 

,195 

,101 

,228 

,142 

, 128 

,013 

,222 



6948 : 10 5, 03 3, 160, 000, 18 5,013,020 

6954 : 28, 141, 093, 33, 140, 103, 068 

69 60 :033, 032, 252, 029, 17 2, 103, 157 

6966 ; 33, 200, 192, 014, 208, 2 36, 169 

69 72 : 03 2, 204, 25 5, 03 2, 228, 25 5, 042 

69 78 :240, 248,201,084,240,007,062 
6984 -.201, 06 8, 240, 008, 07 6, 060. 213 
6990 :027, 162, 001, 076, 086, 027, 201 
6996 : 162, 008, 169, 010, 160,000,081 
7 002 : 032, 186, 2 55, 173, 105,0 33,106 
7008 : 162, 050, 160, 033, 03 2, 189,210 
7014 :255, 169,147,141,093,033,172 
7020 :032, 25 2, 029, 169, 147, 032, 001 
7026 : 2 10, 2 55, 174, 106,0 33,208,0 76 
7032 :022, 174, 194, 00 2, 17 2, 195, 111 

70 38 : 002, 109,055, 32, 2 16, 25 5, 087 
7044 : 165, 05 5, 141, 194, 002, 165, 086 
7050 : 56, 141, 195, 002, 096, 169, 029 
7056 : 000, 166, 05 5, 164, 056, 03 2, 10 5 
7062 : 2 13, 2 55, 142, 194,002, 140,07 2 
7068 : 19 5, 00 2, 16 2, 000, 134, 05 5, 19 2 
7 074 tl60, 063, 132,056,160,003,2 24 
7080 :185, 236, 02 7, 141, 09 3, 03 3, 115 
7 086 : 152, 07 2, 32, 2 5 2, 029, 104, 047 
7092 : 168, 136, 01 6, 240, 096, 160, 228 
7098 : 000, 140, 104, 3 3, 185, 38, 174 
7104 : 028, 14 1,09 3, 03 3, 03 2, 2 5 2, 003 
7110 :0 29, 2 38, 104, 033, 172, 104, 110 
7116 : 03 3, 19 2, 014, 208, 2 34, 3 2, 149 
7122 : 2 28, 2 55, 20 1,000, 2 40, 249, 103 
7128 : 20 1,089, 240, 007, 20 1,078, 008 
7134 : 240, 011, 076, 209, 027, 162,179 
7140 : 00 1,14 1,106, 03 3, 03 2, 20 1,2 30 
7146 : 26, 096, 013, 07 5, 079, 01 3, 024 
715 2 :01 3, 091, 066, 085, 070, 070, 12 3 
7158 : 069, 082, 32, 070, 085, 076, 148 
7164 : 07 6, 09 3, 01 3, 01 3, 083, 06 5, 083 
7170 : 086, 069, 032, 089, 032, 079, 133 
7176 : 08 2, 03 2, 07 8, 06 3, 013, 013, 03 3 
7182 : 084, 065, 080, 069, 3 2, 79, 167 
7188 : 082, 032, 068, 073, 083, 07 5, 17 7 
7194 : 013, 013, 070, 073, 076, 069, 084 
7200 : 078, 06 5, 077, 069, 058, 013, 136 
7 2 06 : 013, 076, 79, 06 5 , 068 , 32 , 1 1 5 
7212 : 089, 03 2, 079, 08 2, 3 2, 078, 18 
7218 : 063, 01 3, 17 3, 2 14, 32, 048, 081 

72 24 :015,201,022, 144,024, 169,119 
7 2 30 ; 000, 141, 2 14, 3 2, 2 38, 2 15, 134 
7236 : 03 2, 076, 08 5, 028, 2 38. 2 14, 229 
7242 : 032, 206, 2 15, 032, 048, 023, 118 
7248 :1 69, 021, 14 1,214, 032, 173, 06 2 
7254 : 215, 032, 048, 013, 201, 23, 106 
7260 : 144. 012, 206, 21 5, 032, 032, 221 
7266 : 117,233,076, 106,028, 238, 128 
727 2 :215, 03 2, 172, 215, 032, 185, 18 7 
7278 : 240, 032, 133, 209, 185, 2 16, 101 
7284 : 03 2, 13 3. 2 10, 096, 17 2, 2 14, 205 
7290 : 032, 177, 209, 073, 128, 145, 118 
7296 : 209, 024, 16 5, 210, 10 5, 13 2, 205 
7 302 ; 133, 2 10, 165, 209, 105, 000, 188 
7 308 : 133, 209, 173, 10 2,033,240.006 
7 314 : 022, 177, 2 09, 04 1,0 15, 141, 2 39 

73 20 -.101,03 3,159,000,141,10 2,186 
73 26 =033,173,134,002,041,015,044 
73 32 :145,209.07 6.179.02a, 17 3,206 
73 38 : 101, 033, 145, 209, 169, 00 1,060 
7344 : 141, 102,033. 056, 165, 2 10, 11 5 
7350 :233, 132, 133,210,233,000,099 
7356 : 13 3, 209, 032, 052, 028, 096, 226 
7362 : 172, 214, 032, 177, 209, 201, 175 



7368 


;032, 


208,012, 


238, 


214.032,168 


7788 


7374 


:032, 


052,028, 


032, 


120,028,242 


7 794 


7380 


:104, 


104,096, 


162, 


000,177,087 


7800 


7386 


:209, 


157,010, 


033, 


072,024,211 


7806 


7392 


:165, 


210,105, 


132, 


133,210,155 


7812 


7 398 


:177, 


209,157, 


050, 


033,056,144 


7818 


7404 


:165. 


210,233, 


132, 


133,210,039 


7824 


7410 


: 136, 


232,224, 


022, 


240.011,083 


78 30 


7416 


;104 


201,032, 


208 


220,142,131 


7836 


7422 


:213 


032,076 


016 


029,104,212 


7842 


7428 


:238 


214,032 


032 


052,028,088 


7848 


7434 


:032 


120,028 


104 


104,096,238 


7854 


7440 


:174 


,213,032 


200 


169,032.068 


7860 


7446 


:145 


,209,200 


,202 


,208,248,210 


7866 


7452 


:173 


,215,032 


,201 


,023,208,112 


7872 


7458 


:006 


,032,117 


,233 


,206,215,075 


7878 


7464 


:032 


,238.215 


,032 


,169,000,214 


7884 


7470 


:141 


,214,032 


,032 


,052,028,033 


7890 


7476 


:174 


,213,032 


,160 


,000,202.065 


7896 


7482 


:202 


,189,010 


,033 


,141,090,211 


7902 


7488 


:033 


,024,165 


,210 


,105,132,221 


7908 


7494 


:133 


,210,189 


,050 


,033,141,058 


7914 


7500 


:134 


,002,056 


,165 


,210,233,108 


7920 


7506 


:132 


,133,210 


,072 


,152,072.085 


7926 


7512 


:138 


,072,032 


,017 


,030,104,225 


7932 


7518 


:170 


,104,168 


,104 


.200,202,018 


79 38 


7524 


:016 


,213,206 


,214 


,032,032,045 


7944 


7530 


;052 


,028,096 


,174 


,107,033,084 


7950 


7536 


:208 


,003,076 


,252 


.029,160,072 


7956 


7542 


:000 


,141,093 


,0 33 


,166,253,036 


7962 


7548 


:I42 


,064,003 


,166 


,254,142,127 


7968 


7554 


:065 


,003,174 


,194 


,002,134.190 


7974 


7560 


:253 


,174,195 


,002 


,134,254,124 


7980 


7566 


tl45 


,253,072 


,174 


,064,003,085 


7986 


7572 


:134 


,253,174 


,065 


,003,134,143 


7992 


7578 


:254 


,056,165 


,249 


,237,194,029 


7998 


7584 


;002 


,141,096 


,033 


,165,250,079 


8004 


7590 


:237 


,195,002 


,013 


,096,033,230 


8010 


7596 


:208 


,021,162 


,002 


,032,201,030 


8016 


7602 


:255 


,169,019 


,032 


,210,255,094 


80 22 


7608 


:032 


,204,255 


,032 


,140,026,105 


8028 


7614 


:032 


,102,026 


,104 


,096,104,142 


8034 


7620 


:201 


,020,240 


,011 


,238,194,076 


8040 


7626 


:002 


,208,047 


,238 


,195,002,126 


8046 


7632 


:076 


,252,029 


,141 


,093,033,064 


8052 


7638 


:056 


,173,194 


,002 


,229,055,155 


8058 


7644 


:141 


,096,033 


,173 


,195.002,092 


8064 


7650 


:229 


,056,013 


,096 


033,240,125 


8070 


7656 


:019 


,072,056 


,173 


194,002,236 


8076 


7662 


:233 


001,141 


194 


002.173,214 


8082 


7668 


:195 


,002,233 


000 


141,195,242 


8088 


7674 


:002 


104,173 


093 


033,201,088 


B094 


7680 


:032 


144,115 


201 


127,144,251 


8100 


7686 


:007 


201,160 


176 


003,076,117 


8106 


7692 


:118 


030,032 


041 


031,032,040 


8112 


7698 


:120 


028,172, 


215 


032,185.002 


8118 


7704 


:240 


032,133, 


209 


185,216.015 


8124 


7710 


:032 


133,210, 


172, 


214,032,055 


8130 


7716 


:173 


091,033, 


240, 


010.173,244 


8136 


7722 


:090, 


033,009, 


128, 


145,209,144 


8142 


7728 


:076, 


056,030, 


173, 


090,033,250 


8148 


7734 


:145, 


209,024, 


165, 


210,105,144 


8154 


7740 


:i32, 


133,210, 


173, 


134,002,076 


8160 


7746 


:145, 


209,056, 


165, 


210,233,060 


8166 


7752 


sl32. 


133,210, 


173, 


214,032,198 


8172 


7758 


:201, 


021,208, 


026, 


174,191,131 


8178 


7764 


:002, 


208,021, 


032, 


194,028,057 


8184 


7770 


:238, 


214,032, 


032, 


052,028.174 


8190 


7776 


:032, 


120,028, 


169, 


001,141,075 


8196 


7782 


:102, 


033,032, 


120, 


028.096,001 


8202 



238, 


214,1 


032, 


120, 


028, 


173, 


176, 


084, 


072, 


032, 


014, 


208, 


013, 


005, 


104, 


201, 


238, 


215, 


104, 


201, 


169, 


001, 


201, 


019, 


000, 


141, 


032, 


032, 


020, 


208, 


031, 


104, 


072, 


238, 


028, 


104, 


072, 


032, 


142, 


208, 


045 


005, 


104 


201, 


206 


215, 


104 


201, 


169 


000, 


201 


147, 


095 


,229. 


032 


,141, 


028 


,104, 


072 


,206, 


028 


,104, 


120 


,028, 


041 


,128, 


173 


,093, 


095 


,033, 


172 


,215, 


133 


,209, 


210 


,172, 


056 


,169, 


170 


,177, 


200 


,024, 


133 


,210, 


209 


,056, 


rl33 


.210. 


:255 


,208, 


!021 


,145, 


:032 


,052, 


:002 


,240, 


:169 


,000, 


:091 


,033, 


:174 


,214, 


:172 


,215, 


162 


,002, 


:019 


,032, 


:255 


,169, 


169 


,000, 


201 


,031, 


:031 


,160, 


:153 


,255, 


:031 


,233, 


:173 


,202, 


:096 


,033, 


031 


,238, 


(238 


,199, 


:076 


,197, 


136 


,002, 


r099 


,033. 


144 


,173. 


S033 


,160, 


153 


,000, 



032, 


032, 


052,1 


28, 


096, 


032, 


093, 


033, 


201, ( 


201, 


013, 


208, 


132, 


031, 


104, 


010, 


072, 


169, 


144, 


141, 


005, 


017, 


208, 


008, 


032, 


032, 


052. 


018, 


208, 


007, 


141. 


091, 


033, 


208. 


013, 


072, 


214, 


032. 


141, 


052, 


028. 


104, 


005, 


072. 


032, 


201 


029, 


208, 


214 


032, 


032. 


201 


141, 


208. 


132 


031, 


104. 


010 


072, 


169, 


144 


141 


005, 


145 


208 


008, 


032 


032 


052, 


146 


208 


007, 


141 


091 


033, 


2 08 


016 


072, 


169 


000 


141, 


215 


032 


032, 


201 


,157 


208, 


214 


,032 


032, 


032 


,052 


028, 


096 


,173 


093, 


,074 


,141 


,095, 


,033 


,041 


,063, 


,141 


,090 


,033, 


,032 


,185 


,240, 


,185 


,216 


,032, 


,214 


,032 


,240, 


,021 


,237 


,214, 


,209 


,136 


,145, 


,165 


,210 


,105, 


,177 


,209 


,136, 


,165 


,210 


,233, 


,200 


,200 


,202, 


,224 


,169 


,032, 


,209 


,206 


,214, 


,028 


,096 


,174, 


,003 


,238 


,215, 


,141 


,214 


,032, 


,032 


,052 


,028, 


,032 


,142 


,098, 


,032 


,140 


,097, 


,032 


,201 


,255, 


,210 


,255 


,032, 


,148 


.141 


,199, 


,141 


,198 


,031, 


,169 


,022 


,141, 


,000 


,185 


,255, 


,255 


,056 


,173, 


,250 


,141 


,096, 


,031 


,233 


,023, 


,240 


,017 


,238, 


,201 


,031 


,208, 


,031 


,238 


, 202 , 


,031 


,169 


,020, 


,173 


,015 


,144, 


,169 


,210 


,141, 


,134 


,002 


,141, 


,025 


,185 


,217, 


034 


,185 


,050, 



,028,192 

,120,030 

,032,168 

,005,045 

,201,192 

,002,101 

,144,084 

,072,248 

.028,241 

,072,004 

,104.195 

,169.088 

,215,155 

,201,123 

,062,079 

,008,011 

,052,076 

.005,129 

.201,020 

,240,039 

,144,200 

,072,204 

,028,037 

,072.216 

,104,022 

,032,166 

,214,088 

,052,006 

,008,214 

,052,122 

,032,052 

,033,069 

,033,044 

,013.210 

,096.032 

,032,170 

,133,208 

,051,225 

,032,041 

,209,108 

,132,160 

,145,084 

,132,085 

,224,255 

,160,140 

,032,181 

,168,166 

,032,096 

,141,069 

,096,222 

,033,077 

,033,079 

,169,217 

,204,154 

,031,095 

,141,094 

,202,136 

,255,056 

,201,013 

,033,222 

,013,119 

,198,016 

,223,132 

,031,145 

,141,102 

,141,085 

,005,137 

,100,180 

,000,112 

,034,210 



Febfuarv 1985 COMPUTEI 103 



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HAPPY COMPUTERS, INC. 

P.O. Box 1268, Morgan Hill, CA 95037 

(408) 779-3830 



8208 
8214 
8220 
8225 
8232 
8238 
8244 
8250 
8256 
8262 
8268 
8274 
8280 
8286 
8292 
8298 
8304 
8310 
8316 
8322 
8328 
8334 
8340 
3346 
8352 
8358 
8364 
8370 
8376 
8382 
8388 
8394 
8400 
8406 
8412 
8418 
8424 
84 30 
8436 
8442 
8448 
8454 



:153,217 

: 096, 169 

: 169,000 

:002,032 

:032,210 

:169,000 

:148,141 

:185,255 

:056,173 

:141,096 

:233,023 

:017,238, 

:032,208, 

;238,063, 

:173,099, 

:173,100, 

:169,016, 

:194,141, 

:185,217, 

:185,000, 

:136,016, 

:002,174, 

:032,186, 

:162,172, 

:255,169, 

:024,032, 

:167,002, 

:001,032, 

t002,162, 

!l89,255, 

:169,000, 

!l62,255, 

:255,096, 

: 000, 000, 

:016,016, 

:016,016, 

i017,017 , 

:017,.017, 

! 088, 110, 

:220,242, 

:096,1I3, 

(228, 250, 



000,136 
022,141 
141,059 
201,255 
255,032 
141,062 
063,032 
255,153 
059,032 
033,173 
013,096 
059,032 
223,238 
032,076 
033,141 
033,141 
141,136 
005,144 
000,153 
034,153 
241,096 
251,002 
255,173 
160,002 
000,16 2 
213,255 
174,251 
186,255 
172,160 
169,0 24 
133,253 
160,025 
000,000 
016,016 
016,016 
017,017 
017,017 
000,022 
132,154 
008.030 
140,162 
013,013 



,016, 
,060, 
,032, 
,169, 
,204, 
,032, 
,160, 
,255, 
,233, 
,060, 
,033, 
,238, 
,060, 
,058, 
,015, 
,134, 
,002, 
,160, 
,050, 
,217, 
,173, 
,160, 
,169, 
,032, 

,000, 
,096, 
,002, 
,173, 
,002, 
,133, 
,169, 
,032, 
,000, 
,016, 
,016, 
,017, 
,017, 
,044, 
,176, 
,052, 
,184, 
,013, 



241,011 
032,030 
162,079 
017,198 
255,004 
169,107 
000,084 
255,136 
250,099 
032,093 
240,202 
062,216 
032,113 
032,081 
144,193 
002,177 
169,233 
025,019 
034,251 
000,207 
167,197 
001,220 
002,197 
189,103 
160,138 
173,191 
160,160 
169,226 
032,202 
254,190 
253,149 
216,028 
000,047 
016,022 
016,060 
017,070 
017,078 
066,148 
198,078 
074,108 
206,138 
013,024 



Program 4: VIC/64 Tokenlzer (Disk Only) 

Refer to the "MLX" article before entering this listing. 



828 
834 
840 
846 
852 
858 
864 
870 
876 
882 
888 
894 
900 
906 
912 
918 
924 
930 
936 
942 
948 
954 
960 
966 



t032, 

!012, 

il73, 
!003, 
(205, 
!l64, 
:034, 
tl69, 
:032, 
tl69, 

!003 , 

!l38, 
;032, 

!l50, 

!203, 

!l44, 
;195, 
:008, 
!032, 
:169, 
(204, 

!003, 

:210, 
:040, 



237,255 
032,253 
032,130 
032,253 
032,130 
035,032 
164,035 
032,162 
186,255 
125,141 
141,037 
072,152 
180,255 
255,032 
003,032 
240,026 
255,032 
032,177 
147,255 
013,141 
003,208 
201,013 
255,104 
173,203 



,224 
,174 
,183 
,206 
,215 
,189 
,032 
,008 
,032 
,036 
,003 
,072 
,169 
,165 
,171 
, 169 
,138 
,255 
,032 
,203 
,010 
,240 
,168 
,003 



,022, 
,032, 

,076, 
,032, 
,166, 
,255, 
,189, 
,160, 
,192, 
,003, 
,096, 
,169, 
,104, 
,255, 
,255, 
,032, 
,255, 
,169, 
,174, 
,003, 
,173, 
,003, 
,104, 
,096, 



240,046 
158,215 
095,249 
158,250 
034,098 
166,163 
255,037 
008,129 
255,036 
169,245 
008,152 
008,225 
032,136 
141,112 
165,205 
032,025 
169,176 
232,011 
255,039 
173,108 
203,213 
032,166 
170,179 
000,201 



THE BEGINNER'S PAGE 



Tom Q. Hatfhili, Eaitor 



IF-THEN Intelligence 

At one time or another you've probably seen the 
term artificial intelligence. It refers, of course, to 
computer intelligence — the ability of a machine 
to reproduce (or, if you prefer, simulate} some of 
the thought processes of a human being. 

We're not going to reopen here the philo- 
sophical debate about whether computers are 
really intelligent, or if they ever will be intelli- 
gent (or for that matter, if humans are intelli- 
gent). Scientists still can't agree on exactly how 
the human brain works, much less whether it 
can be duplicated in silicon circuitry. 

But we do know how computers work. Al- 
though computers aren't (yet) capable of in- 
dependent thought or action, they certainly 
appear intelligent at times. They can play chess 
at the grandmaster level, forecast tomorrow's 
weather as well as anybody else, help plan the 
economy of a household or a nation, create 
wonderfully abstract art, and even simulate the 
responses of a psychoanalyst closely enough to 
fool many lavpeople. How can a mass of wires 
and silicon chips seem to be so smart? What sets 
computers apart from all other machines? 

Programmability alone isn't the answer. 
There were programmable machines long before 
computers came along. One example is the 
centuries-old music box. A melody is pro- 
grammed into the box by punching little bumps 
onto the surface of a revolving drum; as the 
drum turns, the bumps pluck a series of tiny 
metal prongs tuned to different notes. Of course, 
a music box is capable of playing only one mel- 
ody drum, or "program." A more sophisticated 
example is the player piano, with its interchange- 
able paper rolls that operate on the same 
principle. 

Still, there's something missing from a pro- 
grammable player piano that keeps it from 
qualifying as a true computer. Even some of to- 
day's programmable calculators lack the essential 
element of computer intelligence. They, too, can 
be programmed to carry out a series of steps, but 
they can't imitate the decision-making power of a 
real brain. 

What do computers have that all these other 
machines don't? Conditional logic. Although some 



other devices are capable of conditional logic on 
a very primitive level, no machine can do it as 
flexibly as a computer. 

Michael Jackson Vs. Beethoven 

Here's how conditional logic works. Let's say 
you send a friend to a record store with a $10 
bill and these instructions: "If the store has 
Michael Jackson's latest album, then buy it for 
me. Otherwise, buy the Cleveland Symphony 
Orchestra's new recording of Beethoven's Fifth." 

Now, you've done more than simply pro- 
grammed your friend to visit the store and buy 
you a record. You've given him the power to 
make a decision in your absence, and also the 
information he needs to make the decision. 
Depending on whether a certain condition is met 
(if the store has Michael Jackson's latest album or 
not), your friend will act on either of the two 
alternatives (he'll buy you the Jackson record or 
the Beethoven record). Even if your friend has 
the brains of a hamster, he'll appear semi- 
intelligent to the record store clerk as he flips 
through the bins and picks the correct album. 

All computer programming languages have 
commands that let you tell the computer to make 
the same sort of decisions. In BASIC, the most 
common command for conditional logic is the IF- 
THEN statement. It takes this form: 

IF condition is met THEN perform this action. 

Computers don't understand English, of 
course, so the italicized words above must be re- 
placed with terms the computer can understand. 
Usually the conditional part of the statement in- 
volves a comparison between variables and num- 
bers. And often the resulting action will be a 
second command which sends the computer to 
another section of the program. Let's try some 
actual examples. 

Conversational Computing 

At one time or another you've probably used a 
computer program which carries on a conversa- 
tion with you, depending on how you respond to 
certain questions. The machine appears almost 
human, and conditional logic is the key. 

Let's say you're an insurance salesman who 
is writing a program designed to analyze a client's 

February 1985 COMPUTEI 105 



life insurance needs. One of the first questions 
the program needs to ask is the person's age. 
This can be done with a simple PRINT state- 
ment. Clear the computer's memory by turning it 
off, then on again, and type the following line 
exactly as it appears (remember that to enter a 
program line into memory, you must press the 
RETURN or ENTER key after typing the line); 
10 PRINT "What is your age"; 

When the program runs, the PRINT statement 
will print the text between the quotes on the 
screen. Next, type this line: 
20 INPUT A 

When the program runs, this simple statement 
does three things. First, it prints a question mark 
after the text in the PRINT statement. Second, it 
makes the computer pause until someone types 
in a number on the keyboard. Finally, it takes 
the number and stores it in a memory location 
which can be referenced with the variable name 
A. 

Now it's time for some conditional logic. Enter 
these two lines: 

30 IF A>100 THEN PRINT "It's a little late to be 

thinking about life insurance, isn't it?":END 

40 PRINT "We have just the policy that you need." 

Now clear the screen and run the program. 
When it asks for your age, try typing in a num- 
ber less than 100. Then run the program again 
and type in a number greater than 100. See the 
difference? (Note: This program requires Ex- 
tended BASIC on the TI-99/4A.) 

Here's how it works. Line 30 compares the 
value stored in the variable A with 100. If A is 
greater than 100 {> is the greater-thau sign), then 
the condition is met and the computer performs 
the instruction which immediately follows. The 
second half of an IF-THEN statement is executed 
only when the condition in the first half is true. (In- 
cidentally, line 30 is also a multistatemcnt line; a 
colon separates the second statement, END, from 
the IF-THEN statement. This command ends the 
program after the remark is printed.) 

If the user claims to be less than 100 years 
old, the condition in line 30 is not met. There- 
fore, the computer ignores the rest of line 30 and 
continues (or "falls through") to the next line. 
The computer prints a different message on the 
screen and, presumably, would go on to the 
remainder of the program. 

Simulated Intelligence 

Although this simple four-line program contains 
only one conditional statement, it illustrates how 
computers can appear intelligent. The computer 
not only makes different responses depending on 
the user's input, it also seems to know that 

106 COMPUTE! February 1985 



centenarians are unlikely candidates for life 
insurance. It even reveals a snappy sense of hu- 
mor. Of course, it's really the programmer talk- 
ing, not the computer. (Remember this the next 
time your computer makes a rude remark.) 

Simple conditional statements like the one 
above are the basis for nearly all of what passes 
as artificial intelligence today. All programs work 
on the same principle, from the sophisticated 
modeling software that forecasts the nation's 
economy to the chess program which threatens 
the supremacy of the world's top champions. In 
fact, the chess program published in the December 
1984 issue of COMPUTE!, when playing on level 
5, uses a similar technique to evaluate up to 50 
million possible moves during each turn. Natu- 
rally, a program that complicated must be written 
in machine language, not BASIC, or you'd be 
waiting months for the computer's response. 

The IF-THEN statement isn't the only way 
to simulate intelligence in BASIC. Most BASICs 
have at least two other statements which accom- 
plish more or less the same thing. This indicates 
how important conditional logic really is in 
programming, (Linguists say you can determine a 
language's most often used concepts by counting 
the synonyms — interestingly, somebody once fig- 
ured out that English has more terms for being 
inebriated than almost any other concept,) 

In BASIC, as we mentioned, IF-THEN is by 
far the most common conditional statement. 
Some of the more powerful BASICs — such as 
IBM BASIC— augment the IF-THEN statement 
with an ELSE condition. This lets you combine 
two lines into one. For instance, lines 30 and 40 
above could be rewritten like this in IBM BASIC: 

30 IF A<100 THEN PRINT "We have just the policy 
for your needs." ELSE PRINT "It's a little late to be 
thinking about life insurance, isn't it?":END 

ELSE doesn't let you do anything you 
couldn't do otherwise; it just makes program- 
ming more convenient. 

Other examples of conditional statements in 
BASIC are ON-GOTO and ON-GOSUB. In effect, 
these let you combine a whole series of IF- 
THENs into one compact line. They are also 
called conditional branching statements because 
they branch to other parts of the program. An IF- 
THEN statement can be used for conditional 
branching, too. We'll cover both conditional and 
unconditional branching in next month's column, 
and also show a couple of ways to avoid long, 
cumbersome lists of IF-THENs in your programs. 



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that it can happen when one mistypes num- 
bers in DATA statements, but not why, nor 
what else can cause it, so I can't yet reason 
backward from crash to cause. I've been trying 
to translate a budget and cash-flow analysis 
program written for the IBM PC so it will run 
on a Timex Sinclair TS-1000 with a 16K RAM 
pack, which in theory should take a program 
up to 900 lines long. But I can't even begin to 
type it in. The first 30 lines contain a DIM 
block of about ten lines and other statements. 
Before 1 can finish, I get a crash: blank screen, 
no cursor, keyboard dead, BREAK and STOP 
keys disabled. Nothing to do but unplug, 
replug, and start from scratch. Nothing here 
seems similar to mistyping figures in DATA 
statements, and I don't see how I could be run- 
ning out of memory so soon (the manual says 
you will eventually — not bang all of a sud- 
den — reach a blank screen when you've 
jammed the poor beast beyond capacity). 

Norman Hartweg 

A You've described the symptoms of a system 
crash or jreeze perfectly — the screen often 
goes haywire, the computer won't respond to 
commands typed on the keyboard, and your only 
alternative is to power down and wipe out what- 
ever you were working on. 

Disregarding rare hardware failures, svstem 
crashes generally happen when the computer 
gets stuck in what's called an infinite loop at the 
machine level. This means the computer tries to 
execute a series of instructions which loop back 
on themselves or cancel each other out. The 
computer might look paralyzed, but it's really 
very busy trying to accomplish the impossible. 
So busy, in fact, that it ignores everything else, 
including your demands for attention on the 
keyboard. 

As an example, suppose you told somebody 
to resolve these two statements: "Assume every- 
thing I say is always the truth. Now, I'm telling a 
lie." If everything you say is the truth, then 
you're telling the truth when you say you're ly- 
ing. But if you're really lying, then everything 
you say isn't always the truth. But it's a given 
that you never tell a lie . . . and so on. You can 
go back and forth like this forever — except you're 
smart enough not to try, and a computer isn't. 
{Star Trek fans may recall how Captain Kirk used 
this classic paradox to provoke an android into a 
system crash and free his crew.) 

System crashes can happen when DATA 
statements are mistyped, because DATA numbers 
often contain machine language subprograms. A 
mistyped number can create a wrong instruction, 
which in turn can trap the computer in an end- 

108 COMPUTi! Febmary 1 985 



less loop. Typing the wrong number in a POKE 
statement can do the same thing. 

However, these crashes happen only when 
the program runs, not when it's being typed. As 
you surmised, your symptoms indicate a memory 
problem. Check these possibilities: 

1. The I6K RAM pack on a TS-1000 fits 
rather loosely. If it's not plugged in all the way, 
the computer may not be recognizing the extra 
memory, leaving you with only the 2K internal 
RAM, not the 16K you think you have. Also, if 
the pack wiggles when you type on the key- 
board, the faulty connection can crash the 
computer. 

2. The DIM statements you mentioned at the 
beginning of the program may be eating up all 
your RAM. DIM statements aren't like other 
statements; they take up more memory than just 
the characters they're composed of. The purpose 
of a DIM statement is to reserve a block of mem- 
ory for an array (a series of related variables). In 
Sinclair BASIC, each element of a numeric array 
consumes five bytes each. The statement DIM 
X(375) might look pretty short and harmless, but 
it actually consumes so much memory that it 
causes an error when typed into a TS-1000 with 
2K of RAM. If the DIM statements are the source 
of your trouble, you'll have to scale down the 
IBM program to fit it into vour Timex. © 




Buy and 
sell stocks with 
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Adding Sound Effects 

To Atari 



Matt Giwer 



Do you wani more realistic sounds than beeps? This 
article gives you five short programs that let your 
Atari produce some interesting, subtle sounds. 



There are many packages available for making 
the Atari a music box. All provide some degree 
of musical verisimilitude; that is, they sound 
good. However, these packages don't really help 
those who are tired of hearing the same old 
beeps in their programs. 

Let's consider how tones are generated in 
the real world and try to duplicate them on the 
computer. And take heart: It will all be done in 
BASIC. You won't even find a page 6 subroutine. 
You can improve on what I have done once you 
understand what is going on. 

Frequencies And Amplitude 

Sound is generated by vibrating objects. Each ob- 
ject sounds different because it has a different set 
of resonant frequencies. Also, each object has a 
different set of loss parameters that determine 
how quickly the amplitude of the sound will rise 
and fall. Other factors such as the noise content 
add to the character of each individual sound. 

The resonant frequency of an object is the 
dominant characteristic, so let's take it first. 
Strike a bell or play a note on a piano and you 
don't hear just one frequency, you hear a wide 
range of frequencies. The lowest frequency is 
called the fundamental frequency. Most objects 
also support harmonics of this frequency. The 
even harmonics are two, four, six, eight, and so 
forth times as high as the fundamental. The odd 
harmonics are three, five, seven, nine, and so 
forth times as high. 

The mix of these frequencies and whether 
they are odd or even are components of the 
character of the sound. A piano is rich in even 
harmonics; a woodwind is rich in odd harmonics. 
There is one further complication: Most objects 
have more than one fundamental frequency, and 



each fundamental frequency may have its own 
set of harmonics. It is thus obvious why simple 
beeps lack the complexity of real sounds. 

The next factor is how fast the amplitude of 
these frequencies rises and falls. When a drum is 
struck, it gives a short, loud sound, so its am- 
plitude rises and falls quickly. A piano note is 
loud, but is sustained for some time, A wood- 
wind rises slowly in amplitude and falls slowly. 

The simplification used for electronic simula- 
tion of musical instruments is called the ADSR 
envelope (shown in the figure). These letters 
stand for Attack, Decay, Sustain, and Release. 
Across the top are times 1 through 4 and am- 
plitudes 1 and 2. A struck instrument has a very 
short tl and a somewhat longer t2. For a piano, 
t3 and t4 are relatively long and for a drum, t3 
and t4 are short. Also for struck instruments the 
amplitude al will be at least twice as great as a2, 
but in a woodwind they may be the same. 

Noise And Tone 

The third factor is the amount of noise. This is 
easily heard in a snare drum, which contains 
added wires to make noise. It is less obvious in 
woodwinds, where the very act of blowing cre- 
ates some noise. Blowing is similar to whisper- 
ing, where there is little tonal content and the 
lips and tongue are modulating noise. A 




I tl I t2 i t3 



I 




;:/ 



/\ 



\ 



a2 



attack sustain 

decay release 



ADSR 



Febfuary 1 985 COMPUTEI 1 0<? 



"breathy" speech pattern is comparable to a horn 
or woodwind. Thus a low amplitude component 
of noise can add to the realism. 

With these three factors in mind, let's exam- 
ine a woodwind in detail. The artist is aware that 
the instrument has a slow attack time, so he will 
blow harder at the beginning of a note to give it 
a definite start. In doing so he will increase the 
noise level. The initial breath will start the in- 
strument vibrating, and the various fundamentals 
and harmonics will be heard. If the instrument is 
being played loudly, some of the harder-to-excite 
frequencies will be heard too. 

Once the instrument has established its note, 
the artist will blow more softly, so the tone con- 
tent will be up, but the noise component will be 
down. Finally the note will end, and the artist 
will stop blowing. The noise component will stop 
immediately, but the tonal component will con- 
tinue for a short time. If all this doesn't sound 
complex, enough, imagine what goes on in a slide 
trombone. 

Real sounds are complex, but computer- 
generated tones are not. So we must make them 
complex to make them realistic. For a perfect 
simulation of a piano or clarinet, a Moog syn- 
thesizer is definitely preferred. To make do with 
the Atari sound chip, machine language might be 
preferable. But if you draw a line with One end 
being the beeps and the other end the Moog, 
we'll see that BASIC can get us more than halfway 
toward the Moog. 

Experimenting With Sound Qualities 

The following programs are examples of some 
complex sonic effects. These programs directly 
POKE the audio control registers with amplitude 
information. The amphtude varies from (off) to 
15 (loudest). These amplitude levels are stored in 
S0$ in pairs of numbers. These are converted to 
numbers in line 21 and POKEd in line 22. The 
cycle through the loop provides automatic timing 
for note duration. Q=l '' 1 is used for timing 
pure tones. 

Program 1 is a direct comparison between 
notes with and without an ADSR amplitude en- 
velope. The SOS envelope here is that of a struck 
instrument. Note that the first value in S0$ is 15 
for shortest Attack, then a 12 to provide a slower 
decay, three OS's for sustain, and then 04 and 00 
for a slower release. You will certainly notice the 
difference in tones when you run the program; in 
fact, the switch from envelope to no envelope is 
itself a pleasing effect. 

Program 2 offers a somewhat different effect 
by playing two chords with and without the 
envelope. 

Program 3 introduces the effect of harmonics 
on a single note and again gives a side-by-side 

no COMPUTEI Febmaiy 1986 



comparison. These are the even harmonics found 
in pianos. Note several points here. In most in- 
struments the fundamental frequency is the loud- 
est, then the harmonics. And the fourth 
harmonic may be louder than the second. In real 
instruments there are both odd and even 
harmonics. A string plucked in the center pro- 
duces a different sound than a string plucked 
near the end. I have ignored both of these points 
in this program. 

Program 4 is similar to Program 3 except 
that it provides odd harmonics with and without 
the ADSR envelope. Program 5 compares even 
and odd harmonics with the envelope. In both 
programs I have ignored the complications — or 
let's say that 1 have created a musical sound that 
cannot be duplicated by a musical instrument. 

Remember, the objective of this article was 
to show ways to add color to your sounds, not to 
synthesize the Boston Symphony Orchestra. So 
let me give you some further suggestions. In any 
of these programs, change line 20 to FOR 1 = 8 
TO 1 STEP — 1 and you will have a sound that 
can be duplicated only by playing a tape recorder 
backwards. How about adding odd and even 
harmonics of the same fundamental frequency? 
Perhaps instead of having the Release part of the 
envelope go to 00, it would go back up to 15. 
How about using one of the sound channels to 
add the slight bit of noise that goes along with 
some instruments? 

Please refer to "COMPUTEI's Guide To Typing In 
Programs" before entering these listings. 



Program 1: 

Envelope 



H 

Kfl 1 

K 2 

CN 2 



GOT 
RE 

FO 

1 TR 



LE 22 



EF 2 
H! 1 
OE 1 
JO I 
HE 2 
JE 2 
HF 3 
«E 3 
iK 3 
OJ 3 



RA 
PO 
+ R 
16 
RE 

00 D 

1 S 
90 P 
00 G 
90 P 
00 G 
05 Q 
10 P 
12 P 

1 



IP 3 

OL 3 

M 3 

EL 3 
LF 1 



30 
32 



P 

P 

1 

40 Q 

50 G 

000 



10 
M So 
R 1 = 

flP 2 
P 40 
KE 5 
: POK 
+ R: 
TURN 
IH S 
0«=" 
OKE 
OSUB 
OKE 
OSUB 
= 1-1 

OKE 
OKE 

,e> 

OKE 
OKE 

,^ 
= 1'>1 

DTD 
REM 
ut e 



Notes With And Wittiout ADSR 





und en vel ope 

1 TO 25 

3:R=VAL(S0«(2»1~1,2«I))?T 

000 

3761 , 160+R: POKE 53763,160 

E 53765, 160+R! POKE 53767, 

NEXT I 

0« (50) 

151208080 3040200" 

53760, 243 

20 
53760 ,162 

20 
.. 1 - 1 

53760, 243 

53761 , 168; Q=l-'^1 : POKE 5376 

53760, 162 

53761 , 168: Q=l'-1 : POKE 5376 

■-•I'^l 

190 

Same tones with and witho 

n ve 1 ope 



Program 2: chords with And without ADSR 
Envelope 



H GOTO 

KH 10 REM 

m 20 

CN 21 



L£ 



EF 


23 


HI 


100 


OB 


1 10 


DK 


190 


HE 200 


DB 290 


HF 


300 


ftE 305 


CN 310 



FD 3 1 2 

OD 320 

DE 322 

CN 330 

FF 332 



100 

Sound envelo 
FDR 1=1 TO a 
TRAP 23;R=VAL<S0 
RAP 40000 
POKE 53761 , 160+R 
+ R;PDKE S37d>5., 16 
li0+R:NEXT I 
RETURN 

DIM S0«C50) 

S0«=" 15120B0808 

POKE 53760,243: 

POKE 53764, 

GQSUB 20 

POKE 53760, 

POKE 53764, 

GOSUB 20 

Q=l'-l'^l'"l 

POKE 53260 

POKE 53764, 

POKE 5376 1, 

POKE 53765, 

Q= 1 -> 1 

POKE 53761, 

POKE 53765, 160: 

POKE 53260,243: 

POKE 53764, 144: 

POKE 53761 

POKE 53765 

D=l-1-^1'-1 



144: 

243: 
144: 



243: 
144: 
168: 
168: 

160: 



1681 
168; 



* (2*1-1 , 2*1 ) > :T 

: POKE 53763, 160 
0+R:POKE 53767, 



040200 " 

POKE 53762, 193: 

POKE 53766, 121 



POKE 
POKE 



53762, 182 
53766, 121 



POKE 53762, 193: 
POKE 53766, 121 
POKE 53763, 168: 
POKE 56767, 168 



POKE 
POKE 
POKE 
POKE 
POKE 
POKE 



53763, 
56767, 
53762, 
53766, 
53763 , 



160: 

160 

192: 

121 

168; 



56767, 168 



AD 34 
GL 350 GOTO 190 

f1D1000 REM Two chords with and witho 
ut en vel ope 

Program 3: Even Harmonics With And 
Without ADSR Envelope 



> ) : T 

, 160 
767, 



PK GOTO 100 


KH 10 REM Sound envelope 


NL 20 FOR 1 = 1 TO 8 


CN21 TRAP 23:R = VAL<S0* <2«I-1 , 2*1 


RAP 40000 


LE 22 POKE 53761 , 160 + R:POKE 53763 


+R;POKE 53765, 160+RiPDKE 53' 




160+R:NEXT I 


EF 23 RETURN 


ni 100 


DIM S0*(50) 


DB 1 10 


S0«=" 151208080 30 40200" 


HL 190 


POKE 53760, 243: POKE 53762, 




POKE 53764, 60! POKE 53766.4 


HE 200 


GOSUB 20 


KE 290 


POKE 53760, 162;P0KE 53762, 




OKE 53764, 40:POKE 53766,27 


HF 300 


GOSUB 20 


AE 305 


a=l"'l-'^l "1 


HF 3 1 


POKE 53760, 243; POKE 53762, 




POKE 53764, 60: POKE 53766,4 


FD 312 


POKE 53761 , 168: POKE 53763, 




POKE 53765, 168:PDKE 56767, 


OD 320 


Q=l '-1 


DE 322 


POKE 53761 , 160: POKE 53763, 




POKE 53765, 160:POKE 56767, 


JP 330 


POKE 53760, 162rP0KE 53762, 




OKE 53764, 40; POKE 53766,27 


FF 332 


POKE 53761, 16B:P0KE 53763, 




POKE 53765, 168: POKE 56767, 


ftD 340 


0=1-1-1-1 


EL 350 


GOTO 190 



121 : 



81 :P 



121 ; 


16B: 
168 

160: 
160 
81 : P 

168: 
168 



HD 1000 REM Even harmonics envelope a 
nd no envelope 

Program 4: Odd Harmonics With And 
Without ADSR Envelope 



PK GOTO 
KH 10 REM 
NL 20 
CN 21 

LE 22 



EF 23 
Kl 100 
DB 110 
KL 190 

HE 200 
KB 290 

HF 300 
flE 305 
KF 310 

FD 312 

OD 320 
DE 322 



100 

Sound envelope 
FOR 1=1 TO S 
TRAP 23iR=VAL (S0* (2*1-1 , 
RAP 40000 

POKE 53761 , 160+R!POKE 53763 
+R:POKE 53765, 160+R; POKE 53 
160+R:NEXT I 
RETURN 

DIM S0«(50) 

S0*=" 151 2080808040200" 

POKE 53760, 243; POKE 53762, 

OKE 53764, 49: POKE 53766,35 

GOSUB 20 

POKE 53760, 162; POKE 53762, 

OKE 53764, 32: POKE 53766,23 

SOSUB 20 

0=1-1-1-1 

POKE 53760, 243; POKE 53762, 

OKE 53764, 49: POKE 53766,35 

POKE 53761 , 16B: POKE 53763, 

POKE 53765, 168 

Q = l'~l 

POKE 53761, 

POKE 53765, 

POKE 53760, 



2*1 > ) ;T 



160 
767, 



81 ; P 



54 :P 



81 :P 



POKE 56767. 



POKE 
POKE 
POKE 



53763, 
56767, 
53762, 



168: 
168 

160J 
160 
54: P 

168; 
168 



160 
. 160 
JK330 POKE 53760,162 

OKE 53764, 32:P0KE 53766,23 
FF 332 POKE 5376 I , 1 68; POKE 53763, 
POKE 53765, 168; POKE 56767, 
M340 Q=l'^l-^l''l 
EL 350 GOTO 190 

EH 1000 REM Odd harmonics envelop 
d no en vel ope 



Program 5: Even And Odd Harmonics With 
ADSR Envelope 



PK G 
KH 10 
NL 20 
CN 21 

LE 22 



EF 23 
HI 100 
DB 110 
KL 190 

HE 200 
KB 290 

HF 300 
AE 305 

HF 310 

HI 312 
JP 330 

HK 332 
AD 340 
GL 350 
HL 100 



OTD 

REM 

FOR 

TRAP 

RAP 

POKE 

+ R: P 

160 + 

RETU 
DIM 
S0* 
PDK 
OKE 
GOS 
POK 
OKE 
GOS 
Q=l 
POK 
POK 
GOS 
POK 
OKE 
GOS 
0=1 
GOT 

RE 
th 



100 
Sound 
1 = 1 T 

23:R 
40000 

5376 
OKE 5 
R: NEX 
RN 

S0« ( 
= '■151 
E 537 

5376 
UB 20 
E 537 

5376 
UB 20 
■" 1 -- 1 '^ 
E 537 
E 537 
UB 20 
E 537 

5376 
UB 20 
'"I'-l'- 
190 
M Odd 

en ve 



en vel ope 

8 

=VAL (S0« (2*1 

1 , 160 + R: POKE 
3765, 160+R: P 
T I 

50) 

208080804020 
60, 243; POKE 
4,49:P0KE 53 

60, 162:PDKE 
4, 32: POKE 53 



1 , 2*1 ) ) : T 

53763, 160 
OKE 53767, 



0" 

53762, 81 : P 

766,35 

53762, 54: P 
766, 23 



60, 243: POKE 
64,60:POKE 5 

60, 162; POKE 
4,40:POKE 53 



53762, 121: 
3766, 40 

53762, 81 ! P 
766, 27 



and even ha 
1 ope 



rmoni cs wi 



Februaiy 1985 COMPUTEI 111 



How TurboTape Works 

Horrie De Ceukeloire 
With Ottis Cowper, Techn:coi Editor. And Chofies Bronnon. Program Editor 



Lasl month COMPUTE! unveiled "TurboTape," a 
breakthrough program that makes Commodore 64 
ami VlC-20 tapes save and load as fast as disks. 
Although it's not uecessari/ to know how TurboTape 
-works in order to use it, this mouth's article ex- 
plains the inner loorkings of the technique for pro- 
grammers and technicians. 



How can an ordinary cassette drive transfer data 
as fast as a 1541 disk drive? A few months ago, 
the answer would have been that it can't. But 
that was before "TurboTape." if you tried the 
TurboTape program published in last month's 
COMPUTE!, you know that something unusual is 
going on. VIC and 64 tapes really do load as fast 
as 1541 disks — sometimes even faster. 

But how? TurboTape seems to violate a long- 
standing rule in personal computing. Tapes are 
always slower than disks, right? 

To understand how TurboTape works, it 
helps to first understand how normal tape 
SAVEs and LOADs operate. Commodore s 
scheme for storing data on tape is quite com- 
plex — probably the most sophisticated used bv 
any microcomputer manufacturer. The benefit of 
this complexity is that the system is extremely 
reliable. While users of other computers are fre- 
quently frustrated by programs that won't load 
properly from tape, many Commodore tape users 
never see a ?LOAD ERROR message. The dis- 
advantage is that the complex system leads to 
long waits for programs to load. 

Most microcomputers use an analog tape 
format. Each byte of the file to be stored on tape 
is broken down into bits, which in turn are con- 

112 COMPUTEI February 1985 



verted to short bursts of audio tones. Two dis- 
tinct tones symbolize the two states of a bit, 
either a zero or a one. If you've read much about 
telecommunications, you'll realize this is the 
same trick used by modems to transfer data over 
phone lines. 

Digital Squares 

Commodore, on the other hand, uses a digital 
tape format. Rather than recording a particular 
frequency on the tape, a Commodore computer 
writes a pattern of square waves (called dipoles in 
Commodore's technical literature) on the tape. 
The two poles are created by alternately record- 
ing either a strong signal or an equal period of 
no signal at all. The Commodore system uses 
square wave patterns of three different periods 
(lengths): short, medium, and long. When read- 
ing the bits back in, the computer monitors the 
period of each of the. waves, and can — within 
limits — correct for differences in the length of the 
dipoles caused by one tape drive running slightly 
faster or slower than another. 

Each byte of data is preceded by a marker 
consisting of a long square wave followed by a 
medium one. A bit is represented by a short 
wave followed by a medium wave, while a 1 bit 
is the opposite — a medium wave followed bv a 
short one. Each byte on tape ends with a parity 
bit, which is either or 1 as required to make the 
total number of 1 bits in the byte odd. The first 
few bits of a byte on tape might be represented 
graphically as shown in Figure 1. 

Using the parity bit, each byte can be 
checked as it is retrieved from tape. If there is 
not an odd number of 1 bits in the byte plus its 
parity bit, an error results. 



Figure 1 : standard Tope Dipole Patterns 



• byte marker - 



Figure 2: Commodore Tape Storage Layout 




leader 



contains filename, 
plus most of the, 
Turboload routine 



autostarts the/ f /^starling/ending addresses 

256 twos countdown for synchronization 



Turboload 



In addition, when you save a program on 
tape, the computer automatically records it \wkc, 
end to end. Graphically, a program stored on 
tape would have the layout shown in Figure 2. If 
an error is detected in the first recording, the 
computer remembers where the error occurred 
and corrects it with data from the second record- 
ing. You get the ?LOAD ERROR message only if 
more than 30 errors are detected on the first 
pass, or if there are errors in the first pass that 
can't be corrected in the second. 

As you can see, the Commodore tape format 
is reliable because of its built-in error detection 
and correction. This, in turn, is the key to speed- 



ing up SAVEs and LOADs. Since you can't make 
the tape run faster, the only alternative is to 
change the recording format — cut back on Com- 
modore's fail-safe mechanisms. TurboTape uses 
the bare minimum requirements to store data on 
tape. It's a method which is much like, yet much 
simpler than, Commodore's. 

Turbowaves 

TurboTape also creates a pattern of square waves 
on the tape, but instead of using a series of 
square waves to represent O's and I's, TurboTape 
uses a single square wave for each. The duration 
of the two square waves differs just enough to 



permit the loading routine to distinguish between 
them. TurboTape records the square waves on 
tape in the same manner as the normal SAVE 
routine, by togghng the cassette write line. This 
line comes from bit 3 of the internal 
input/output port of the 6510 microprocessor 
(location 1/$0001) in the 64, and from bit 3 of 
port B of VIA 2 (location 37152/$9120) in the 
VIC. As long as RECORD and PLAY are pressed 
on the Datassette, this line controls the signal 
written to the tape. When the write line is turned 
on, the recording head of the Datassette gen- 
erates a magnetic pattern on the tape. When the 
line is turned off, the erase head of the recorder 
operates alone, and a blank area of tape passes 
through. 

The TurboTape dipole starts as a transition 
from 5 volts (the on state) to volts (the off state) 
on the cassette write line. In a Turbosave, the 
trough of the wave is always the same duration, 
whether the bit is or 1 (thus, the patterns aren't 
truly square waves), Bits are distinguished by the 
length of the following 5V signal. A shorter 5V 
signal indicates a 0, and a longer 5V signal in- 
dicates a 1 (see Figure 3), So after the first burst 
of 5V noise, the first period of silence is constant. 
Following the quiet period, the write line is 
turned back on. The duration of the write signal 
determines the value of a bit (the difference in 
timing is related to the execution time of the rou- 
tine which Turbowrites a bit, but the duration of 
a 1 bit is roughly three times as long as for a 
bit). 

Flouting Murphy's Law 

The format used for Turbosaving is indeed the 
most compact method of storing tape data, but 
without error detection and correction it would 
not be trustworthy. Many things can go wrong 
(and according to Murphy's Law will go wrong) 
during a tape LOAD. If only one bit is missed 
during the LOAD, all of the following bits will 
be off by one, effectively rotating all the bytes as 
they are loaded — not a pretty sight. 

To help prevent this unbalance, TurboTape 
precedes the Turbosaved data with a series of 
synchronization bits. The synchronization leader 
consists of the byte value of 2 repeated 256 
times, followed by a countdown ot 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 
4, 3, 2, 1. During a LOAD, TurboTape looks for 
these bytes. It reads eight bits, then checks to see 
if the eight bits represent a value of 2. If a 2 is 
found, TurboTape checks for another 2. Sooner 
or later, TurboTape runs out of 2's and finds the 
9 of the countdown sequence. TurboTape then 
continues, looking for the rest of the sequence. 

Suppose that TurboTape missed one of the 
bits during synchronization. It would be left with 
a byte not representing a 2, even if a 2 had been 

IH COMPUTGI Februarv 1985 



written on tape. At this point, the byte had better 
be a 9, the start of the countdown, or TurboTape 
assumes an error. If an error is detected this way, 
TurboTape assumes a mismatch and tries to find 
another 2. If TurboTape has found the 2 (instead 
of an 8 as the next value in the countdown), then 
even if the bad byte read previously was a 9, 
TurboTape knows that it was a false 9, not the 
start of the countdown. As long as the count- 
down sequence fails, Turbotape keeps trying to 
find 2's. The block of 2's gives TurboTape 256 
opportunities to get into sync. 

Assuming all is well, once 2's are no longer 
being received, TurboTape can verify the correct 
countdown sequence. TurboTape has insured 
that it is synchronized with the first bit of actual 
data. Only if the countdown is mangled will 
TurboTape fail to synchronize. This leader and 
countdown system is similar to the one used to 
synchronize tape reading in the regular SAVE 
format. If you've ever listened to a stored pro- 
gram on a regular recorder, you've heard the 
synchronization leader as the steady tone before 
the header and between the header and the pro- 
gram data. 

Following the synchronization leader, the 
Turbosave routine writes the starring and ending 
addresses of the program. These are stored as the 
first four bytes of Turbosaved data. After writing 
the starting and ending addresses, TurboTape 
starts writing out bytes from memory, taking the 
bytes apart bit by bit, beginning at the starting 
address. As these bytes are written, TurboTape 
adds them to a checksum value. Since the addi- 
tion is done in eight bits, the checksum never ex- 
ceeds 255. It rolls over from 255 to 0, much like 
an automobile's odometer changes from 99999 to 
00000, When the ending address is reached, a 
checksum is written out as the final byte of the 
Turbosave. 

These are all the steps necessary to save a 
program at high speed, but the fast SAVE would 
be useless without a corresponding fast LOAD 
routine to retrieve the data. And you would lose 
all the rimesaving advantage of the fast SAVE if 
the fast LOAD routine had to be loaded into 
memory separately each time you needed to 
bring a program in from tape. Fortunately, 
TurboTape provides a loading routine that is 
transparent to the user. 

By Its Own Bootstraps 

Each Turbosaved program is preceded on tape by 
a bootstrap program stored using the normal 
SAVE format. The bootstrap program contains 
the entire high-speed loader, so the TurboTape 
software is not needed to load a Turbosaved pro- 
gram. But how does a normal LOAD become a 
Turboioad? 



The portion of the bootstrap program ac- 
tually saved as a program is quite short: 10 bytes 
in the 64 version and 14 bytes in the VIC ver- 
sion. The data is saved in nonrelocatable format, 
so it always loads beginning at location 812 
($032C). It may not be obvious, but this provides 
a simple but sophisticated way to make the regu- 
lar LOAD automatically start the Turboload. 
One of the last steps the computer takes 
when completing a standard LOAD is to call the 
CLALL (CLose ALL files) subroutine in the 
operating system ROM. CLALL passes through 
an indirect vector at addresses 812-813 
($32C-32D), but those addresses have been 
changed by the data from the bootstrap program, 
so that execution is passed to the start of the 
Turboload routine at 814 ($32E). However, the 
few bytes starting from location 814 obviously 
aren't enough to decipher the data Turbosaved 
on tape. The major portion of the Turboload ma- 
chine language routine is in the cassette buffer. 

How it gets there is another interesting 
story. You may not be aware of it, but every pro- 
gram stored on tape has a filename 187 charac- 
ters long. Each program written to tape by the 
normal SAVE routine is preceded by a 192-byte 
header (see Figure 2). The length corresponds to 
the 192 bytes of the cassette buffer (locations 
828-1019). The first five bytes of every tape 
header are used for a one-byte identifier, a two- 
byte starting address for the saved program, and 
a'two-byte ending address. The remaining 187 
bytes are available for the filename, although 
only the first 16 are commonly used. 

The Turbosave routine makes use of this by 
filling all the locations after the sixteenth byte of 
the filename (starting at location 849) with the 
remainder of the Turboload machine language, 
where it is written out as part of the filename 
when the bootstrap program is saved. When the 
filename is found during the LOAD process, all 
the data in the program header is loaded into the 
cassette buffer. Thus, the few bytes of regularly 
saved data need do little more than transfer con- 
trol to the remainder of the routine in the buffer. 
The complete layout of a Turbosaved program 
would be as shown in Figure 4. 

Time Out For Reading 

To read a bit, TurboTape makes use of several 
features of the peripheral interface chips — the 
CIA (Complex Interface Adapter) on the 64, or 
the VIA (Versatile Interface Adapter) on the VIC. 
Each of these chips has a line (FLAG on the CIA 
and CAl on the VIA) that can detect a high-to- 
low signal transition, the beginning of a dipole. 
These are used as the cassette read lines to the 
Datassette. To detect the start of a dipoie, the 
Turboload routine monitors bit 4 of locahon 



56333 ($DCOD) on the 64, or bit 1 of location 
37165 ($912D) on the VIC. This bit will be set to 
1 when the signal being read from tape changes 
from 5 volts to volts, called the falling edge of 
the dipole (see Figure 5). 

To determine whether the bit being read is a 
or a 1, the Turboload routine starts a timer 
when the start of the dipole is detected. Each 
interface adapter chip has two 16-bit timer 
clocks. On the 64, Timer 2 of CIA #2 is used; the 
VIC version uses Tinier 1 of VIA #1. The timers 
are like the familiar kitchen timers— they are set 
for the desired time and allowed to run until the 
time expires (until they count down to 0). The 
scheme is to set the timers for a period that is 
longer than the span of a bit dipole, but shorter 
than the span of the dipole for a 1 bit. Then, 
when the next falling edge is detected, the status 
of the timer is checked. If the timer counted 
down to before the start of the next dipole, 
then the time for the bit read was longer than 
the timer count and thus it was a 1 bit. If the 
timer is still counting when the next dipole starts, 
then the leng'th of the dipole being read was 
shorter than the specified timer count, and thus it 
was a bit. 

The status of the timer can be determined by 
checking bit 1 of location 56589 ($DDOD) on the 
64, or bit 6 of location 37149 ($91 ID) on the 
VIC. These will be if the timers are still count- 
ing, or 1 if the timers have counted down to 0, 
which corresponds to the value being read from 
tape. By collecting these into groups of eight, the 
bytes of the program can be reassembled. The 
process is illustrated in Figure 5. 

Turboverify operates by reading from tape 
the bootstrap program for the Turbosaved pro- 
gram to be verified, then modifying some of the 
Turboload code. It overwrites a store instruction 
with a compare and branch instruction. Thus, 
when the Turboload routine takes over, data read 
from the tape is only compared to the data al- 
ready in memory, instead of being loaded over 
the existing data. 

Tiie Price Of Speed 

After all the program data bytes have been read, 
one final value is retrieved from the tape. This 
byte is the checksum previously calculated dur- 
ing the Turbosave. This is the only error detec- 
tion performed after header synchronization. If 
the checksum calculated during the Turboload 
does not match the one read from the tape, the 
LOAD must have failed. 

However, even a correct checksum does not 
validate a LOAD, because there's more than one 
way to arrive at a certain sum. Since 2 -•- 4 + 6 
= 1+4 + 7, addition is not a fail-safe 
checksum method. So you must realize that this 



February 1986 COMPUTE) 



115 



speed enhancement does not come without a 
price. Nevertheless, we've found that the Com- 
modore Datassette is still forgiving enough to 
make TurboTape rehable. 

Unfortunately, the tape reading routines in 
the bootstrap program are specific to the CIA on 
the 64 and the VIA on the VIC, since the dif- 
ferent chips must be accessed through different 
memory locations. Also, Turboload makes use of 
a number of ROM routines that are at different 
locations in the VIC and 64. So even though the 
high-speed portion of a Turbosaved program 
could be read by either machine, the Turboload 
routine is machine-specific. Since the VIC and 64 
Turboload routines are entered automatically, 
neither routine will work on the wrong machine. 
There's just not enough room in the cassette 
buffer for a universal TurboTape LOAD routine 
that would work on both computers. This means 
that programs Turbosaved on a 64 can't be 
loaded into a VIC, and vice versa. 

Bypassing Errors 

TurboTape works fine in principle, but without a 
good link with the operating system, it would be 
cumbersome. For ease of use, TurboTape adds 
two commands to BASIC: TURBOSAVE (or 
TSAVE) and TURBOVERIFY (TVERIFY). The 
TurboTape program as published last month in- 
cludes a built-in memory mover and relocator. 




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When you inidalize TurboTape, it copies itself to 
the top of memory {or opdonally beginning at 
location 52606 on the 64), then corrects all the 
absolute machine language references such as 
JMPs, JSRs, and address tables. This relocator ac- 
tually accounts for 170 of the 812 bytes of ma- 
chine language in TurboTape. 

When you type in the command 
TURBOSAVE, why don't you get a syntax error? 
It's certainly not a BASIC command. The answer 
is that when BASIC sees TURBOSAVE, it knows 
that TURBO is not a BASIC statement, so it as- 
sumes that it is a variable. BASIC then looks for 
the end of the variable, ready to assign it a value. 
Suddenly, it finds the command SAVE embed- 
ded within TURBOSAVE. A command like SAVE 
is not allowed as part of a variable name, so 
BASIC prepares to report a syntax error by jump- 
ing with the error code through the indirect error 
vector, contained in locations 768-769 
($300-$301), 

This vector normally points to the BASIC 
ROM error-handling routines, but this is where 
TurboTape steps in. When first run, TurboTape 
changes the error vector to point to the relocated 
TurboTape machine language. From then on, 
whenever an error happens, TurboTape gains 
control. If the error is not a syntax error, 
TurboTape passes it along to the ROM error rou- 
tine as usual. (It stores the original contents of 
768-769 in 678-679, and uses those locadons as 
its own indirect error vector.) For a syntax error, 
TurboTape checks for either the SAVE or VER- 
IFY token. Since BASIC has rejected TURBO as a 
variable, the CHRGET routine is left pointing to 
the token after TURBO. (CHRGET is used by 
BASIC to scan for characters in a command or 
program line. Each call returns a new character 
and sets up CHRGET to point to the next charac- 
ter.) That's how TurboTape detects the SAVE 
command. 

In fact, almost anything can precede the 
SAVE (such as SPEEDSAVE or even PIZZASAVE), 
as long as it's seen as a variable. The token 
which BASIC points to after the variable must be 
either 148 (SAVE) or 149 (VERIFY); otherwise, 
TurboTape jumps back to the normal ROM rou- 
tine and a 7SYNTAX ERROR is properly 
reported. 

Normal SAVEs do not go to TurboTape, 
since they do not pass through the error routine. 
Even if a SAVE ends in an error, CHRGET 
would no longer be pointing to the token for 
SAVE. This is an extremely elegant way of add- 
ing commands to BASIC, and it wedges into 
BASIC without interfering with BASIC extensions 
that use CHRGET (such as the DOS wedge) or 
other system vectors. ® 



PROGRAiVIIVIING THE Tl 

C r?egena 



Programming Without A 
IViath Baclcground 



"Computer literacy," a required class in many 
high schools and colleges, is often little more 
than a class in elementary programming. 
Programming, however, is really only a small 
part of computing. Equally odd is the fact that 
many of these computer literacy classes require 
courses in algebra, calculus, or some other form 
of advanced mathematics as a prerequisite. In 
what way would knowing the calculus help 
someone learn BASIC? 

Why are so many young people (often youn- 
ger than 15) good programmers even if they've 
never taken algebra? Clearly, advanced 
mathematics has little to do with programming. 

Of course, you do need to know a little 
about numbers. You need to know how to count. 
In a BASIC program the lines are numbered, so 
you must know the order in which the lines will 
be executed. Nevertheless, if you think logically, 
you can even use NUM to automatically number 
your lines as you are typing and you won't even 
have to worry about the line numbers. 

If you like to program graphics, you should 
also learn something about basic coordinate 
geometry. That's just a mathematical term for 
using a grid. There are 24 rows and 32 columns 
on a TI-99/4A screen. If you want to place a 
character in a certain position, you have to tell 
the computer which row and column. 

You'll also encounter numbers in the form of 
codes. For example, each color on a Tl is given a 
number from 1 to 16. In any CALL SCREEN or 
CALL COLOR statement where you need a color 
number, you can look on the color chart to see 
which number represents which color. There are 
also codes for color sets, sounds, and characters. 
But beyond that, the most basic knowledge of 
addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division 
will be all you'll need in most cases. 



Using Numbers Efficiently 

Some skill at recognizing number patterns will 
help make your programs more efficient. 
Remember,' however, that as long as your pro- 
gram works, it is "correct." There are many ways 
to accomplish the same task. 

For instance, if you can recognize a pattern 
in vour programming statements or among the 
numbers, quite often you can reduce the number 
of statements required. Suppose you want to 
draw seven horizontal lines across the screen. 
The lines are to be in rows 4, 7, 10, 13, 16, 19, 
and 22, You could use seven CALL HCHAR 
statements. Notice, though, that the numbers are 
each separated by 3. If you start with row 4 and 
add 3 each time until you get to 22, you'll have 
the lines you want. A FOR-NEXT loop could 
draw these same lines in only three statements: 

200 FOR RDW=4 TO 22 STEP 3 
210 CftLL HCHAR (ROW, 1 , 95, 32) 
220 NEXT ROW 

Here's another problem. Suppose you want 
to draw a flower in several places on the screen, 
and each flower takes five characters, two on top 
of three others. The flowers are scattered ran- 
domly, so there's no pattern to their placement. 
In this case, a subroutine to draw the flower 
would be appropriate. Before you enter the sub- 
routine, you could specify the row and column 
positions in the variables R and C. In the sub- 
routine, the CALL HCHAR statements (or CALL 
VCHAR) need to be expressed in terms of R and 
C. If the upper-left corner of the flower is in po- 
sition R,C then the next square would be R,C-1-1. 
Below R,C is R + 1,C and next to it would be 
R-H1,C-H1 then R + l,C + 2. The subroutine 
would look like this: 

February 1985 COMPUTEl 117 



500 

510 
520 
530 
S40 
550 



CALL HCHARCR.C, 1 12) 
CALL HCHAR (R, Ci-1 , 1 13) 
CALL HCHAR(R-i-l ,C, 1 14) 
CALL HCHAR{R+1 ,C+1 . 1 15) 
CALL HCHAR(R+l,C+2, 116) 
RETURN 



And each time you need a flower, you would call 
the subroutine like this: 



700 R=3 
710 C=B 
720 G0SU6 500 



Streamlining Your Code 

Now let's say you're drawing snakes instead of 
flowers. The snake still takes five characters, but 
all in a horizontal line. The subroutine might 
look like this: 



500 
510 
520 
530 
540 
550 



CALL 
CALL 
CALL 
CALL 
CALL 



HCHAR (R, 
HCHAR (r! 
HCHAR (rJ 
HCHAR (R , 
HCHAR (R, 



C, 112) 
C+1 , 113) 
C+2, 114) 
C+Z, 115) 



RETURN 



Notice that there is a pattern among the 
numbers. In each statement the column number 
increases by 1 and so does the character number. 
The five CALL HCHAR statements can be 
changed to: 

500 FDR A=0 TD 4 

510 CALL HCHAR (R, C+A. 1 12+A) 

520 NEXT A 

A young friend came to me with a program 
in which he was randomly choosing five words, 
then printing them on rows 5, 7, 9, 11, and 13. 
He had to keep track of the words, their place- 
ment (order), and the answers. One solution was 
to DIMension arrays of W$ and ANS$ where the 
element specified was also the row number — so 
he had W$(R) and ANS$(R), where R was 5, 7, 
9, 11, and 13. This method is easy to understand 
and worked well, but we were running into 
memory problems. Those arrays were taking up 
space because we weren't really using all the 
elements. 

Notice that there is a pattern to the numbers: 

Word 1— Row 5 
Word 2— Row 7 
Word 3— Row 9 
Word 4— Row 11 
Word 5— Row 13 

The row numbers increase by 2. If you mul- 
tiply each word number by 2, they become 2, 4, 
6, 8, 10. Now compare these numbers with 5, 7^ 
9, 11, 13. Each of the word numbers (multiplied 
by 2) is 3 less than the row numbers. Therefore, 
if we have a word number N, the row number 
would be 2*N + 3. 

Later in the program, if we know the row 

lis COMPUTEI Februaiy 1965 



number R and want to find the word number, 
we need to relate 5, 7, 9, 11, 13 to 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. 
First subtract 3 from the row number, then notice 
that the result is 2 times the word number. Given 
the row number R, the word number is (R-3)/2. 

Quite often, if you line up a group of num- 
bers you can see a relationship or a pattern. You 
can usually use standard arithmetic operations to 
get from one column of numbers to the next. If 
there is a progression of numbers, you can use a 
FOR-NEXT loop with a certain STEP size to get 
the right series of numbers. 

Programming A Reflection 

In this month's example program, we'll see how 
numbers can be manipulated to simulate reflec- 
tions in graphics. The program takes a design 
you draw in the upper-left quadrant of the screen 
and creates reflections in the other three quad- 
rants. We don't want the pattern simply repeated 
(as in the "Quilt Squares" program), rather, we 
want to actually reverse the image. 

First, you draw a design in an area defined 
by rows 2 through 12 and columns 6 through 16. 
For example, the drawing starts in row 12 and 
column 16. This particular square reflects onto 
the other quadrants in squares (12,17), (13,16), 
and (13,17). The top-left square of the drawing 
quadrant is (2,6), or row 2 and column 6. The 
corresponding squares in the other quadrants are 
(2,27), (23,6), and (23,27). 

In general, for a certain row R and column 
C, the corresponding square in the upper-right 
quadrant would be on the same row R and the 
column number would be 17 (the quadrant starts 
in the seventeenth column) plus (16-C), The 
first quadrant ends in column 16, and you sub- 
tract the first quadrant's column number to get 
its distance from the center. The result is 33 ~C, 
Another way to took at it is that the column 
number will be the same distance from the last 
column as the original square is from the flrst 
column— thus 32-C + l or 33-C. 

The corresponding square in the lower-left 
quadrant will have the same column number C 
as the original square, but the row will be 
12 + 13-R or 24-fR-l, which is 25-R. The 
lower-right quadrant has the same row as the 
lower-left quadrant and the same column as the 
upper-right quadrant. Thus the three correspond- 
ing squares are (R,33 — C) and (25 — R,C) and 
(25-R,33-C). Lines 620-640 and 1000-1020 
use these relationships. 

Electronic Snowflcke 

When i was a child 1 liked to fold paper, cut a 
design, then unfold the paper to see what it 
looked like. Sometimes we would fold the paper 
to get a six-sided snowflake. Other times w^e 



would fanfold the paper. We also used different 
variations of simply folding the paper into 
rectangles. 

This "Snowflake" program is the comput- 
erized version of cutting paper snowflakes (with 
no scraps of paper to clean up). Suppose you 
have a square piece of paper. Fold it in half to 
make a rectangle, then fold the rectangle in half 
to make a square. Now cut a design in that 
square. Unfold the paper and you have a four- 
sided snowflake. 

When you run this program, you will see a 
large square outlined. You can draw in the upper- 
left square only. Use the arrow keys to move the 
cursor, press F to fill the cursor position with 
color, and press the space bar to preserve the 
background color (or to erase a previously filled 
position). When your design is complete, press 
ENTER. The computer starts at the center and 
moves outward to reflect your pattern on the 
other quadrants of the larger square. 

When the design is complete, you can press 
M to modify, S to start a new pattern, P to print 
the pattern if you have a printer, and ENTER to 
end the program. If you press M to modify, the 
cursor starts blinking again and you can resume 
drawing. But this time your changes appear im- 
mediately in the rest of the design. When you're 
finished, you can press ENTER again. If you 
press S to start a new pattern, the screen clears 
and you can start over. 

To use the printer option, the printer must 
be attached and switched on (don't forget the 
RS-232 interface). Line 800 contains the printer 
configurations; modify it if necessary. The hard 
copy printout is elongated but shows the pattern 
you drew. Filled squares are represented by as- 
terisks and the blanks by dots. If you want, you 
could even use this pattern for counted cross- 
stitching or needlepoint. 

Program Explanation 

Lines 110-200 clear the screen and print the title 
and instructions. Lines 210-270 define characters 
used as graphics. Characters 96-99 are used to 
outline the large square and the drawing quad- 
rant. Character 104 is the filled square, and 
character 105 is the cursor used in drawing. 
Character 112 is the yellow dot used to indicate 
the ENTER key after the snowflake is complete. 
Lines 280-290 define the colors for the snow- 
flake and the ENTER key symbol. If you wish to 
use different colors for the snowflake, change the 
color number 5 in line 280 and the screen color 
in line 430. 

Lines 300-390 wait for you to press ENTER, 
then continue the instructions. Lines 400-410 
wait for you to press any key to start. Lines 
420-490 clear the screen, change the screen color 



to cyan (light blue), then outline the large square 
and' the upper-right quadrant. 

Lines 500-510 define the starting row X and 
column Y for the drawing cursor. Lines 520-540 
call the subroutine that is the procedure for mov- 
ing and filling in squares until the ENTER key is 
pressed. 

When you press ENTER, lines 550-570 
make a beeping sound, then erase the lines for 
the quadrant. Lines 580-660 look at each square 
in the upper-right quadrant. If they find a filled 
square, they draw a square in the other quad- 
rants in the corresponding position. This happens 
in loops, starting with the center square and 
moving outward (by columns C) and upward (by 
rows R). When the process is complete, line 670 
sounds another beep. 

Lines 680-730 print the options to press M 
for modify, S to start over, P to print, or ENTER 
to end. Lines 740-780 detect the key pressed and 
branch accordingly. 

Lines 790-920 contain the printing option. 
You must have a printer connected, and your 
printer configuration must be specified in line 
800. The computer looks at each row from 2 to 
23 and each column from 6 to 27 using CALL 
GCHAR, and then prints a period for a space 
and an asterisk for a filled square. After the 
printing is complete, the program branches back 
to the options of M, S, P, and ENTER. 

Lines 930-1030 contain the modify option. 
First the options at the right of the square are 
cleared. Then the drawing cursor reappears. De- 
sign changes instantly appear in the other three 
quadrants. When you press ENTER, the program 
branches back to the options of M, S, P, and 
ENTER. 

Lines 1040-1320 contain the subroutine for 
the drawing procedure. CALL GCHAR checks to 
see what character is in position X,Y and calls 
that character number (G). Lines 1060-1080 
blink the cursor while waiting for a keypress. 
Lines 1090-1300 are the branching statements 
executed when certain keys are pressed. Line 
1310 draws the new character if it is a space or a 
filled square. 

Lines 1330-1340 clear the screen, then end 
the program. 

If you wish to save typing, you can receive a 
copy of this program by sending a blank cassette 
or disk, a stamped, self-addressed mailer, and $3 
to: 

C. Regena 
P.O. Box 1502 
Cedar City, UT 84720 

Please be sure to specify that you need the 
TI version of Snowflake. 



February 1985 COMPUTEI 119 



Snowflake 

Refer to "COMPUTEI's Guide To Typing In Programs" 
before entering this listing. 



100 
1 10 

120 
130 

140 

150 

160 

1 70 
180 
1 90 

200 
210 

220 
230 

240 
2.50 

260 
270 

280 
270 
300 
310 
320 
330 
340 

350 

360 
370 
380 
370 

400 

410 
420 
430 
440 
450 
460 
470 
480 
490 
500 
510 
520 
530 
540 
550 
560 
570 
580 
570 
600 
6 10 
620 
630 



REM SWOWFLAKE 
CALL CLEAR 

PRINT TABC9) ; "SNOWFLAKE": : 
'USE THE ARROW KEYS 



TO DR 



IN THE UPPER LEFT DUADR 



■PRESS 



TO FILL A SQU 



'PRESS SPACE BAR TO ERAS 

'PRESS <EI\tTER> WHEN YOU" 
'ARE FINISHED DRAWING." 
"THE COMPUTER WILL CDMP 

THE SNOWFLAKE. " 



PRINT 
AW" 
PRINT 
ANT. " 
PRINT 
ARE. " 
PRINT 
E. " 

PRINT 

PRINT 

PRINT 

LETE" 

PRINT 

CALL 

CALL 

CALL 

CALL 

CALL 

" ) 

CALL 

" ) 

Call 
" ) 

CALL COLOR (10,5. 1 ) 
CALL COLDRd 1.12,1) 
PRINT :: "PRESS CENTER;." 
CALL KEY<0,K,S> 
IF KOI 3 THEN 310 
CALL CLEAR 

AFTER SNOWFLAKE IS COMPL 



CHAR (76, 
CHAR (77, 
CHAR (98, 
CHAR ( 79, 
CHAR ( I 04 



'00000000000000FF" ) 

'808080803080808" > 
'FF" ) 
•0101010101010101") 

"FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF 



CHAR (105, "FFaiaiSlSlSiaiFF 



CHAR (11 



3C7EFFFFFFFF7E3C 



PRINT 
ETE, " 
PRINT 
TERN" 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT 
PRINT : : : : 
START. " 
CALL KEY(0 



PRESS 



TO MODIFY PAT 



PRESS 
PRESS 
PRESS 



:s: 

:p: 



TO START OVER' 

TO PRINT COPY 
:ENTER ■; TO END. " 
PRESS ANY KEY NOW T 



;, S) 
400 



1 THEN 

CLEAR 

SCREEN (8) 

HCHAR ( 1 , 6, 76. 22) 

VCHAR (2. 28, 77, 22) 

HCHAR (24, 6, 98, 22) 

VCHAR (2, 5, 77, 22) 

VCHAR (2, 17, 77, 1 n 



IF S< 

CALL 

CALL 

CALL 

CALL 

CALL 

CALL 

CALL 

CALL HCHAR ; 13, 6, 98, 1 1 ) 

X = 12 

Y=16 

CALL SOUND J 1 50 , 1397, 2) 

GOSUB 1050 

IF KOI 3 THEN 530 

CALL SOUND ( 100, 1497, 2) 

CALL HCHAR ( 1 3, 6, 32. J 1 ) 

CALL VCHAR (2, 17, 32, 1 1 ) 

FDR R=12 TO 2 STEP -1 

FOR C=16 TO 6 STEP -1 

CALL GCHAR(R,C,H) 

IF H=32 THEN 650 

CALL HCHAR (R, 33-C, H) 

CALL HCHAR (25-R, C. H) 



640 

650 

660 

670 

680 

670 

700 

710 

720 

730 

740 

750 

760 

770 

780 

770 

800 

810 

820 

830 

840 

850 

860 

870 

880 

870 

9 00 
710 
920 
730 
740 
750 
960 
970 
780 
770 

1000 

10 10 

1020 

1030 

1040 

1 050 

1060 

1070 

1 080 

1 090 

1 100 

1110 

1 1 20 

1 1 30 

1140 

1 150 

1 160 

1 170 

1 180 

1 1 70 

1200 

1210 

1220 

1230 

1 240 

1250 

1260 

1270 

,1280 

1270 

1300 

1310 

1320 

1330 

1340 



CALL HCHAR(25-R.33-C,H) 

NEXT C 

NEXT R 

CALL SOUND ( 1 00, 440 , 2) 



27, 60, 4) 
31 , 62, 4) 

30, 77) 



CALL VCHAR (8 

CALL VCHARca! 

CALL HCHAR(a! 

CALL HCHAR(9, 30, 93) 

CALL HCHAR ( 10. 30, 90) 

CALL HCHAR( 1 1 ,3fi. i ]2) 

CALL KEYC0,K,S) 

IF S<1 THEN 740 

IF K=a3 THEN 420 

IF K=13 THEN 1330 

IF KOS0 THEN 730 

REM PRINTER CONFIGURATION 

OPEN #1: "RS232.BA=600" 

FDR R=2 TO 23 

FOR C=6 TO 27 

CALL GCHAR ( R, C, H) 

IF H< >32 THEN 870 

PRINT #1 : " . " ; 

GOTO 880 

PRINT #1 : "t" ; 

NEXT C 

PRINT «1:CHR$(13) 

NEXT R 

CLOSE #1 

GOTO 670 

IF K077 THEN 740 

CALL VCHAR (8, 29, 32 4) 

CALL VCHAR (8, 30, 32,4) 

CALL VCHAR(3, 31 . 32, 4) 

CALL SOUND C 150, I -^97 , T) 

GOSUB 1050 

IF K=13 THEN 670 

CALL HCHARfX, 33-Y,G1 > 

CALL HCHAR (25-X, Y,G1 ) 

CALL HCHAR (25-X, 33-Y.Gl ) 

GOTO 770 

REM SUB TO DRAW 

CALL GCHAR(X,Y,G> 

CALL KEY (0, K, S) 

CALL HCHAR ( X . Y, 10S) 

CALL HCHAR(X,Y,G) 

IF K=13 THEN 1320 

IF K=70 THEN 1300 

IF K=32 THEN 1230 

IF K< >aS THEN 1 160 

IF X=12 THEN 1060 

X = X + 1 

GOTO 1050 

IF K< >S3 THEN 1 200 

IF Y=6 THEN 1060 

Y = Y-1 
GOTO 1050 

IF K068 THEN 1240 
IF Y=16 THEN 1060 

Y = Y+-1 
GOTO 1050 

IF KC>67 THEN 1060 
IF X=2 THEN 1060 
X = X-1 
GOTO 1050 
Gl=32 
GOTO 13 10 
Gl=104 

CALL HCHAR(X , Y, Gl ) 
RETURN 
CALL CLEAR 
END 



© 



120 COMPUTEI February 1985 



MACHINE LANGUAGE 



Jim Butterfieid, Associote izdiior 



Multiplication 

Part 2 



In Part 1, we discussed a multiplication such as: 



(X) 

(y) 


110 10 
1 1 


110 10 

110 10 



(2) 



10 10 



We indicated that the logic might most use- 
fully work this way: 

1. Set the product area (z) to zero. 

2. Examine the highest bit of the multiplier 

(y). 

3. If the bit is 1, add the multiplicand (x) 
into the product (z). 

4. If the multiplier (y) has no more bits, quit. 

5. Shift the product (z) ieft one bit. 

6. Examine the next highest bit of the 
multiplier, and go to step 3. 

Thus, we start with 11010, shift left to get 
110100, add nothing, shift left to get 1101000, 
add 11010 to give 10000010, then quit. Answer: 
10000010, or hex 82, or decimal 130. 

Working Another Shift 

That's not hard to do, but we have one more 

trick in our bag. Notice that the product is shifted 
left. We could test the bits of the multiplier (y) if 
we shifted it left, too. The highest bits would pop 
into the carry flag as we shifted, and we could 
test each bit with a BCC or BCS as it goes by. 

Now — and this is the neat part — if we need 
to shift both the product and the multiplier left, 
maybe we could put them together and shift 
them as one large collection of bits. We can see 
this best graphically: 

00000101 00000000 
Multiplier Product 

We'll shift these two as if they were one 
value. Whenever a bit hits the carry flag, we'll 
add 11010 (our multiplicand) into the product 
area. Nothing much will happen at first, since as 



we shift the two-byte group left, zeros will move 
into the carry and we won't add a thing. After 
five shifts, we have: 

10100000 00000000 

We still have nothing in our carry flag. But 
one more long shift, and the high bit will move 
into the carry: 

C 01000000 00000000 

Good! Add the multiplicand into the product 
area (using a full two-byte addition), and we'll 
get: 

01000000 0001 1010 

The next two left-shifts yield the following 
values: 



10000000 
00000000 



ooiioioo 
oiiotooo 



and C 

Aha! The carry bit has been hit again, so we 
add 11010 into the product area to get: 
00000000 10000010 

That's our answer! Correct in both bytes! We 
know to stop at this point because if we count 
the shifts we find that we've done eight — exactly 
the number of bits in the multiplier. 

Taking A Bigger Byte 

The elegant thing about this kind of multiplica- 
tion is that the answer is correct over several 
bytes. Fdr example, if you multiply a one-byte 
number by another one-byte number, the prod- 
uct may be up to two bytes in length. Our pre- 
vious example was a simple one: 5 times 26 
gives 130, which still fits into one byte. But if we 
try, say, 48 times 40, we'll need a two-byte area 
for the answer. Without special comment, let's do 
it using the same method: 

00101000 00000000 

OlOIOOOO 00000000 

10100000 00000000 

C 01000000 OOIIOOOO 

10000000 01100000 

C 00000000 11110000 

00000001 11100000 

oooooon 11000000 

00000111 10000000 

February 1985 COMPUTE) 12) 



Answer: hex 780, or decimal 1920. Correct 
in botii bytes. 

Let's write the code to multiply a number in 
the A register with one in the X register and 
place the result in address $0380 (low) and 
$0381 (high). We'll use $0382 as storage for the 
multiplicand. 



; mul ti pi i cand 
; mul ti pi i er 



NXBIT 



NOADD 



STX 


t03B2 


STA 


$0381 


LDA 


«$00 


STA 


«0380 


LDX 


#$0B 


fiSL 


*03S0 


ROL 


$0381 


BCC 


NOADD 


CLC 




LDA 


$0381 


ADC 


$0382 


STA 


*0381 


LDA 


$0380 


ADC 


#$00 


STA 


$0380 


DEX 




BNE 


NXBIT 



;zero to product 
; number o-f bits 



It's elegant, it's efficient, and it easily ex- 
tends to a greater number of bytes for the mul- 
tiplier and multiplicand. Q 



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IBM Rebound 

All Machine Language Game For PC & PCjr 



Chris Metcalf and Marc Sugiyoma 



Here's a fast, smooth, all machijte language adapta- 
tion of a classic arcade game. With the modifications 
included below, it runs on any IBM PC (color/ 
graphics or monochrome adapter) with at least 64K 
RAM and a disk drive, and any Enhanced Model 
PCjr. 



"Rebound" takes advantage of machine language 
to streamline the action in this arcade-style game 
patterned after the popular Breakout. By control- 
ling a paddle at the bottom of the screen, your 
goal is to knock out all the bricks at the top of 
the screen with a bouncing ball. 

Unlike most action games, Rebound works 
on all three popular types of IBM Personal 
Computers. Program 1 is for an IBM PC with the 
color/graphics adapter. Program 2 consists of 
modifications to make Program 1 work on an 
IBM PC with the monochrome adapter. And al- 
though Program 1 works as is on an IBM PCjr, 
the modifications contained in Program 3 accel- 
erate the game to compensate for Junior's slower 
execution speed. 

Typing Instructions 

If you have a color/graphics PC, type in Pro- 
gram 1. If you have a monochrome PC, type in 
Program 1 and substitute the lines in Program 2. 
If you have a PCjr, type in Program 1 and sub- 
stitute the lines in Program 3. To be safe, save the 
program on disk before running it for the first time. 
Next, insert a disk in drive A and type RUN. 



The BASIC program will create a machine lan- 
guage file on disk with the filename 
REBOUND.EXE (the drive may whir on and off a 
few times as the file is created). 

When the Ok prompt reappears, exit BASIC 
to DOS bv typing SYSTEM. Make sure the disk 
with the REBOUND.EXE file is in drive A, To 
run Rebound, type REBOUND.EXE at the DOS 
prompt. Almost instantly, the game screen will 
appear. 

Eight Chances For Glory 

To start playing Rebound, press the Enter key. 
The first ball starts moving downward from the 
middle of the screen. Your job is to keep it from 
falling off the bottom of the screen by bouncing 
it upward toward the rows of bricks. 

To bounce the ball, move the paddle back 
and forth with the left and right Shift keys. 
You'll have to anticipate where the hall will 
bounce next, because the paddle can't always 
move across the screen as fast as the ball can 
(otherwise the game would be too easy). If you 
miss a ball, another one starts falling. You get a 
total of eight balls before the game ends in de- 
feat. If you succeed in knocking out all the 
bricks, the program resets for another game. 

There are five rows of bricks. Bricks on the 
lowest row are worth one point each, bricks on 
the second-lowest row are worth two points, etc. 

You can freeze Rebound at any time by 
pressing the space bar. Press any other key to 
resume play. 

February 1985 COMPUTEI 123 




"Rebound" is a fast arcade-style game tlial loorks on 
nearly all IBM Personal Computers. 

The Esc key restarts a game in progress by 
replacing all missing bricks and lost balls. It also 
resets the score to zero. 

To stop the game entirely and exit to DOS, 
press Ctrl-Break on the PC or Function-Break 
(Fn-B) on the PCjr. 

Refer to "COMPUTE! 's Guide To Typing In Progfoms" 
article before typing these programs in. 

Program 1 : Rebound For IBM PC 
(Color/Graphics) 



Et 
FB 
CH 
III 
[P 

HJ 
OK 
CB 
BF 
KH 
ID 
PK 
OK 

DN 
OC 
FP 
FO 



BC 
ME 
IH 

NA 
Fl 
KN 

CG 
DM 

OD 



20 

30 
40 
50 

60 
70 
80 
1 0B 
1 1 
1 20 
130 
1 40 

1 50 
1 68 
1 70 
1 80 

1 90 

200 

2 1 
220 

230 
240 

250 



260 

270 
280 
290 



ON ERR 
OPEN " 
READ A 
PR I NT 
FOR I - 
} ; : 
GOTO 3 
i F ERR 
CLOSE 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
is 

DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
78 

DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
54 

DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 



OR 
o " 

# 1 

1 

NE 

< 

1 

77 
32 
28 
6 , 



GOTO 70 
, 1 , "rebourtd.exe" 

IF A<e THEN 50 
, CHRS ( a: : : GOTO 
TO - 1 *A : PR I NT 
XT 



30 
# 1 , CHRI ( 



> 4 THEN ON ERROR GOTO 

: END 

,90,32,1,4,0.1,0 

,-3. 255,255,74,©, 128.0 

8,144.-4,32,-3,205,11.-2 

-479,30.184,-2,80.184,59 

142,216,142,192,176,3,18 



0,205,16,185,-2,182.24.178 
79,176,0,18 3,7,183.6,285 
16,181.32,180,1,205.16.182 
3.178,3.183,0, 232 ,107.3 
176,218,179,15.2 32,107.3.1 

4.232.95,3.176,196.185.72 
0. 232 .97.3,178.76, 232 . 82 

3,176,191,232,84.3.182,4 
178,3 ,232 .70,3,176,179, 232 
72,3,178,76, 232 ,60,3,176 
179,232.62,3,254,198.12 8.2 

24,114, 229 .178,4.182,1,190 
199,0, 232 , 223 .2.198.6.45 
0. 66 . 191 . 3 .0 . 198 , 133 . 94 
0,48.79,117.248.190.26,0 



EH 
NH 
JF 
AF 
OM 

OJ 
SL 
NN 
OS 
61 
FJ 
QP 
NB 
OC 
SB 

00 
IL 
DB 
BN 
Dtt 
IF 
NH 
U 
ID 
Jl 

KC 
JP 
OM 
Fl 
Oil 
CB 
PC 

CB 
FB 
El 
AN 
CP 
PK 
KL 
EH 
LH 
BC 
KA 
JF 
BA 
Jt 
BK 
LH 
MB 
MC 
AC 
DK 
KG 

GG 
CI 



300 

3 1 
320 
330 
340 
350 

360 
370 
380 
390 
400 

4 1 
420 
430 

4 40 
450 

460 
470 

480 
490 
500 
510 
520 
530 
540 

5 60 

560 
570 
680 
590 
600 

6 1 
620 

630 
640 
650 
660 
670 
680 
690 
700 

7 1 
720 
730 
740 
750 
760 
770 
780 
790 
800 

8 1 
820 
830 

840 

850 



DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

3 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

46 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

39 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

3 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

6 

DATA 

DATA 



232 . 179,2 
198,6,6,0 
-2,191,5.1 
183,0, 190 



198,6, 10.0,92 
128, 198,6,8 
,182.5,178,4 
182,0.247, 199 



0,117 
0.232 



3,190 
159.2 



1 89 
226 , 



0,185,9 
25 1 ,232 



1 1 



2,79,117.224.128.62.11,-2 

117,18.198,6.11,0,1,232 

166,2.12 8,62,12,0,1,117 

3,233,106.1,254.14,45,0 

128,62,45,0,48,115,3.233 

145,1.190.26,0,232,84,2 

182.24. 178,0, 190,226,0.232 

96,2.198.6,9,0.35,180 

0,205,26,139.194.37.255.16 

178,20,246,242. 128, 196.4,2 

196,1,116,3,128,136,52,138 
2 12,182.11,137,22.-2,198,6 
4,0.2,128. 252 ,39,119,5 
4 , , 3 , 1 80 , 2 . 205 
3,116,25.60.3.116 
1,116.2,176, 255 , 2 
60.2, 124,7,60 
3,162.9,0,232,46 



198,6. 
22, 36, 

2 1,60, 
6,9,0, 
68,127 
1 . 160. 6 
246.225 



0,44.127,177,10 
247,216,6.160.15 



1 



200 ,226,254 , 160 
6.0,162.5.0,114 
173.0,139,22,-2 
36, 1 ,208 . 224 , 44 
160.4,0.36,2,44 
5 4,7,0,1,117.2, 



.5,0,2,6 

,3,233 

,160,4,0 

,1.2.208 

,1.128 

176.0 



2,240, 128,254,24, 1 19,39, 18 



0, 232 , 3 , 
6 0,32,11 
4.0.252, 
247,0, 12 
6,7,-2,2 
, 232 , 2 1 
206 , , 23 
7,205,16 
0, 185,3, 
128,54,4 
186,6.0, 
125,255. 
117,255, 
19,82,13 
0,90 , 232 
235,9, 14 
2,0.180, 
180,0,20 
8 , 19 8,6. 
60.32,11 
235 , 12 , 1 



2,180 

6.88, 

2 42,1 

8.54, 

35,17 

3,0,1 

2.175 

, 233 , 

0.242 

,0,1, 

242,1 

128.5 

128,5 

9,22. 

. 124 . 

4.135 

1.205 

5.22, 

11.-2 

7.7,1 

4 4,10 



,8.20 
19 1,1 
74,11 
4.0,2 
9,139 
39,22 
.0.18 
2 . 265 
,174, 
19 1,2 

7 4,11 
4,4.0 
4,8,0 
2,0,2 
0,137 
, 22 , - 
,22.1 
128.2 
, 233 . 

8 0,0, 
,196, 



5,16 

3,0,185 

7,41.232 

.198 

.22,2 

.-2,232 

0.14,176 

.191.17 

117.5 

, 

6.3.233 

,2,233 

,1,117 

3 2, 143 

,22,-2 

2,137,22 

16,39 

52.1,117 

2 19,253 

205 , 22 

117,7,17 



PC 860 DATA 

OD 8 70 DATA 

MF 880 DATA 

IIP 890 DATA 



3,180,0 ,205 ,16, 203 , 128.62 
10,-2,116,3,2 3 3,215.254.19 

99,0,232,231,0,139.22,2 
0,232.56,0, 139.22,-2.232 
49.0,232, 18,0,232,7,1 
128,62.12,0,1.116,206,233 



12^1 COMPUTEI February 1985 



ne 908 DATA 151,253,190,128,0,235,218, 

I 82 
EN 910 DATA 21. 138,22.9,0, 190,209.8 
fiF 920 DATA 2 3 2,206,0,195,82,183,0,232 
FK 930 DATA 14,1,176.9,179,3.232,14 
HII 940 DATA 1,90,195,82,183,0,232,255 
JE 950 DATA 0,176.32,179.7.232,255,0 
OD 960 DATA 90,195,254,14.10,0,83,81 
LE 970 DATA 8 2.86,138,254,128,238,6,12 

3 
Oil 980 DATA 230,1,208,230,128,234,4.42 
« 990 DATA 2 14,128,226.252,2,214,185, 

4 
OP 1000 DATA 0,121.5.178,0.185,2,0 
PE 1010 DATA 123,194,4,138.247,128.250 

, 74 
EB 1020 DATA 114,3,185,2,0,183,0.232 
BE 1030 DATA 19 0,0.176,32,179,7.232,19 

3 
Af 1040 DATA 0,133,11,42.254,2,62,97 
SO 1050 DATA 0.!36,62,97,0, 183,58, 190 
F» 1060 DATA 2 , . 58 , 1 88 . 95 , . 1 1 9 , ) 8 
DF 1070 DATA 13 8,156,95,0,128,235,10.1 

36 
01 1080 DATA 156,95,0.254,132.94,0,78 
GK 1090 DATA 117,232,190,26,0,232,43,0 
DH 1100 DATA 128.238,6,177.5,210.230.2 

46 
CP 1110 DATA 2 14.58.54,6.0,114,4,136 
H» 1120 DATA 54,6,0,94.90,39,91.195 
*C 1130 DATA 82,176,1,181,5,177.4.182 
PI 1140 DATA 23.178,76.183,7.180,7.205 
JH 1150 DATA 16.90.195,83,173,139.208, 

1 83 
fil 1160 DATA 0,232,84,0,172,60.0.116 
HJ 1170 DATA 6,180,14,205,16,235,245,9 

1 
en 1180 DATA 195,81,86,183,0,232,64,0 
OH 1190 DATA 172,60,9,116,15.138,200.1 

81 
HD 1200 DATA 0,172.138,216.172,232,58, 


DB 1210 DATA 2,209,235,233,94.89,195,2 

32 
OA 1220 DATA 19,0,190,161,0,232,195,25 

5 
IB 1230 DATA 180,0,205,22,10,196,116,1 

8 
Fl 1240 DATA 128,252,28,117,243,139,22 

,161 
CA 1250 DATA 0,178.4,190,229,0,232,192 
U 1260 DATA 255,195.198,6,12.0.1,195 
PD 1270 DATA 80.18 9.2,205,16,88.195,18 

S 
GO 1280 DATA 1,0,180,9,205,16,195,-19 
EH 1290 DATA 2 19,219,219,219,179,218,1 

91,196 
BP 1300 DATA 295,218,191,213,184,4,1.6 

6 
PB 1310 DATA 97.108.108,115,32,114.101 

, 1 09 
PF 1320 DATA 9 7,105,110,105,110,103,58 

,32 
JN 1330 DATA 0,32.32,32,32,32,32.32 
III 1340 DATA 32,32,32.32,32.82,32,69 
il 1350 DATA 32.66,32,79,32,85,32.78 



JJ 13 60 DATA 32,68,32.32.32,32,32,32 

Bl 1370 DATA 3 2,32,32.32,32,32.32,32 

PF 1380 DATA 32,32,32.83,99,111,114,10 

1 

NL 1390 DATA 5 8,32,-4.27,2,67,111,110 

EN 1400 DATA 10 3,114,97,116,117.103,97 

,116 

HE 1410 DATA 105.111,110,115,33.32,32, 

89 

LJ 1420 DATA 111,117,32,119,105,110,33 

, 

EO 1430 DATA 25,2,84,114,105,117,109,1 

12 

PA 1440 DATA 104,33,3 2,32,78,111,116,1 

04 

NJ 1450 DATA 10 5.110,103,32,99,97,110. 

32 

LF 1460 DATA 115,116,111,112,32,109,10 

1.33 

SJ 1470 DATA 0,31.16.72,105,116.32,69 

FD 1480 DATA 110,116,101,114,32.116,11 

1 . 32 

CD 1490 DATA 6 6,101.193,105,110,0.4.1 

HM 1500 DATA 2 19.4.2,219.9,2,4.219 

OC 1510 DATA 4,6,219.2.4,219,0,20 

DJ 1520 DATA 12,32,24,15,32,26,12,32 

OA 1530 DATA 0,1,9,32,1,9,213,6 

AD 1540 DATA 9,205,1,9,184,1,9,32 

BE 1559 DATA 0,79,9,32,0,72.7,32 

NO 1560 DATA -8,83,84,65.67,75,32,32 

n 1570 DATA 32,83,84,65,67.75,32,32 

10 1589 DATA 32,83,84,65,67.75,32,32 

KB 1599 DATA 3 2,83,84,65,67.75,32.32 

Hi 1600 DATA 32,83,84.65,67,75.32,32 

HI 1610 DATA 32,83,84,65.67,75,32.32 

KO 1620 DATA 3 2.83,84,65,67.75,32,32 

NB 1630 DATA 3 2.83,84,65,67,75,32,32 

«£ 1640 DATA 32,83,84,65,67,75,32,32 

MH 1650 DATA 3 2,83,84,65,67,75,32,32 

U 1660 OATA 32.83,84,65,67,75.32,32 

NK 1670 DATA 32,83,84.65,67,75.32,32 

XA 1680 DATA 32,83,84.65.6 7,75.32,32 

HO 169 DATA 32,83.84,65,67,75,32,32 

UK 1700 DATA 32.83,84,65,67,75,32,32 

IfK 1719 DATA 32,83.84,65,67,75,32,32 

KG 1729 DATA 32 

Program 2: Modifications For Monochrome 
PC 

on 1290 DATA 176,177.178,219,179.218,1 

9 1 , 196 

SC 1490 DATA 66,101.103,105,110,0,4,15 

KB 1500 DATA 176,4,7,177,0,2,15,178 

FE 1510 DATA 4,7,219,2,15,178,0,20 

IG 1520 DATA 7,32,24,15,32.26,7.32 

JG 1530 DATA 0.1.7,32,1,7,213,6 

J6 1549 DATA 7,205,1,7,184,1.7,32 

PE 1550 DATA 0,79,7,32,0,72,7.32 

Program 3: Modifications For PCjr 

CN 540 OATA 1,16 0,6,0,44,127,177,6 
BP 550 DATA 2 4 6,225,247,216.5,206,9,13 
9 iPt 



FebruQfy 1985 COMPUTEl 125 



Apple Bowling Champ 

Original Program By Joseph Gonci 
Apple Adoptofion By Potrick Pornsh, Programming Supervisor 



Now you can go bowling without the expense of 
renting special shoes or suffering the evibarrassment 
of rolling a gutter hall in front of dozens cf people. 
"Bowliiig Champ" is a game for one to four players 
which runs on any Apple Il-series computer. 



Some computer games, such as Pac-Man or 
Adventure, create their own unique fantasy 
worlds, while others are simulations of reality. 
"Apple Bowling Champ" is an example of the 
latter. 

It's not easy to take a game with countless 
physical variables such as bowling and reduce it 
to numbers so it can be re-created by a com- 
puter — especially a microcomputer. Compromises 
must be made. Usually the game must be modi- 
fied in major ways to make it possible to pro- 
gram. The result is a hybrid game, an 
approximation of reality, that resembles the orig- 
inal but has new aspects of its own. 

Apple Bowling Champ is a reasonable 
simulation of a game of tenpins, given the limita- 
tions imposed by a BASIC program which must 
remain short enough to publish in a magazine. 
The elements of skill and luck have been pre- 
served, and the scoring is authentic. 

Up To Four Players 

When you run Bowling Champ, the program 
asks for the number of players. Up to four people 
can play. Next, enter the players' names. To fit 
the names on the 40-column screen, the program 
truncates entries to eight characters. 

126 COMPUTEI hebruorv I98t. 



Now you're ready to bowl the first frame. 
The bowling ball moves rapidly up and down 
across the alley until you press the space bar. 
This rolls the ball down the alley and knocks 
over the pins — unless you've thrown a gutter 
ball. The trick is to time your release so the ball 
rolls down the center of the alley to score a 
strike. 

In case you're unfamiliar with how a game 
of tenpins is scored, here's a brief summary. 

A game consists of ten frames or turns. Each 
player gets one or two balls per frame. If you roll 
a strike — knocking down all tenpins with your 
first ball — you don't get a second ball, but the 
current ball's score is ten plus the total of your 
next two throws. 

If some pins are left standing after your first 
ball, you get a second ball. If you knock down all 
the remaining pins, it counts as a spare, and the 
current ball's score is ten plus your next throw. 

If any pins remain after your second ball (no 
strike or spare), the number of pins knocked 
down in that frame is added to your previous 
score. 

Rolling a spare in the tenth (last) frame gains 
you one extra ball; rolling a strike in the tenth 
frame gains two extra balls. 

Therefore, a perfect game — ten strikes dur- 
ing regular play plus two strikes with the extra 
balls — scores 300 points. Needless to say, this 
doesn't happen verv often, either in real bowling 
or in Bowling Champ. 

Since Bowling Champ follows every rule of 
scoring for regular bowling, you can learn how to 
score bv carefully observing the game The only 




Four players compete w "Apple Bowlitig Champ": A 
blinking boxviing pin next to a player's scorecard shows 
whose turn is tiext. 



difference is that tine computer does not wait until 
the end of a frame to update the score; it updates 
it after every ball. 

Adjusting The Difficulty 

Novice bowlers may find that the ball moves too 
fast for them to aim. On the other hand, more 
experienced players may want to speed up the 
ball to make the game harder. You can easily 
make either modification by changing the delay 
loop in line 480. The statement in 480 reads: 
480 FOR R=l TO lOtNEXT 

Replacing the 10 with a larger number slows 
down the ball; a smaller number speeds up the 
ball. You might try a value between 20 and 50 
for youngsters. For expert players, remove line 

480' altogether. 

Apple Bowling Champ 



100 
1 10 
120 
130 



1 40 
150 
1 60 

170 



HIMEM: 36096: GOSUB 770 
GOSUB 830: GOSUB 970 
GOSUB 1160 



HOME : POKE 230,32 
: POKE 6,0: POKE 7 

POKE 55,3: CALL 1002 
GOSUB 1230 
REM -MAIN LOOP- 
FOR = 1 TO 10: FOR Z9 = 
1 
FOR R = 1 TO 10: VTAB 2 * 

+ 1 : HTAB 1 : PRINT " " ; : 
1 TO 30: NEXT F : HTAB 1 : 



CALL 62450: 
14 1: POKE 54 



HGR 
0: 



TO A 



180 

190 

200 
2 1 



F = 1 TO 3 
: GOSUB 360 

< > 10 THEN 81 



NEXT 



CZ9 + 

: FOR F 

PRINT ' 
F : NEXT 



1 3 

S" 

R 



1 : GOSUB 3 



: FOR 

Bl = 0: 

IF J 1 
90 

i F - 10 THEN 

270,210,310 

VTAB (Z9 * n « 2 + I: HTAB 1: PRINT 

" ": NEXT : NEXT : VTAB 24: HTAB 1 

0. POKE - ;6368.0: ORINT "PLAY AG 

A I N t: y/N) ? " : 



ON S GOTO 2 10,270, 



220 IF PEEK C - 16384) < 128 THEN 220 
230 K = PEEK C - 163B4D - 128: IF K < 
> 78 AND K < > 89 THEN POKE 
16368.0: GOTO 220 
240 IF K = 89 THEN 120 
250 POKE - 16368,0: HOME : TEXT : END 

260 REM -10TH FRAME : EXTRA BALLS- 
270 VTAB 24: HTAB 5: PRINT "TAKE TWO M 

ORE BALLS , "NAS C Z9 + 1) j " . " ; 
280 FOR I = 1 TO 2000: NEXT : VTAB 24: 

HTAB 5: PR I NT SPCC 30) ; 
290 S[Z9) = S - 1:B1 = 1: GOSUB 360: IF 

J < > 10 THEN 340 
300 GOTO 330 
310 VTAB 24: HTAB 5: PRINT "TAKE ONE M 

ORE BALL , "NA$(Z9 + 1) ; " . " ; 
320 FOR I = 1 TO 2000: NEXT : VTAB 24: 

HTAB 5 : PR I NT SPCC 29) ; 
330 SCZ9) = 1:B1 = 2: GOSUB 360: GOTO 2 

10 
340 SCZ9) = 1:B1 = 2: GOSUB 390: GOTO 2 

10 
350 REM -FIRST BALL- 
360 FOR I = 1 TO 10: VTAB ACI): HTAB B 

CI): PRINT "t " : NEXT 
370 PS = 1:J1 - 0; GOTO 400 
380 REM -SECOND BALL- 
390 PS = 
400 GOSUB 450:T ^ TtZ9):S - SCZ93:T = 

T * J 
410 ON S(Z9) GOSUB 660,590,710,730,750 
420 T(Z9) = T :S(Z9 ) = S 
430 VTAB 21 + CA < 3) + 2 * CZ9 > 1) » 

CA > 2): HTAB 37 - CZ9 II- INT 

CZ9 / 2)) « 22: PRINT TtZ9): RETURN 

440 REM -ROLL BALL- 

450 H - 1:C = 19:E = 11:D = - 1: POKE 

- 16368,0 
460 FOR V = C TO E STEP D: HTAB H: VTAB 

V: PRINT "*"; 
470 IF PEEK C - 16384) > 127 THEN T5 = 

V: V - E : NEXT : GOTO 5 10 
480 FOR R :: 1 TO 10: NEXT 
490 HTAB H : PR I NT " " ; 
500 NEXT V:D - - D:T6 = C:C - E:E = T 

5: GOTO 460 
510 V = T5: FOR H = 1 TO 35: HTAB H: VTAB 
V: PRINT " *";: FOR R = 1 TO 10: NEXT 
: NEXT 
520 J = 

530 IF C SCRNC H,2 « CV - I)) + 16 * SCRNC 
H,2 * (V - 1) + 1) - 128) < > 36 THEN 
570 
640 POKE - 16336, 0:J = j + 1 : FOR D - 

- 1 TO 1 STEP 2 :X1 - V: X2 - H 
550 XI = XI + D:X2 = X2 + 1: IF t SCRNC 
X2,CX1 - 1) * 2) + 16 X SCRNC X2, 
(XI - 1) * 2 + 1) - 128) = 36 THEN 
HTAB X2 + 1: VTAB Xlt PRINT " ";: 
J = J + 1: POKE - 16336,0: GOTO 5 
50 
560 NEXT 
670 HTAB H: VTAB V: PRINT " «";:H = H + 

1 : iF H < 40 THEN 530 
580 J 1 r J 1 t J 

590 VTAB 2 « Z9 * 3: HTAB 7*3*0+ 

B I : G = J * 48 
600 IFJ){ > 10 THEN 630 
3.0 IF PS THEN G : S8: GOTO 630 
620 G - 47 



FebruQfy 1985 COMPUTEI 12:' 



630 
640 

650 
660 
670 
680 
690 
700 
7 1 

720 
730 
740 
750 
760 
770 



730 
790 
600 
8 10 
820 
830 



640 

850 
660 
670 
860 
890 
900 
9 1 
920 
930 
940 
950 
960 
970 



PR I NT CHRS CG ) 

HT AB H ; VT AB V : PR I NT " 

REM -SCORING ROUTINES- 



RETUR\ 



J 1 
PS 
6 : 
T • 

t : 
T ■ 



I F 

I F 
S - 
T = 
S - 
T = 

4 

RETURN 
T - T + 
S = 1 : 
1 = T t 
S = 1 r 



(. > 1 
THEN S = 
RETURN 

J : I F > 
RETURN 

J * 2 : 



THEN RETURN 
2 ; RETURN 

= 10 THEN S 



RETURN 



IF J < > 10 THEN S 



J : IF 
RETURN 

J : IF 
RETURN 



Jl - 10 THEN S = 5: RETURN 



J = 10 THEN S = 2: RETURN 



DIM AC 10D , B( 1 0) : FOR I 
ACn,Btl):X = X * A(I) 
: IF X < > 540 THEN PR I NT 
IN DATA STATEMENTS FOR PiN 
ONS.": STOP 
RETURN 



1 TO 10: READ 
BC I 3 : NEXT 

"ERROR 

PCS I T 1 



REM 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
t = : 
= X 



36 , 
38 . 



960 
990 
1 000 
10 10 
1 020 

1 030 

1 040 
106 
1060 
1070 
1080 
1090 
1 1 00 
1110 
1 120 
1130 
1140 
1150 
1 160 



P I N DATA- 
12,40.13,39,14 
15.37,15,39.16 
17,39.18,40 
FOR I = 768 TO 8 52: 
A: POKE I .A: NEXT : 
> 7734 THEN PRINT "ERROR 
STATEMENTS FOR ML AT 768. 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
RETURN 
REM LOAD 
X = : AD = 
B: FOR I 

A: X ' X + A: POKE I 
+ B : NEXT : I F X < 
"ERROR IN CHARACTER 
S.": STOP 
RETURN 



40 
40 



READ A : X 
I F X < 
IN DATA 

" : STOP 
133,69,134.70,132,71,166.7 
10,10,176,4,16.62,48,4 
16.1, 232 ,232,10,134.27,24 
(01,6.133,26,144.2, 230 , 27 
165,40,133.8,165,41.41,3 
5 , 230 ,133,9,162.8.160.0 
17 7.26,36,50.48.2,73,127 
164,36.145,8, 230 ,26 , 208 , 2 
230 ,27,165.9.24.105,4,133 
9,202,208.226, 165.69, 166,70 
164.71,76,240, 263 



1170 POKE - 16368,0: VTAB 10: HTAB 7: 

PRINT "HOW MANY BOWLERS C1-4): ": 

1180 IF PEEK C - 16384) < 128 THEN 11 

80 
1190 A = PEEK ( - 163841 - 128: IF A < 

49 OR A > 52 THEN 1 160 
1200 PRINT CHRJ (A):A = A - 48: POKE 
- 16368,0: FOR I = 1 TO A: VTAB 1 

4+1: HTA8 6: PRINT "BOWLER «"l"' 

S NAME : " ; 
1210 INPUT AI:NAJ(I) - LEFTt (At.S): NEXT 

: FOR I = TO A - 1:T(t) = 0: NEXT 

: RETURN 
1220 REM DRAW GAME SCREEN 
1230 VTAfl 1: HTAB 10: PRINT "1 2 3 

4 5 6 7 8 9 10" 
1240 HCOLOR: 3: HPLOT 63,11 TO 279.11 
1250 FOR I = 1 TO A: VTAB 2*1+1: HTAB 

3 : PRINT " • "I 
1260 FOR J : 12 TO 36 STEP 3: HPLOT 7 * 

(J-n+3, 1*2*8 TO 7*CJ- 

n+3. 1*2*8+8: NEXT 
1270 HPLOT 63,2 * I * 8 + 11 TO 279,2 * 

I » 8 + 11: NEXT 
1280 FOR I ; 1 TO A STEP 2: VTAB 20 + 

(A < 3 ) + I : HTAB 1 : PRINT " » " I " 

"NAt CI)";":: IF NAJ C I + 1) < > " ■' 
THEN HTAB 23: PRINT " #"1 + 1" " 

N A t ( 1 + 1 ) " : "' 
1290 NEXT I 
1300 HPLOT 0.75 TO 279,75: HPLOT 0,155 

TO 279,155 
1310 FOR I - TO A - 1:SCI) = 1: NEXT 

: RETURN : REM INITIALIZE SCORE S 

TATE O 



REDEF I NED CHARACTERS 
36096: FOR L :: 1 TO 16: 
AD + B TO AD + B + 7 : 



FANTASTIC FILER 

copyhight- 1 984 by david m. smith 
A SOPHISTICATED AND EASY TO USE FILE 
MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR THE COMMODORE 
B4 AND 1541 DISK DRIVE. PACKAGE INCLUDES: 



NEXT 
6223 



: X = 
THEN 



READ 
READ 
X 

PR I NT 



DATA STATEMENT 



, 
24 
32 

80 



DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 


DATA 
4,126 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

REM 

TEXT : 
"BOWL ING 
Ate I ) - 



0,0,0,0.0.0.0 
,20,20.62,20,62,20,20,0 

8 , 28 , 8 , 28 . 28, 62 ,62 , 28 
,28.62.127,127.127,62,28 



120.63,31,79,103.115.121,12 



28 .34.50 
8,12,8,8 

28,34,32 
32.16 
24.20 
2,30. 



128, 

136 , 

144, 

152,62, 

160, 16 , 

168,62. 

176,66, 

184,62, 

192.28, 

200 . 28 , 

448.34 
TITLE SCREEN 
: HOME : VTAB 



.42.38,34,28,0 

,8,8.28,0 

,24,4,2.62,0 

,24,32,34,28,0 

,18,62,16,16.0 

32. 32 , 34 . 28 ,0 



4,2,30.34 

32,16,8.4 

34,34 

34,34 

34,20 



3 4,28,0 

4,4,0 
28,34,34,28,0 
60,3 2.16,14,0 
8,20.34.34.0 



7 : 



CHAMP I " 
' " : NEXT 



FOR 



HTAB 
I = 1 



1 2 
TO 



PR 1 Nl 
4 : N 



1) Complete Menu Driven sub 
sections 

2) Simple One Stroke Key Com 
mands 

3) Free form record layout design 
to place data anywhere on the 
screen 

41 Maximum ol 50 iields per 

record 

5) Maximum oJ 256 charac 

ters record 

6} Average ol 1000 records per 

disk 

7} Fast 3 second searach using 

index match oi speciiic search 

criteria on all lield combinations. 

8) Full arithmetic calculations 

between lields 

9] Built in multifunction colum 

nar report and mailing label 

generator 

10) Ability to create sequential 

disk sub llles tor meiging data 

vtfith popular word processors 

111 Complete and thorough 

users manual 

SO MUCH SOFTWARE 
FOR ONLY ^2395 

All in all Fantastic Filer is a Fan 
tastic Data Base Program at an 
even more Fantastic price. Why 
pay more tor others when Fan 
tastic Filer will till your data base 
needs^ 




Available from 

Micros 

DISTRIBUTING. INC 

1 342 B Route 23 
Butler, N.]. 07405 

Call: (201) 838-9027 To Order 



128 COMPUTEI February 1985 



Advanced Sound Effects 

On The 64 



Philip I. Nelson, Assistant Technical Editor 



Here are some secrets to creating unusual sound 
effects with the Commodore 64's huiltAn synthesizer 
chip. Using the accotJip^ain/iiig program, you can 
experiment xcith different sounds without 
programming. 



The Commodore 64's SID (Sound Interface De- 
vice) chip is capable of creating rich, extra- 
ordinarily complex sounds — but its power 
doesn't come without a price. There aren't any 
sound commands in Commodore BASIC, so 
everything must be done with POKEs. It's te- 
dious to look up all those POKE values and easy 
to get sidetracked, since you must define several 
parameters (controlling values) to make even a 
simple sound. Many programmers, including pro- 
fessionals, grow frustrated and settle for crude 
beeps and whooping noises, wasting the 64's 
classiest sound features. 

The program following this article is de- 
signed to help beginners learn about two of the 
64's advanced sound effects: ring modulation and 
synchronization. It lets you produce a tone with 
two sound channels, and also switch either effect 
on and off just by pressing one of the 64's spe- 
cial function keys. Don't worry if the following 
explanations seem confusing at first; they'll make 
more sense after you've tried the program. 

Independent Voices 

Any sound can be visualized as a waveform, like 
the cross section of a ripple on a pond. The 
Commodore 64 is capable of reproducing four 
different waveforms. Three of them (the triangle, 
sawtooth, and pulse waves) produce clear tones, 
and the fourth (the noise wave) makes a rushing 
or hissing sound. Figure 1 represents each of 
these waveforms. You can assign any one of the 
four waveforms to any of the 64's three sound 
channels, or voices. 



Each of the computer's three voices normally 
plays independently. That is, each voice sounds 
the same, no matter what the other two are doing. 
If you make voice 1 beep and voice 2 growl, 
voice 1 always makes the same beep even if you 
change voice 2's growl to a screech. For a simple 
analogy, picture each voice as playing through a 
separate channel, like the two channels on a 
home stereo system. 

Ring modulation and synchronization go be- 
yond this to create interactive effects, in which a 
parameter controlling one voice also affects the 
sound produced by a second voice. In both cases, 
the special effect is created by a difference in the 
frequencies (pitches) of the two voices. 

Synchronization 

Synchronization is the simpler of the two effects. 
You may picture it as mixing two voices in one 
channel so that their waveforms intermingle. The 
result is often a rhythmic or beating effect, pro- 
duced as the peaks and valleys of the two waves 
move in and out of step with each other. 

When the two waves are more nearly in 
step, their combined sound is more pronounced. 
When their peaks and valleys are more nearly 
opposed, they tend to cancel each other out, and 
the combined sound is quieter. Figure 2 shows a 
simplified diagram of both extremes. If you pro- 
gram both voices so their frequencies are always 
identical, synchronization produces no audible 
effect. 

In addition to the original tones each wave- 
form produces by itself, synchronization adds 
nonharmonic overtones (also called sidebands). 
The overtones are entirelv new waveforms which 
would not exist without synchronization. For in- 
stance, imagine someone pounding a huge gong. 
Gong sounds are full of nonharmonic overtones, 
which are created as different areas of the big, 
flexible metal plate vibrate in and out of phase. 

Febaiary 1985 COMPUTEI 129 



In simplest terms, synchronizing two voices 
gives you both original tones plus new over- 
tones. However, the original tones predominate. 

Ring Modulation 

Ring modulation is a special type of synchroniza- 
tion in which overtones almost completely sup- 
press the original tones. What you're left with is 
a sound composed chiefly of nonharmonic over- 
tones. The results are often surprising and bear 
little if any resemblance to so-called natural 
sounds. 

Used with care, ring modulation can produce 
haunting, beautiful effects. However, it works 
through a complex interaction of two waveforms, 
largely suppressing what you'd hear without the 
feature. So it can be difficult to handle if you 
don't know how it works in the first place. 

Experimenting With Effects 

Let's hear how these effects sound. Type in the 
program, save it, and type RUN. The program is 
set up with several default parameters, so to hear 
a quick example, just press RETURN at every 
prompt. The default parameters will be displayed 
in each case. 

You should hear a flutey tone sweeping up 
the scale, over and over. To pause the tone dur- 
ing its upward sweep, press the CTRL key. 
(Don't worry about accidentally hitting the 
RUN/STOP key; it's been disabled.) 

To switch on synchronization, press the f7 
special function key. The f5 key switches on ring 
modulation, and the f3 key activates both effects 
at once. 

When synchronization is selected, you'll 
hear the beating effect as the tone ascends in 
pitch and the two voices move in and out of 
phase with each other. Ring modulation creates a 
rich, spacey sound. Note that you can pause the 
tone with CTRL while pressing a function key. 
As you'll hear, the sounds are far less exciting 
when both frequencies remain fixed. The most 
interesting effects are made by changing param- 
eters in realtime. 

In these two-voice effects, one of the voices 
is called the carrier, and the other the program 
voice. These terms are derived from electronics, 
meaning that the first voice carries the signal 
(produces the basic sound), and the second voice 
programs (modulates) it. In this example program, 
voice 1 produces the carrier tone, and voice 3 
programs voice 1. 

In both synchronization and ring modula- 
tion, it is the frequency of the program voice 
which affects the carrier voice. The other pro- 
gram voice parameters have no effect on the car- 
rier (of course, they will affect the program voice 
if it is turned on). 

1 30 COMPUTEI February 1 985 



Stirfting Frequencies 

Now that you've heard these special effects with 
the program voice set for a fixed frequency, let's 
try changing the frequency while the tone is be- ■ 
ing produced. To raise the frequency of the pro- 
gram voice, press either SHIFT key. To lower it, 
press the Commodore logo key (next to the left 
SHIFT). The most pronounced effects are pro- 
duced by decreasing the program frequency dur- 
ing a rising tone, and vice versa. 

Now let's hear a descending tone. Press the 
fl key to stop the sound, and enter the following 
values when prompted: 

Rising/falling? F 

Carrier waveform T 

Program waveform (any waveform works) 

Hear program voice? N 

Program frequency 9 

Starting frequency 200 

Ending frequency S 

Loop rate 6 

Experiment with the program for a while, trying 
out different parameters. For example, try 
producing the same sound with a smaller loop 
rate. Press fl to enter edit mode, then press 
RETURN after the first seven prompts. Now en- 
ter .75 for the loop rate. Pressing RETURN at a 
prompt preserves the old value, so you need to 
type in only the parameters you want to change 
(however, you must always enter the loop rate 
for a falling tone). 

When picking the waveforms, press T for a 
triangle' wave, P for the pulse waveform, and so 
on. When you select a rising tone, the starting 
frequency must be smaller than the ending fre- 
quency. To create a falling tone, the first value 
must be larger than the second. If you make a 
mistake, use the DELete key to back up. The pro- 
gram signals an error if you enter illegal values. 
If you accidentally type in a letter when a num- 
ber is required, the computer prints ?REDO 
FROM START. No harm is done; just enter the 
number you want. 

The loop rate controls how fast the carrier 
frequency is changed as the tone moves up or 
down the scale. It corresponds to the STEP value 
in the FOR -NEXT loop that creates the tone (see 
lines 13-17). The smaller the loop rate (fractions 
are allowed), the slower the frequency will 
change, and vice versa. When the starting and 
ending frequencies are far apart, you can specify 
a large value for the loop rate; however, if you 
specify a starting frequency that is close to the 
ending frequency, you must keep the loop rate 
small to avoid causing an error in the program. 

Programming Your Own Sounds 

You can use this program to start building a li- 
brary of sound effects. Just play around until you 



find a sound you like, copy down the values 
from the screen, and plug them into your own 
program. 

As you'll discover by experimenting, these 
special effects work well with certain combina- 
tions, and poorly (or not at all) with others. Ring 
modulation works only when you set the carrier 
voice to the triangle waveform. Synchronization 
works with any waveform, but synchronizing 
any frequency with the noise waveform (a nearly 
random combination of many frequencies) 
doesn't accomplish much. The sawtooth and 
pulse waves often sound similar. 

Most of the time, you'll want to keep the 
program voice silent, using only its frequency to 
control the carrier (in which case its other param- 
eters are irrelevant). However, you can press Y 
when prompted to hear the program voice. If 
you have trouble understanding how an effect 
works, try listening to the program voice for a 
while. 

Ring modulation and synchronization are 
most pronounced when the program frequency is 
considerably lower than the carrier frequency 
and remains fixed, as in the above examples. 
Changing the program frequency to a higher 
fixed value makes the two voices move in and 
out of phase more rapidly. Run the last example, 
and change the program frequency from 9 to 22. 
Now select synchronization, and you'll hear a 
sharp, meow-meow sound. 

Controlling Voices With Voices 

You can use ring modulation or synchronization 
with any of the 64's three voices, but the voice 
reladonships are fixed: voice 1 modulates voice 
2, voice 2 modulates voice 3, and voice 3 modu- 
lates voice 1. 

Thus, if you want to synchronize or ring 
modulate voice 1, you must use- voice 3 as the 
program voice, and so on. Again, it is the fre- 
quency of the program voice which affects the 
result. This simple tutorial program uses only the 
high byte frequency register for each voice; of 
course, you can achieve much finer frequency 
control by using both the high and low bytes. 

To select these special effects in BASIC, 
simply add 2, 4, or 6 to the normal POKE value 
for the waveform register of the voice you want 
to affect. For instance, POKE 54276,17 selects the 
triangle waveform for voice 1. POKE 54276,19 
adds synchronization to the triangle wave 
(17 + 2 = 19). POKE 54276,21 enables a ring- 
modulated triangle wave; and POKE 54276,23 
turns on both effects at once. Use POKE 
54276,67 to select synchronizadon with the pulse 
waveform, and so forth. 

Naturally, you can use these effects with 
more than one voice at a time. If you select 



synchronization in voices 1 and 3, then voice 1 
will be affected by voice 3's frequency, and voice 
3 will be affected by voice 2's frequency. How- 
ever, because multivoice modulation creates so 
manv overtones, it's easy for things to get out of 
hand. If you create a three-note musical chord 
with triangle waves in every voice, and then 
switch each to ring modulation, the result will be 
anything but musical. 

Play with those frequencies for a while, 
though, and you'll find you can push the over- 
tones into complex chords. Such chords have a 
ringing, live sound, and contain more than three 
notes. Interesting effects can also be created by 
tuning one or more voices slighdy off-key. 

Hints For Programmers 

This program employs a few tricks you might 
find useful. Many programmers use a long series 
of individual POKEs to set up the SID chip at the 
beginning of a program. Line 1020 shows how to 
do this with a FOR-NEXT loop that READs the 
values from DATA statements and POKEs them 
into the SID chip. This makes your program eas- 
ier for others to read and for you to modify. 
Note, however, that Commodore recommends 
POKEing attack/decay registers before waveform 
registers; the program follows this rule by 
POKEing the desired waveform values later on, 
in line 370. 

To detect a single keypress, you can PEEK 
location 197 as we did in lines 14 and 15 
(Z = 197). Sometimes, however, you want to let 
the user do two things at once from the key- 
board. In this program, for instance, you can se- 
lect effects with a function key and simulta- 
neously change the program frequency or pause 
the sound. 

By PEEKing location 653, you can tell 
whether the CTRL, SHIFT, or Commodore logo 
key is pressed with another key (see line 16; 
Y=653). Location 653 holds the following values 
when the indicated key is pressed: 

1 = SHIFT 

2 = Commodore 
4 = CTRL 

You can also detect combinations of these 
keys. Location 653 contains a 3 when both 
SHIFT and the Commodore key are pressed, 5 
when SHIFT and CTRL are pressed, and so on. 
Checking for these keys gives you great flexibil- 
ity in designing keyboard input. However, it's 
prudent to disable the RUN/STOP key when 
using them. 

The program disables the RUN/STOP key in 
tine 1010 with POKE 788,52. However, you can 
still exit the program by hitdng RUN/STOP and 
RESTORE together. In the same hne, POKE 
657,128 prevents the computer from flipping the 

February 1985 COMPUTEI 131 



entire screen display from uppercase to lowercase 
if the SHIFT and Commodore keys are pressed 
simultaneously. 

Figure 1 : Commodore 64 Waveforms 
Triangle 




Sawtooth 




Pulse 



Noise 




Figure 2: Synchronization 
Waves nearly in step 




Waves far out of step 




Sound Effects Demonstrator 

Please refer to "COf^/IPUTE!'s Guide To Typing In 
Programs" before entering this listing. 



1 
2 

4 
5 
6 
7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 
16 
17 

18 

19 

100 
110 

120 

130 

140 

150 

160 
170 

180 

190 
200 
210 

220 
230 
240 

250 
260 

270 
280 

290 

300 

310 
320 

330 

340 

350 
360 



GOSUB 1000:GOTO100 : rem 118 
PRINTCHR$ ( 145 )C5 : FORJ=1TO400 :NEXT: PRINT 

ER$CHR5 ( 145 ): RETURN : rem 35 

Z1=UN:ZZ=ED: RETURN : rem 109 

ZZ=ZZ-LR: RETURN : rem 191 

POKEW 1, VI +TU; RETURN : rem 142 

POKEWl, VI +FR: RETURN : rem 126 

P0KEW1,V1+SX: RETURN : rem 146 

PF=PF+UN;IFPF>FFTHENPF=FF : rem 39 
RETURN :rem 65 

PF=PF-UN: IFPF<UNTHENPF=UN : rem 126 
RETURN : rem 67 

Z1=ZR:F0RZZ=BGT0EDSTEPLR : rem 121 
IFPEEK(Z)=NNTHENP0KEW1 , VI :GOTOl6 

: rem 16 



ONPEEK(Z)GOSUB10,10,6,4,8,7 : rem 202 

0NPEEK(Y)G0SUB9,11 ,10,5 : rem 8 

POKEHl , ZZ:P0KEH3,PF:P0KEBF, ZR:NEXT: IPZ 
1=UNTHEN19 :rem 165 

G0T013 :rem 6 

POKEHl , ZR: POKEH3 , ZR : POKEWl ,ZR : P0KP/V3 , Z 
R:P0KE198,ZR : rem 29 

PRINTFL$; :INPUTFF$ : rem 137 

IFFF$<>"R"ANDFF5<> "F"THENFFS=" ": GOSUB 
2:GOTO100 :rem 184 

PRINTUL$FF? rPRINTCV? ; : INPUTW? 

: rem 238 
IFW$ < > "T " ANDW5 <> " S " ANDVV5 <> " P "ANDVV 
$<>"N"THENG0SUB2 :GOTO120 : rem 

F0RJ=1T04 : IFVV$=VLS ( J ) THENV1=VC { J ) 

:rem 105 
NEXT :rem 213 

PRiNTUL5W$ :PRINTPV9; : INPUTVHS : rem 32 
IFVW$ < > "T"ANDVW$ <> "S "ANDVW? < > "P"ANDVW 
5<>"N"THENGOSUB2;GOTO160 : rem 12 
F0RJ=1T04 : IFVW$=VL? ( J ) THENV3=VC ( J ) 

:rem 112 
NEXT :rera 217 

PRINTUL$VW$:PRINTNF$; :INPUTYS$ : rem 9 
IFYS$<> "Y"ANDYS?<>"N"THENG0SUB2 : GOTO 2 
00 :rera 158 

IF YS$="N"THENV3=V3-UN : rem 16 
PRINTUL9YS$:PRINTPF$r :INPUTPF:rem 211 
IFPF<UNORPF>FFTHENGOSUB2:GOTO230 

:rem 132 
PRINTNL5PF:PRINTBG$; :INPUTBG ; rem 122 
IFBG<ZR0RBG>FFTHENG0SUB2 :GOTO2 50 

:rem 119 
PRINTNL$BG: PRINTED? ; :INPUTED : rem 111 
IFED<ZRORBG=EDORED>FFTHENGOSUB2 :G0T02 
70 :rem 107 

IFFFS="R"ANDED<BGTHENGOSUB2:GOTO270 

:rem 187 
I FFF$= " F " ANDED> BGTHENG0SUB2 : GOTO 2 70 

:rem 159 
PRINTNL$ED:PRINTLRSf :INPUTLR : rem 148 
I FLR <=ZRORLR> FFTHENG0SUB2 : GOT03 10 

; rem 216 
IFFFS="R"AMnLR>ED-BGTHENGOSUR2:GOT03T 
: rem 126 

IFFF$="F"ANDLR>BG-EDTHENGOSUB2;GOT031 
:rem 115 

IFFF$="F"THENLR=-LR : rem 115 

PRINTNL9ABS(LR) : PRINTCHR? ( 158 ) A$ : PRIN 
TB$:PRINTF$:PRINTCHR5(158)A$ : rem 63 



132 COMPUTEI February 1985 



370 P0KEH3, PF:P0KE\'J1 , VI :POKEW3,V3 : rem 82 
380 G0T013 :rem 56 

999 REM INITIALIZE : rem 129 

ieS00 PRIIS1TCHR$(147)CHRS{5)CHR$(142) : POKES 

3 28L,0:POKE53 280,0:Z=19 7 :BF=198:Y=6 5 

3 :rem 1B8 

1010 POKE657 , 128: POKE7aa, 52 :S=54272 :VM=S+ 

24 :FORJ=STOVM:POKEJ,0:NEXT : rem 146 
1020 FORJ=STOVM:READQ:POKEJ,Q: NEXT: rem 26 
1025 FF?="R":BG=5:ED=125:LR=2:VV$="T":VW$ 

="T" :PF=11 :YS$="N" : rem 102 

1030 ZR=0;UN=1 ;TU=2 :FR=4 :SX=6 : NN=64 :FF=25 

5 :H1=S+1 :Wl=S+4 :H3=S+15 :W3=S+1B 

: rem 63 
1040 R$=CHR$(18) :rem 51 

1050 A$=R$+"{37 SPACES}" : rem 77 

1060 PRINTA$ ;rem 185 

1070 PRINTR5"{4 SPACES} SOUND MODULATION D 

EM0NSTRAT0R{4 SPACES]" : rem 54 
1080 PRINTA$ :rem 187 

1090 B$=R$+CHR5(158)+" F7=SYNCH F5=RING F 

3 = B0TH F1=RESTART ■'+CHR$(159) 

:rem 108 
1095 F$=R$+CHR$(158)+" CTRL=PAUSE COM=FRE 

Q DN SHFT=FREQ UP "+CHR5(159) 

: rem 163 
1100 C$=CHR$(158)+"(31 SPACES }"+R$+"ERROR 
"+CHRS(159) :rem 123 

1105 ER5="(8 LEFT] [5 SPACES]" : rem 235 
1110 BL$=R5+CHR$(159) : rem 68 

1115 UL5=CHR9(145) :F0RJ=1T031 :UL$=UL$+CHR 

$(29) :NEXT:UL§=UL$+"[2 SPACES}" 

:rem 104 
1118 NL$=UL$+CHR5(157) :rem 165 

1120 FL$=BL$+" RISING OR FALLING TONE? (R 

,F) "+CHR${146) :rem 228 

1130 BG?=BL5+" STARTING FREQUENCY 

[4 SPACES] (0-255) "+CHR$ { 146 ) : rem 80 
1140 ED$=BL5+" ENDING FREQUENCY{6 SPACES} 

(0-255) "+CHR5(146) :rem 154 

1150 LR5=BL5+" LOOP RATE{13 SPACES] ( 1-255 

) "+CHR5(146) ;rem 176 

1160 CV$=BLS+" CARRIER WAVEF0RM{4 SPACES] 

(T,S,P,N) "+CHR$(146) :rem 132 
1170 PV$=BL$+" PROGRAM VJAVEF0RMt4 SPACES] 

(T,S,P,N) "+CHR$(146) srem 162 
1180 PF$=BL$+" PROGRAM FREQUENCY 

{5 spaces} (1-255) "+CHR$ ( 146 ) : rem 15 
1190 NF5=BL$+" HEAR PROGRAM VOICE? 

(5 SPACES}(Y,N) "+CHR$(146) : rem 10 
1200 F0RJ=1T04:READQ:VC( J)=Q:NEXT : rem 85 
1210 F0RJ=lT04;READQ$tVL$(J)=Q$ : NEXT 

:rem 203 
1300 RETURN :rem 164 

2000 DATA 5,0, 128,7,0,15,240:REMVOICE1 

:rem 12 
2010 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0:REMVOICE2:rem 251 
2020 DATA 5,0,128,7,0,15,240:REMVOICE3 

;rem 16 
2030 DATA 0,0,0, 15 :REMFILTERS, VOLUME 

:rem 148 
2040 DATA 17, 3 3,65,129:REMWAVEF0RMS 

:rem 17 
2050 DATA T,S,P,N : rem 170 © 



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February 1935 COMPUTEI 133 



Computers And Society 



David D. Thornburg, Assodole Editor 



The Processed Word 

My craft (such as it is) is writing. I write for a liv- 
ing, and I am able to live from my writing. I 
used to do other things for income, but when it 
comes right down to it, I am entranced by the 
power of words and by the ease with which two 
simple substances — paper and ink — can combine 
to form documents that can cause laughter, pain, 
joy, fear, and even boredom. 

Pretty magical, this writing business. 

Of course, as a writer, 1 have assembled a 
modest collection of writing tools — pads of pa- 
per, pens, typewriters, terminals, computers — the 
usual stuff. 

One question writers ask from time to time 
is how their tools influence (dare I say deter- 
mine?) what they write. Some critics argue, for 
example, that no great artistic works are going to 
be created on a word processor. These critics go 
on to suggest that the only good writing is done 
with tools like pencils, or perhaps typewriters. 

In The Mind 

These critics are confusing the tool with the re- 
sult. The word processor will create no works of 
art at all. I use mine six hours a day, and it has 
yet to create anything of its own in its spare 
time. But then again, I don't expect my pens to 
create anything, and I am sure that our ancestors 
didn't expect wonders from sticks pressed into 
fresh mud, either. 

Why the literary critics have missed the 
point eludes me. It probably comes from their 
own lack of exposure to a good word processing 



David Thornburg has used several word processors to 
write 1 1 books, including The KoalaPad Book, Com- 
puter Art and Animation (a Logo book available in ver- 
sions for the TI, Radio Shack, Atari, and Commodore 
computers), and Exploring Logo Without a Computer 
(published by Addisou-Wcsley). His whimsical look at 
computing (101 Ways to Use a Macintosh) has been 
published by Random House. Later this year, his first 
book on artificial intelligence applications in Logo 
(Beyond Turtle Graphics) loill be published by Addison- 
Wesley. Thornburg welcomes letters from readers, but re- 
grets that he is not able to anszver all his mail. 
Correspondence should be sent to him in care of 
COMPUTE!. 

134 COMPUTEI February 1985 



system. In fact, good writing takes place in the 
mind, not in the pen. I do my writing without 
ever lifting a pen, and then use whatever tool is 
at hand to transcribe this writing onto paper. Do 
my writing implements influence what I write? 
Perhaps they do, but only to a very small extent. 
(For example, I wouldn't be writing on this topic 
if I didn't use a word processor.) 

As a writer, I have found that there are other 
factors that are much more influential than my 
choice of transcription tools. The first of these is 
exposure to good writing. I don't know any good 
writer who doesn't spend time reading other au- 
thors' books. Wherever I write, I have shelves 
lined with the works of others. Many of these 
books are technical and many are not. The shelf 
containing computer books also contains the 
works of Shakespeare. Aristotle shares shelf 
space with my Apple Logo manual. Exposure to 
good writing can be very important to an au- 
thor — any author. 

The second factor that I find as important as 
any other is having a good place to do my writ- 
ing. I can write almost anywhere (on airplanes, 
for example), but my best writing comes when I 
am in a special place that is conducive to creative 
thought. 

Each Its Own Charm 

I am most fortunate to have three places that are 
conducive to writing. The first is a condominium 
high in the hills south of San Francisco. From my 
living room I can look into a verdant ravine, and 
trees fill my sight for as far as 1 can see. Further 
south, in an unused school in Mountain View, I 
have a rambling office that looks out on mul- 
berry trees. The pitched roof of this office lends a 
certain resonance to the room when the winter 
rains beat against it. Inside, the spacious area has 
a warmth that encourages thoughts to flow. My 
third special place is in Monterey, in sight of the 
ocean. With wooded trails nearby, and miles of 
beach to explore, I find this area to be very en- 
couraging to the creative process. 

Each of these places has its own charm, but 
they all have one characteristic in common. In 
each of them I can find the quiet and solitude 
that seems to be important to me. When I am 



writing, I can tolerate no distractions — no back- 
ground music, no telephones, no conversation — 
nothing, save for the sounds of the birds, or 
seals, or the rustle of the leaves, or the patter of 
the rain. 

So if you ask me to identify my most im- 
portant tools as a writer, they would be access to 
the writing of others, and a quiet place in which 
to write. 

So what about the technology of transcrip- 
tion? Doesn't it have a role? 

Of course it does — but its role is largely neu- 
tral or negative. What I mean is that I am rarely 
liberated by my writing instruments; I am often 
impeded by them. As a tinkerer I am forever 
buying new pens, papers, word processors, and 
other tools, looking for ways to facilitate 
transcription. This is a highly personal quest. 
Some writers can dictate their manuscripts into a 
tape recorder. I cannot. Some writers prefer to 
use only No. 2 pencils and yellow legal pads. 1 
do not. 

The point is that there is no one best 
transcription tool, just as there is no one best 
writing style, or one best author. 

While my use of tools changes from time to 
time, my process for transcribing a manuscript is 
roughly the following: 

My first draft is often (but not always) writ- 
ten in longhand with a (gasp!) cheap fountain 
pen in a blank book or legal pad. 1 persist in 
using a fountain pen because I like the feel of it 
gliding along the paper. I don't like changing ink 
cartridges, but I tolerate this inconvenience. 

Flubs, Snags 

Why, in this age of computers, do I horse around 
with buggy whip technology? There are several 
reasons. First, I need to use a highly portable 
writing medium since I don't always know where 
1 am going to be when 1 will want to write some- 
thing. Second — and more important — the written 
page is not a page of pure text. It is a graphic 
document as well. Words can be underlined, 
crossed out, and added in the margins. Ideas for 
later parts of the document can be jotted down in 
the middle of a page and circled to show that 
they are part of something else. 

As I am writing the document, I turn off all 
conscious judgment. Spelling errors, grammatical 
flubs, syntactic snags, all these go unnoticed at 
this stage. All I want to do is transcribe my 
thoughts. Period. 

Once the document is captured on paper, I 
usually review it once, and make any large 
changes that come to mind. Next, I transcribe my 
writing into a computer system, either by enter- 
ing it into my word processor directly, or by first 



entering it into a portable computer that 
accompanies me when I am on the road. 

Both my portable (Radio Shack Model 100) 
and desktop (Apple Macintosh with MacWrite) 
computers have intuitively simple, virtually 
modeless, word processors. Because of what I do 
as I transcribe my handwritten text into the com- 
puter, it is important that the word processor be 
intuitively easy to operate. 

In fact, 1 have a cardinal rule regarding word 
processor selection. I refuse to use a word 
processor whose manual is larger than the docu- 
ment I want to create. Since I am not in the pro- 
cess of compiling an encyclopedia, I have yet to 
work with WordStar. 

The Product, Not The Tool 

The task of transcription to the computer is one I 
undertake myself. I can't delegate it to a sec- 
retary because this transcription process is an- 
other chance to refine what 1 have written. By 
the time my document is in the computer, all 
that remains is to check the spelling and make 
grammatical corrections. 

From creation to preparation of a final 
manuscript, 1 usually use several writing tools. I 
ask something different from each of them — but 
I am flexible. I sometimes capture my ideas with 
a keyboard instead of a pen, and the results are 
fine. 

As with so many other areas of technology, 
we need to separate the too! from the product. 
The writing product can be produced in many 
ways, and it is the function of our tools to make 
these ways as easy to use as possible. 

A Secret Process 

In fact, there are many advantages to using a 
word processor over a typewriter. One of the 
beauties of using a word processor is that it lets 
you prepare a letter-perfect document. I find that 
my writing is better when the document looks 
nice. In this regard, the word processor helps me 
to be a better writer. 

On the flip side of this argument, writers 
who use word processors tend not to retain 
copies of earlier drafts. There may be some scrib- 
bled notes and a final manuscript, with no docu- 
mentary evidence of the process by which one 
became transformed into the other. Scholars who 
are interested in exploring the development of a 
book will have a harder time as today's Heming- 
ways create intermediate drafts that are edited 
rather than rewritten. 

But this shouldn't influence the quality of 
the author's writing — it only keeps the process a 
secret. 

Maybe this makes writing a bit more 
magical! Q 



February 1985 COMPUTEI 135 



IBM Personal Computing 



Donald B. Trivette 



Inside King's Quest 



Byron and I were playing King's Quest — a new 
adventure game for the IBM PCjr written by 
Sierra. "But how does it work?" he wanted to 
know. "How would you even go about writing a 
program like that?" As a bright computer science 
major, Byron can write programs to perform 
reverse Polish notation, link-lists in Pascal, and 
all those other exotic things that students learn to 
do. But he couldn't begin to guess how King's 
Quest was written. Neither could I. 

Everyone is familiar with arcade-style games 
in which you win points either for zapping 
strange-looking creatures or for not getting 
zapped yourself. An adventure game is entirely 
different. Winning an adventure game requires 
logic and puzzle-solving ability, not eye-hand 
coordination with a joystick. 

Searching For Treasure 

In King's Quest you play the game as Sir Grahame, 

a computer-animated knight who roams the 
kingdom of Daventry looking for three treasures. 
As Sir Grahame explores the kingdom, he can 
pick up objects like a dagger, a carrot, and a goat 
(yes! a goat) that may eventually help him locate 
the magical treasures. However, finding the ob- 
jects is no cinch — some are in plain view but eas- 
ily overlooked, while others are hidden in 
stumps and at the tops of trees. And of course 
there are hazards to overcome and puzzles to 
solve. How can Sir Grahame get across a bridge 
guarded by a troll? Kill the troll with the dagger? 
Don't try it! This is a game of strategy, not vi- 
olence. There are several solutions to each puzzle 
and the more innovative and peaceful Sir Grahame 
is, the more points he gets. 

The mechanics of playing the game are sim- 
ple. You control Sir Grahame with either a joy- 
stick or the cursor-arrow keys. When Sir 
Grahame moves out of one scene, say to the 
right, a new scene appears on the screen. The 
main kingdom of Daventry is six scenes from 
north to south and eight scenes from east to 

136 COMPUTEI February 1985 



west. The kingdom wraps around itself so that 
the 48 scenes are continuous. There are 32 other 
scenes for the interiors of caves and houses. 

On the bottom four lines of the screen, you 
can type simple verb-noun sentences like Take a 
carrot, Kill the troll, or Look at the river. This area 
also displays messages and warnings for Sir 
Grahame: The river is sioift and deep, (One 
quickly learns not to swim in swift, deep rivers.) 

The graphics and animation in the PCjr ver- 
sion of King's Quest are spectacularly better than 
in any other adventure game I've seen. The 
three-dimensional quality makes it seem like Sir 
Grahame is moving through an animated car- 
toon. He can bump into and go around objects, 
climb trees and swim in water, duck behind 
rocks, and jump into the air. If he walks behind 
a rock, his legs are invisible; if he walks in front 
of a rock, part of the rock is invisible. When Sir 
Grahame moves, his arms and legs move, and 
the background shows between them. While we 
take that kind of animation for granted in a 
movie, it is not easily accomplished in a com- 
puter program on a machine without sprites. 
That's the part that had Byron and me puzzled. 
How do they do that? I called Sierra to find out. 

A $700,000 Computer Game 

A year before the PCjr was announced — when 
the "Peanut" was just a rumor to the rest of us — 
IBM asked Sierra to create a game that would 
show off the new computer's color graphics 
capabilities. IBM supplied Sierra with a prototype 
Junior. 

Roberta Williams, who had worked on five 
other adventure games, was given the task of 
designing something completely new and dif- 
ferent. Eighteen months later, Williams and a 
team of six programmers and artists had created 
King's Quest— at a cost of over $700,000. 

First, Williams wrote the story. She based it 
not on strange characters with strange names, 
but rather on familiar characters from literature. 



Do you remember "Billy Goats Gruff" and "Hansel 
and Gretel"? Once the story line was established, 
the artists prepared detailed color drawings of 
each of the 80 scenes. In adventure-game jargon, 
scenes are called rooms. Each drawing was then 
traced on a Calcomp Graphics Tablet. This pro- 
cess automatically generated the instructions 
which tell the computer how to reproduce each 
room, saving the programmers months of tedious 
work. 

The drawing instructions for each room are 
stored as separate files on the disk. (Technically, 
they are stored at absolute sector addresses, not 
actually in disk files.) When Sir Grahame moves 
from one room to another, the computer loads 
the instructions for displaying the new room, 
draws the room point by point, and then fills in 




Sir Grahmne begins his quest at the castle of Daventry. 



the color. It takes about four seconds for the PCjr 
to draw and color a room. A faster approach 
would have been to store the room images them- 
selves on disk, already drawn. But that method 
would have used considerably more disk space 
and reduced the number of rooms in the game. 
(Actually, it's entertaining to watch the computer 
draw and color each scene.) 

The Invisible Skeleton 

The first scene in King's Quest is the castle of 
Daventry where Sir Grahame's quest begins (see 
photo). The lions, flags, stone blocks, alligators, 
and plants make this the most detailed room in 
the kingdom. It takes 2400 bytes of instructions 
to tell the PCjr how to draw and color this scene. 
By contrast, the easiest room to draw requires 
only 470 bytes of instructions. 

The scenes are more than just static back- 



grounds. For instance, if Sir Grahame staggers a 
bit and runs into a castle wall, he stops. How 
does the program know when the character hits 
something? There's a skeleton, an invisible struc- 
ture, behind each picture. If you could see this 
skeleton, you'd notice lots of lines running all 
over the screen defining where Sir Grahame can 
and cannot walk. The lines were drawn into each 
room with the graphics tablet. 

In addition to concealing hidden lines, each 
room also assigns priorities to every object it con- 
tains (trees, rocks, flowers, etc.). These prior- 
ities — numbers from 1 to 15 — give King's Quest 
its three-dimensional quality. 

Objects at the top of the screen have low 
priority; those at the bottom, high. Sir Grahame's 
priority changes as he moves around the room. 

For example, a tree in the mid- 
dle of the screen might have a 
priority of 9. When Sir 
Grahame is in front of the 
tree — closer to the bottom of 
the screen — his priority might 
be 11. As he moves up the 
screen, his priority changes. 
If he is behind the tree in a 
scene, his priority is less than 
that of the tree. By comparing 
priorities each time Sir 
Grahame moves, the program 
makes decisions about how to 
draw the screen. If Sir 
Grahame's priority is higher 
than the object behind him, 
he is visible and the object (or 
part of it) is invisible. If his 
priority is lower, as when he 
steps behind a tree, then he 
(or part of him) disappears. 
Each time Sir Grahame 
(or any object) moves, the surrounding region on 
the screen is saved in the computer's memory in 
one of four save-areas. The program checks the 
new location for skeleton lines and priorities, 
then adjusts Sir Grahame and the surrounding 
area for any changes — perhaps part of a rock be- 
came visible in front of his legs. Finally, Sir 
Grahame and the surrounding area are redrawn 
on the screen. And that's how Sir Grahame 
walks around the kingdom of Daventry. 

The Game's Own Language 

In addition to the graphics for each room, there 
is a set of logical statements, These are written in 
a special language devised by Sierra called the 
Game Adaptation Language. The program con- 
stantly loops through these statements looking 
for something to change. They work sort of like a 
group of IF-THEN statements in BASIC, 

February 1985 COMPUTE) 137 



For example, in one room, room 10, a goat 
randomly wanders around inside a pen (see 
photo). The pen extends into room number 11 on 
the right. If the goat happens to wander out of 
room 10, the program must erase the goat. The 
program knows the goat by the codename 14 and 
Sir Grahame by the name Ego. So if Ego moves 
to room 11 in search of the goat, the program 
must remember to draw 14 in room 11. The 
statement in Game Adaptation Language looks 
hke this: 

IF HAS-GOAT AND OBJHIT-EDGE 14 AND 
EDGEOBJ-HIT 1 AND GOAT-GONE AND SHOW- 
CARROT THEN ASSIGN GOAT-ROOM 11, 

ERASE 14. 

If I understood what that meant, I'd be writ- 
ing adventure games instead of magazine articles, 
but with a little examination we can pretty much 




A pastoral scene in King's Quest. 

figure out what's going on. In programming 
logic, the numeral means false, no, or off, 
and the numeral 1 means true, yes, or on. Thus, 
in English, the statement might read: "If Ego 
doesn't have the goat and if the goat has hit the 
edge of the room and if the edge of the room has 
been hit and if the goat is in the room in the 
first place and if the goat has not been shown 
the carrot, then [Whew!] remember to draw the 
goat in room 1 1 and erase the goat from room 
10." 

And remember, that is just one of the logic 
statements that goes with room 10 — there are a 
total of 180 logic lines for this room alone. The 
logic statements give the program its personality; 
they tell the program what to do and when to do 
it. 

Inevitable Bugs 

Anyone who has ever written a computer pro- 
gram knows that program logic is a fertile field 

138 COMPUTE) February 1985 



for errors. If the programmer forgets to tell the 
computer just one little detail, the results can be 
amusing — and disastrous. Preliminary versions of 
King's Quest were not without bugs. It took sev- 
eral weeks to find out why, if Sir Grahame 
jumped in the air as he moved from one room to 
another, he skidded into the new room totally 
out of control. That bug has been fixed, but a 
few others still lurk in the current PCjr version. 
(But not, says Sierra, in the versions it markets 
directly.) 

During one game, Sir Grahame was standing 
at the edge of a bridge. The goat was coming 
back across the bridge, and as it passed, 1 made 
Sir Grahame jump. A foolish thing to do, I know, 
but I was celebrating. Unfortunately, the screen 
filled with horizontal lines and the game came to 
a swift end. The programmer who wrote the logic 
statements for that scene for- 
got to allow for the possi- 
bility that Ego might jump 
as the 14 passes in front of 
him. Nevertheless, the 
errors are very few. 

Some things you might 
consider an error are not er- 
rors at all. For example, 
there can be only four ani- 
mated objects (including Sir 
Grahame) in any one room. 
The program has only four 
save-areas for animated 
objects. Somewhere along 
the way (I won't tell you 
where). Sir Grahame can 
acquire some magic beans, 
Getting those beans is the 
toughest part of King's Quest. 
(It helps to have read Grimms' Fairy Tales.) 
But try to plant the beans in the room where 
you found them and the screen will say: "You 
can't do that here." That's because that room 
already has four animated objects. In fact, you 
can plant the beans in only about half of the 
rooms in King's Quest because of the four- 
object-maximum rule. That's not a bug or an 
error, it's just a programming tradeoff to con- 
serve memory. 

There is one room in King's Quest with five 
objects. I don't want to give anything away, but: 
Should Sir Grahame (1) give the Woodcutter (2) 
and his wife (3) the right object (4), then he can 
take the fiddle (5). This apparent violation of the 
rule is permitted because the programmers pulled 
a fast one. Look closely when Sir Grahame puts 
the something on the table and you'll see the 
Woodcutter disappear for a moment. The pro- 
grammer briefly swaps objects to keep within the 
limits. Tricky. 



A Sequel On The Way 

Roberta Williams is a perfectionist. There just 
wasn't time or memory to put everything in 
King's Quest that she wanted. She wishes the 
language interpreter had a larger vocabulary, that 
Sir Grahame could drop objects he has picked 
up, and that he could be even more animated. 
She wishes some of the characters, like the wolf, 
could roam from room to room. But she says the 
sequel, due in February or March, will be even 
better. 

In King's Quest 11, Sir Grahame — who be- 
comes King Grahame when you solve King's 
Quest — goes in search of a wife. Along the way 
he meets Dracula and King Neptune, and rides a 



flying carpet. And, somehow, the folks at Sierra 
found a way to squeeze 94 rooms onto the disk. I 
can hardly wait. 

IBM markets the PCjr version of King's Quest 
and Sierra markets versions for the IBM PC, Apple 
lie, Apple He, and Tandy 1000 (a new computer 
scheduled for release in January 1985). All ver- 
sions cost $49 and require 128K of memory and 
a disk drive. In addition, the PC version runs on 
most IBM compatibles. (When the PC version is 
displayed on an RGB monitor, the graphics are in 
the standard four-color medium-resolution mode; 
but connect your PC to a television and you'll get 
the same spectacular colors as the PCjr version.) © 



INSIGHT: Atari 



Bill Wilkinson 



I am much gratified by the response to my de- 
cision to work harder on answering readers' 
questions. I have received several veiy interesting 
letters with both good comments and good ques- 
tions. Since it is always fun to defend Atari 
BASIC against the outside world, let me start 
with a subject near and dear to my heart. 

Benchmarks 

Several readers have asked me why Atari BASIC 
compares so unfavorably to other computers on 
certain benchmarks. The two most commonly 
mentioned are the BYTE magazine benchmarks 
and the Creative Computing benchmark invented 
by David Ahl. Stan Smith, of Los Angeles, asked 
some very pointed questions, which I will try to 
answer here. 

The BYTE benchmark is reproduced below in 
Atari BASIC. It is the often-mentioned "Sieve of 
Erastothenes," a program which produces (and 
counts) prime numbers. Its primary advantage as 
a benchmark is that it can be implemented in 
virtually any language (although only with much 
difficulty when using Logo and its ilk). It relies 



only on addition and logical choices, with very 
little number crunching. 

10 DIM N$(ai92) 

2 N$="0" : N$ (8192) ="0" : IM« ( 2, 819 

2) =N$ 

3 FOR 1 = 1 TO 8192:IF |\t*(I,I)=" 

1" THEN 60 
40 PRIME=I +1+1 : CNT=CNT+1 : K=I 
50 !.; = K+pRi|vi£. IP K<8193 THEN N* ( 

!<;: , h: ) = " 1 " : G o T o 50 

6 NEXT I 

70 PRINT CNT : REM BETTER PRINT 

18 9 9! ' I 

An aside: If you have seen the BYTE original 
and are puzzled by my changes, be aware of 
three things: (1) I had to use a string because 
there is not enough room for an array of 8192 
elements. (2) The math was modified very 
slightly to accommodate the fact that string in- 
dices start at one, instead of zero. (3) Multiple 
statements per line simplify the original somewhat. 

Anyway, why is Atari BASIC so slow (317 
seconds versus, for example, the IBM PC at 194 
seconds)? Primarily for three reasons. First, note 

February 1985 COMPUTE! 139 



all the numbers in this listing, which must be 
treated as integers. Line numbers and indices are 
always kept and calculated as floating-point 
numbers, but all must be converted to integers 
before being used. (You simply can't GOTO line 
137.38, can you?) And, sigh, the routine in the 
Atari Operating System ROMs which converts 
numbers to integers is incredibly slow (in fact, it 
is the only floating-point routine we modified 
when we produced BASIC A+ and BASIC XL). 

Second, Atari BASIC performs FOR-NEXT 
loops by remembering the line number of the 
FOR statement. Then, when NEXT is en- 
countered, BASIC must search for the FOR line, 
just as if a GOTO had been used. (Other BASICs 
remember the actual memory address of the FOR 
statement. Faster, but less flexible. Atari BASIC 
allows you to STOP in the middle of a loop, 
change the program, and continue, something no 
other home computer BASIC allows. (This — 
among many other things — is in direct oppo- 
sition to Consumer Reports' claim that Atari 
BASIC is hard for beginners.) 

Third, if you type in and use this listing as 
shown, you are paying almost a 50 percent pen- 
alty in speed, thanks to Atari's screen DMA and 
Vertical Blank Interrupts taking up a significant 
portion of the processing time. The simple addi- 
tion of the following two lines will improve the 
time for this little test to 211 seconds: 

5 POKE 54 286,0 : POKE 54 27 2,0 
65P0KE54286,64 

All of a sudden, Atari BASIC isn't even near 
the bottom of the list. And, yet, there is more we 
can do to improve the machine's performance. 
As many have suggested, vou can install the 
Newell Fastchip, a replacement for the floating- 
point routines built into your computer (available 
from manv dealers, produced by Newell In- 
dustries of Piano, Texas). 

Or you can change to another BASIC. Obvi- 
ously, there is Atari's Microsoft BASIC. It pro- 
duces results very close to those of Applesoft; but 
it, too, can be improved by turning off screen 
DMA, etc. And there is OSS's own BASIC XL. 
Using a combination of clever programming and 
a Fastchip, the BASIC XL program below will 
count up all those prime numbers in 58.5 sec- 
onds, about three times as fast as Microsoft 
BASIC on an IBM PC can do it. 'Nuff said. (Ex- 
cept a P.S.: The Set 3 in line 10 requests zero- 
time FOR loops, something not available in 
many BASICs, which alone accounts for about 20 
seconds worth of improvement.) 

10 FAST: POKE 542S6,0: POKE 542 
7 2,0: SET 3,1: DIM N*(8192): 
N=ADR <N*} 



30 FOR 1=0 TO 3191 

50 IF NOT PEEKCN-t-I) THEN PRIME = 
I+I+3: CNT=CNT+1: FOR K=I+PR 
IME TO 3191 STEP PRIME: POKE 
N + 1 :: , 1 : NEXT K 

60 NEXT I 

70 POKE 54 286,64; POKE 559,34: 
PRINT CNT 

Measures Of Accuracy 

The Ahl benchmark is listed below. It purports to 
measure both accuracy and number-crunching 
ability. It does neither very well. Still, we have to 
ask why Atari BASIC is near dead last in its 
rankings, requiring 6 minutes and 45 seconds to 
complete the test. 

10 FOR N = 1 TO 100: A = N 

20 FOR 1=1 TO 10: A=SQR(ft): R=R 

■t-RND C0) : NEXT I 
30 FOR 1 = 1 TO 10: A = A'^2: R = R + RN 

D (0) : NEXT I 
40 S=3+A: NEXT N 
50 PRINT "ACCURACY="; ABS<1010- 

S,'5) , "RANDOn="! ABS<1000-R> 

The culprit here (in terms of time-wasting) is 
line 30, with its A = A"2. Atari BASIC, in com- 
mon with most small computer BASICs, cal- 
culates powers according to a formula: 
x"y = exp ( y * log(x) ) 

where log() is the natural logarithm function and 
expo is the exponent-of-e function. 

If you don't understand that, don't worry 
'about it. The point is that the calculation of such 
a simple thing as a number to the second power 
involves the calculation of a logarithm and an 
exponentiation. And why is that so bad? Simply 
because the floating-point routines in the Atari 
OS ROMs are too slow. Again, the solution is to 
install the Newell Fastchip and/or turn off DMA 
and VBI (as outlined above). 

I am indebted to Clyde Spencer, one of the 
founders of the Bay Area Atari Users Group (one 
of the oldest), for supplying me with a most 
surprising figure. Spencer reports that, using the 
Fastchip and with DMA turned off, he obtained a 
timing of 1 minute 38 seconds, a very respectable 
(albeit not record-shattering) performance. I still 
wouldn't use my Atari for advanced scientific 
applications, but it is more than adequate for 
most purposes. 

There is a problem with the "accuracy" fig- 
ures in this test, however. First, because Ahl's 
accuracy number is the result of 1000 simple 
sums, it is clearly possible that a particular ma- 
chine may exhibit wildly variant results for vari- 
ous numbers and still show a good figure in his 
test. (To illustrate, assume that the SQR() func- 
tion randomly tosses in an error of plus or minus 



HO COMPUTEI February 1985 



one. If it tossed in an equal number of errors, 
tliey would balance to zero. Yet choosing to 
make the loop just one unit shorter [FOR N = l 
TO 999] might give a completely different result. 
To be fair, this is a very unlikely result with 
modern math algorithms; but, still, one never 
knows,) A minor change to his program would 
improve the testing qualities considerably: 
40 S = S + ABS{ A-N ) : NEXT N 

Do you see the difference? This method pro- 
duces the sum of the errors, and doesn't fall prey 
to offsetting errors. 

The Random Number Trap 

There is no hope for the accuracy of this random 
number tester, though. I will quote Clyde Spencer 
on this matter: "If the numbers are truly random 
and not normally distributed, any difference be- 
tween and 1000 is possible. All you can say is 
that you would have a high probability of . . . 
being near zero for a perfect random number 
generator." The benchmark test falls into the in- 
famous BASIC repeating-random-sequence trap. 

In most BASICS, when you command a pro- 
gram to run, the pseudorandom generator is 
ahvays reseeded with the same number. So each 
and every time you will get the same results, 
with Ahl's test. And, depending on what seed is 
chosen, you may get truly phenomenal results 
(because you happened to hit a hot spot in the 
generator's sequence). Now, though, try starting 
the generator off with a different (and randomly 
chosen) seed each time. What happens? The 
test's randomness figure wanders all over the 
place. 

Once again, to quote Spencer, "... in eight 
tests I obtained numbers ranging from 1.6 to 
24.2, with the mean being 7.02 . . . . " 

Finally, I would like to point out that Ahl's 
test penalizes small machine BASIC interpreters 
in yet another way: When you have 32K bytes to 
spend on a BASIC, one thing you do is insure 
that numbers to a power are performed by 
successive multiplications, if possible. Thus 
Cromemco 32K Structured BASIC (for example) 
performs A"2 with just one multiply. In other 
words, it converts A''2 to A*A, If you manually 
substitute that same form in Ahl's program, the 
times for almost all of the smaller and less 
expensive machines will improve dramatically. 
(Surprisingly, though, the accuracy figures may 
not change. After all, the original version may 
have had offsetting errors.) Of course, if you 
need to use noninteger powers in your programs, 
this comment doesn't apply, and the bench- 
mark's results are a bit more meaningful for you. 

Well, what does all this long-winded dis- 
cussion boil down to? Two simple points: (1) Al- 



ways presume that a benchmark program is 
worth slightly less than the paper it is printed 
on. (2) If you want to do number crunching on 
your Atari computer (against my best advice), go 
out and buy the Newell Fastchip. (And it won't 
hurt to try some other languages.) 

HELP? HELP! 

Besides noting that GRAPHICS 15 on the XL 
machines is easily accessible (it's equivalent to 
mode 7Vi on older machines), Mark Butler, of 
Antioch, California, asked for some information 
about the HELP key. 

Simply put, pushing the HELP key on an XL 
machine causes an interrupt (I'm not sure which 
one) that, in turn, causes the Operating System 
to set a HELP flag. The magic location is $2DC, 
732 decimal. Pushing HELP, either alone or in 
combination with CONTROL or SHIFT, forces 
the OS to put a value here, as shown below: 
Key(s) Pressed Value in $2DC (732) 



HELP alone 
CONTROL -H HELP 

SHIFT -F HELP 



$11 (17 decimal) 

$91 (145) 
$41 (65) 



To use $2DC, you must POKE it back to 
zero after you have decided that someone needs 
HELP which you are going to act on. 

Butler also requested a program which 
would, for example, print out an error message 
for the last BASIC error number when the HELP 
key is pressed. While not a really difficult project, 
it is a bit too heavy for this column. On the other 
hand, it would be trivial to add a HELP capabil- 
ity to many BASIC programs. Why not try it? 

As long as we are on this subject, I would 
like to also note the effects of the 1200XL's func- 
tion keys on another memory location, $2F2 (754 
decimal). The various possible values are listed 
below. Note that CONTROL used with a func- 
tion key is not generally accessible after key- 
board input, since these combinations have 
special meanings to the OS and the editor han- 
dler. We will thus ignore them here. 

Key(s) Pressed Value in $2F2 (754) 



Fl alone 


$03 (3 decimal) 


SHIFT + F1 


$43 (67) 


F2 alone 


$04 (4) 


SHIFT + F2 


$44 (68) 


F3 alone 


$13 (19) 


SHIFT + F3 


$53 (83) 


F4 alone 


$14 (20) 


SHIFT + F4 


$54 (84) 



Too bad all machines don't have function 
keys, isn't it? 

Cassettes And The XL Machines 

Guy Servais, of Norfolk, Virginia, was one of 
several who I inadvertently ignored when I dis- 
cussed holding down the OPTION key while 

February 1985 COMPUTEI 



141 



booting an 800XL computer. My apologies for 
sligliting you cassette owners. 

Still, my general comments apply: If you 
purchase a cassette program which includes 
instructions telling you to remove your BASIC 
cartridge, you must hold down the OPTION key 
while booting that cassette. The kicker here, 
though, is that you must also hold down the 
START button to force the boot in the first place. 
Under the conditions mentioned, I recommend 
holding down both buttons until you actually 
hear the tone on the tape being accepted by the 
computer. 

Servais also asked me if you can "disable 
the built-in BASIC . . . and can type in programs 
written in machine language." I can only pre- 
sume that he has either seen or used other 
brands of computers which have some sort of 
minimonitor which allows you to access the bits 
and bytes of memory. (For example, Apple II 
computers have a small monitor which you can 
get to.) 

Sorry, Guy, but there ain't no such thing on 
an Atari computer. You have three choices: 

1. Use BASIC. This isn't quite as bad as it 
sounds. Look at the MLX machine language 
loader which COMPUTE! uses. It is a good tool for 
entering machine language written by others. 

2. Buy a cartridge-based assembler. The old 



Atari Assembler Editor cartridge is often available 
at a substantial discount. It's not great, but it's 
much better than the simple monitors on other 
machines, 

3. Buy a disk drive. This will open up a 
whole new vista in machine language. There are 
several appropriate assemblers for disk users, 

Even though I have said this before, it bears 
repeating: The first peripheral you should buy is 
a disk drive. Only use cassette if you are des- 
perate, and never waste your money on a printer 
until you have a disk. 

Can You Help? 

Servais mentioned one more thing in his letter 

which disturbed me. He is experiencing the in- 
famous Atari BASIC editing lockup in his 800XL 
with the built-in BASIC. I had believed that the 
800XL's BASIC had cured that problem (though 
it left a few other bugs lying around). Now, 
truthfully, I haven't used much besides BASIC 
XL in the last year, so I have not been aware of 
this problem at all. 

Has anyone documented the circumstances 
under which lockup occurs? Please write and tell 
us. Once again, since BASIC is in ROM, I doubt 
there is a fix for the problem. But if we are aware 
of why and how it occurs, we may be able to 
warn others awav from those conditions. © 



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TELECOMPUTING TODAY 



Arlan R. Levitan 



I work full-time in the IBM support district of a 
large telecommunications utility. About two 
weeks ago I was informed that my request to at- 
tend a one-week conference sponsored by IBM in 
San Francisco had been approved. Now, I don't 
particularly care for flying, especially a five-hour 
flight to the West Coast. Besides, the corporate 
travel bureau we use always has had a habit of 
routing me to my destination with three-hour 
stopovers in backwater airports and plane 
changes that would give Colonel Chuck Yeager 
fits. 

I decided to try a feature offered by most of 
the commercial information services, an elec- 
tronic edition of the Official Airline Guide 
(OAG). A few words of explanation are in order 
for those of you unfamiliar with the OAG. The 
regular paper edition of the guide is printed once 
every two weeks and contains fare and schedule 
listings for all of the commercial airlines in the 
United States. It is theoretically available to regu- 
lar travelers at little or no charge. Actually, get- 
ting a recent copy from an airline or travel agent 
usually requires giving up a complete set of 
fingerprints and your first-born child. 

The electronic edition of OAG, while not 
free, does have some advantages. Its on-line 
information is always current and, most im- 
portant, it offers extensive search capabilities. 
Using the electronic OAG, it's a snap to find the 
lowest possible fares available, even ones that 
many travel agents can miss. Sure, I could have 
called around to every airline in town and got 
the same information for free. But "free" in this 
case means spending about an hour making ten 
or so phone calls, plus being subjected to canned 
Muzak while waiting for a reservations operator. 

Looking up the flights via the electronic 
OAG took around 90 seconds and cost about 
$1.50. Besides, it was a lot of fun to call the air- 
line I had settled on and have all of the flight 
information before the fact. Electronic OAG will 
really come into its own when the information 
services also offer on-line ticket bookings for all 
airlines. Don't be surprised if such services are 
commonly available by the end of the year. 



Telecomputing On The Run 

Two days before 1 was to leave, I got a call from 
my editor at COMPUTE!. 

"Arlan, this is Tom. Where's the February 
column?" 

"Are you kidding? I just sent January two 
weeks ago, and I'll never live down the fact that 
it was actually on time. Besides, I'm going to be 
out of town for a week. There's no way I can get 
it to you by next week." I smiled, thinking of lei- 
surely strolling along Fisherman's Wharf in the 
cool of a San Francisco evening. 

"Hey, didn't you just buy a lap computer 
with a built-in modem? You can take it with you, 
write the column on it and then transmit it di- 
rectly into our computer via phone, right?" 

I silently cursed myself for ever mentioning 
my new acquisition in passing conversation. 

Actually, taking a modem on the run turned 
out to be a pretty good idea. The Sunday I ar- 
rived, it was raining heavily, and 1 was too jet- 
lagged to want to go anywhere. Having a 
portable computer with a modem saved me from 
having to endure Knight Rider. From the comfort 
of my hotel room, I logged onto my favorite 
commercial information services, chatted with 
some of my electronic compadres, and perused 
items of interest on the various forums I partici- 
pate in. 

Monday night, I left a message on a local 
computerized bulletin board system (BBS) asking 
for restaurant recommendations from the locals, 
rather than trust the "Dine At Our Advertisers" 
booklets that litter hotels. 

Wednesday, I received a call from my place 
of work in Michigan. There was a minor problem 
with one of the computer subsystems I was 
responsible for. I could have spent over an hour 
on the phone describing how to deal with the 
problem in detail. Instead, I dialed into the sys- 
tem with my lap computer, and analyzed and 
fixed the problem in about ten minutes. Also on 
Wednesday, I dialed back into the local BBS and 
read the response to my restaurant inquiry. One 

Feboiory 19B5 COMPUTE! 143 



of the recommendations looked particularly 
enticing, and that evening my friends and I had a 
great Szechwan dinner at a place that wasn't 
listed in any of the where-to-eat booklets. 

And on Thursday night, after an exhausting 
day of meetings, I wrote this column in my hotel 
room when I could have been wasting my time 
touring the city in a cable car. 

But seriously, do I regret telecomputing on 
the run? Absolutely not. I doubt if I'll travel on 
business without telecomputing power again. 

Watch for more under-$500 consumer- 
oriented lap portables with built-in modems in 
1985. It's been found that integrated tele- 
communications is crucial to the success of lap 
computers. Consider two nearly identical lap ma- 
chines, the Tandy TRS-80 Model 100 and the 
NEC 8201 A. Both are manufactured by the Japa- 
nese firm Kyocera. The NEC has a clearly su- 
perior keyboard and more memory capacity than 
the Model 100. So why does the Model 100 out- 
sell it by more than 20 to 1? The Tandy has a 
built-in modem, and as the sales figures show, 
that makes all the difference. 

Even Commodore is said to be considering 
adding a modem to its portable SX-64 in an ef- 
fort to spur sales. Indeed, it may soon be difficult 
to buy a microcomputer without a modem. The 
current availability of a $10, 300 bps modem- 
on-a-chip will have a profound effect on the 
telecomputing user base in the next few years. 
Because built-in modems add lots of functionality 
for little additional cost, you can expect the 
majority of new machines introduced in 1986 
and beyond to sport integrated 
telecommunications. 

Info- Wars 

The commercial information service wars are 
heating up again. Recently, CompuServe has 
been gaining ground in the corporate computing 
community with its business-tailored Executive 
Information Service. This has the No. 1 business 
info provider — Dow Jones News/Retrieval — 
scrambling in response. DJNR has cut its rates by 
25 percent across the board for general services 
and regular stock quotes, and has announced a 
major new service — stock quotes based upon 
"last trade," 

What are last trade quotes? Until the 
announcement of this service, all of the stock 
quotes offered by the major consumer infor- 
mation utilities have been delayed 15 to 20 min- 
utes. Anyone familiar with the stock market 
knows that 15 minutes can be a lifetime in the 
price of an individual issue. Last trade quotes re- 
port the most recent price paid for a stock, based 
on the last transaction logged by the exchange on 

]44 COMPUTEI February 1985 



which the stock is listed. 

Transactions are reported much more quickly 
under the new system. The time varies from ex- 
change to exchange, but 20 seconds or less is not 
uncommon. Moderately serious investors who 
don't have a broker willing to spend an hour at a 
time on the phone with them will find the new 
service a real blessing. 

The last trade quotes will cost DJNR users a 
$12 monthly service charge in addition to the 
normal connect-time charges for quotes. The 
monthly surcharge covers the fees paid by Dow 
Jones to the exchanges for the more timely quote 
information. 

DJNR didn't have much time to gloat before 
The Source — a rival information service owned 
by Reader's Digest— struck back in spades, 
announcing its own last trade quotes. Although 
The Source's $20 monthly surcharge is a bit 
higher than DJNR's, The Source introduced a 
powerful adjunct service. By special arrangement 
with Spears Incorporated, a discount brokerage 
house, stock watchers on The Source can set up 
an account with Spears and issue trading orders 
on-line. According to Spears, most orders will be 
executed within two minutes of issuance. An 
extensive portfolio tracking system is also avail- 
able on-line and may be used to value actual 
holdings or to track "paper portfohos" (for those 
who wish to dabble for fun rather than real 
money). 

New On-Line Services 

The information service war is spreading beyond 
the business sector as well. Two new on-line ser- 
vices — People/Link and Play/Net — are starting 
up with introductory connect-time charges 
significantly below those charged by the estab- 
lished leaders. 

People/Link will offer services similar to 
CompuServe's popular Nationwide CB and Spe- 
cial Interest Forums as well as electronic mail at 
only $2.95 an hour. Play/Net sounds even more 
aggressive, offering on-line games with medium- 
resolution color graphics to users who purchase 
its proprietary terminal program. Although the 
Commodore 64 is the only machine Play/Net 
supports at this time, the service claims it will 
support IBM and Apple computers by this spring. 
Play/Net's introductory connect time charges? 
An unbelievable $2.00 an hour! Both Play/Net's 
and People/Link's hourly charges will certainly 
rise after the two firms have lured enough users 
to make continued operation of the services vi- 
able, but such predatory pricing should help 
keep the rates charged by the big boys down to 
earth. 

Arlan R. Lev it an 
Source: TCT98? C 



COMPUTEi's Guide 
To Typing in Programs 



Before typing in any program, you should famil- 
iarize yourself with your computer. Learn how to 
use the keyboard to type in and correct BASIC 
programs. Read your manuals to understand how 
to save and load BASIC programs to and from 
your disk drive or cassette unit. Computers are 
precise — take special care to type the program 
exactly as listed, including any necessary 
punctuation and symbols. To help you with this 
task, we have implemented a special listing 
convention as well as a program to help check 
your typing — the "Automatic Proofreader." 
Please read the following notes before typing in 
any programs from COMPUTE!. They can save you 
a lot of time and trouble. 

Since programs can contain some hard-to- 
read (and hard-to-type) special characters, we 
have developed a listing system that spells out in 
abbreviated form the function of these control 
characters. You will find these special characters 
within curly braces. For example^ {CLEAR) or 
{CLR} instructs you to insert the symbol which 
clears the screen on the Atari or Commodore ma- 
chines. A symbol by itself within curly braces is 
usually a control key or graphics key. If you see 
{A}, hold down the CONTROL key and press A. 
Commodore machines have a special control key 
labeled with the Commodore logo. Graphics 
characters entered with the Commodore logo key 
are enclosed in a new kind of special bracket. A 
graphics character can be listed as \<A>]. In this 
case, hold down the Commodore logo key as 
you type A. Our Commodore listings are in 
uppercase, so shifted symbols are underlined, A 
graphics heart symbol (SHIFT-S) would be listed 
as S. One exception is {SHIFT-SPACE}. Hold 
down SHIFT and press the space bar. 

If a number precedes a symbol, such as {5 
RIGHT}, {6 S), or [<8 Q>\, you would enter five 
cursor rights, six shifted S's, or eight Com- 
modore-Q's. On the Atari, inverse characters 
{printed in white on black) should be entered 
with the Atari logo key. Since spacing is some- 
times important, any more than two spaces will 
be listed, for example, as: {6 SPACES}. A space 
is never left at the end of a line, but will be 
moved to the next printed line as {SPACE}. 
There are no special control characters found in 
our IBM PC/PCjr, TI-99/4A, and Apple program 
listings. For your convenience, we have prepared 
this quick-reference key for the Commodore and 
Atari special characters; 



Atari 400/800/XL 



When you sse 

tCLEftRl 

CUPJ 

(DOWNJ 

{LEFTJ 

{RIGHT J 

tBflCK SI 

{DELETE} 

tINBERJi 

{DEL LI.NEJ 

{IMS LINEJ 

<TAB> 

CCLR TAB} 

CSET TfiB} 

CBELLJ 

tESO 



Type 



ESC 
ESC 
ESC 
ESC 

esc 

ESC 
ESC 

ESC 
ESC 
ESC 
ESC 
ESC 
ESC 

esc 

ESC 



SHIFT < 

CTRL - 
CTRL - 
CTRL + 
CTRL t 
DELETE 
CTRL DELETE 
CTRL INSERT 
SHIFT DELETE 
SHIFT INSERT 
TfiB 

CTRL TAB 
SHIFT TAB 
CTRL 2 

esc 



n CI aar Screen 

t Cursor Up 

-* Cursor Ddmti 

«■ Cursor Left 

+ Cursor Ri ght 

^ Backspace 

CI Dalete character 

13 Insert character 

n Delete line 

a Insert line 

► TAB key 

a Clear tab 

E3 Set tab stop 

□ Ring buzzer 

t Escape kay 



Commodore PET/CBM/VIC/64 

When You When You 

Read: Press: See: Read: Press: 

(CLR} [ 

M 




(BLU) 

IyelI 

iFll 

IF2J 

iF3) 

lF4) 

[F5) 

[F6 

1F7! 

fpai 
T 



][ 



J 



L 






See: 
□ 

m 



jj 



1 c 



[^ m. 



The Automatic Proofreader 

Also, we have developed a simple, yet effective 
program that can help check your typing. Type 
in the appropriate Proofreader program for your 
machine, then save it for future use. On the VIC, 
64, or Atari, run the Proofreader to activate it, 
then enter NEW to erase the BASIC loader (the 
Proofreader will still be active, hidden in 
memory, as a machine language program). Press- 
ing RUN/STOP-RESTORE or SYSTEM RESET 
deactivates the Proofreader. You can use SYS 886 
to reactivate the VIC/64 Proofreader, or PRINT 
USR(1536) to reenable the Atari Proofreader. The 
IBM Proofreader is a BASIC program that lets 
you enter, edit, list, save, and load programs that 
you type. It simulates the IBM's BASIC line editor. 

Using Ttie Automatic Proofreader 

Once the Proofreader is active, try typing in a 
line. As soon as you press RETURN, either a 
number (on the Commodore) or a pair of letters 

Febfuary 1985 COMPUTEI 145 



(Atari or IBM) appears. The number or pair of 
letters is called a checksum. Try making a change 
in the line, and notice how the checksum 
changes. 

All you need to do is compare the value pro- 
vided by the Proofreader with the checksum 
printed in the program listing in the magazine. In 
Commodore listings, the checksum is a number 
from to 255. It is set off from the rest of the 
line with rem. This prevents a syntax error if the 
checksum is typed in, but the REM statements 
and checksums need not be typed in. It is just 
there for your information. 

In Atari and IBM listings, the checksum is 
given to the left of each line number. Just type in 
the program, a line at a time (without the printed 
checksum) and compare the checksum generated 
by the Proofreader to the checksum in the listing. 
If they match, go on to the next line. If not, 
check your typing: You've made a mistake. On 
the Commodore and Atari Proofreader, spaces 
are not counted as part of the checksum, and no 
check is made to see that you've typed in the 
characters in the right order. If characters are 
transposed, the checksum will still match the list- 
ing. Because of the checksum method used, do 
not use abbreviations, such as ? for PRINT. How- 
ever, the Proofreader does catch the majority of 
typing errors most people make. The IBM Proof- 
reader is even pickier; it luUl detect errors in 
spacing and transposition. Also, be sure you 
leave Caps Lock on, except when you need to 
enter lowercase characters. 

Special Proofreader Notes For 
Commodore Cassette Users 

The Proofreader resides in the cassette buffer, 
which is used during tape LOADs and SAVEs. 
Be sure to press RUN/STOP-RESTORE before 
you save or load a program, to get the Proof- 
reader out of the way. If you want to use the 
Proofreader with tape, run the Proofreader, then 
enter these two lines exactly as shown, pressing 
RETURN after each one: 

A$="PROOFREADER.T";BS=";iO SPACES}" 
:FORX = 1 T04: AS = A$ + B$:NEXT 

FORX = 886TO 1018:A$-A$+CHR$(PEEK(X» 
:NEXT:OPEN l,l,l,A$:CLOSEl 

Then press RECORD and PLAY on a blank tape, 
and a special version of the Proofreader will be 
saved to tape. Anytime you need to reload the 
Proofreader after it has been erased, just rewind 
the tape, type OPENl:CLOSEl, then press PLAY. 
When READY comes back, enter SYS 886. 

IBM Proofreader Commands 

Since the IBM Proofreader replaces the comput- 
er's normal BASIC line editor, it has to include 



many of the direct-mode IBM BASIC commands. 
The syntax is identical to IBM BASIC. Com- 
mands simulated are LIST, LLIST, NEW, FILES, 
SAVE, and LOAD, When listing your program, 
press any key (except Ctrl-Break) to stop the list- 
ing. If you enter NEW, the Proofreader will 
prompt you to press Y to be especially sure you 
mean yes. 

Two new commands are BASIC and 
CHECK. BASIC exits the Proofreader back to 
IBM BASIC, leaving the Proofreader in memory. 
CHECK works just like LIST, but shows the 
checksums along with the listing. After you have 
typed in a program, save it to disk. Then exit the 
Proofreader with the BASIC command, and load 
the program into the normal BASIC environment 
(this will replace the Proofreader in memory). 
You can now run the program, but you may want 
to resave it to disk. This will shorten it on disk 
and make it load faster, but it can no longer be 
edited with the Proofreader. If you want to con- 
vert a program to Proofreader format, save it to 
disk with SAVE "filename",A. 

VIC/64 Proofreader 

100 PRINT" (CLRlPLEASE WAIT . . . " : FORI=886TO10 
18 : READA : CK=CK+A: POKEI , A : NEXT 

110 IF CK017539 THEN PRINT" {DOWN} YOU MADE 
[space! AN ERROR": PRINT "IN DATA STATEMEN 
TS . " : END 

120 SYS886:PRINT"fCLR}{2 DOWN } PROOFREADER A 
CTIVATED. ":NEW 

886 DATA 173,036,003,201,150,208 

892 DATA 001,096,141,151,003,173 

898 DATA 037,003,141,152,003,169 

904 DATA 150,141,036,003,169,003- 

910 DATA 141,037,003,169,000,133 

916 DATA 254,096,032,087,241,133 

922 DATA 251,134,252,132,253,008 

928 DATA 201,013,240,017,201,032 

934 DATA 240,005,024,101,254,133 

940 DATA 254,165,251,166,252,164 

946 DATA 253,040,096,169,013,032 

952 DATA 210,255,165,214,141,251 

958 DATA 003,206,251,003,169,000 

964 DATA 133,216,169,019,032,210 

970 DATA 255,169,018,032,210,255 

976 DATA 169,058,032,210,255,166 

982 DATA 254,169,000,133,254,172 

988 DATA 151,003,192,087,208,006 

994 DATA 032,205,139,076,235,003 

1000 DATA 032,205,221,169,032,032 

1006 DATA 210,255,032,210,255,173 

1012 DATA 251,003,133,214,076,173 

1018 DATA 003 

Atari Proofreader 



100 
1 10 

120 



1 30 
1 40 



GRAPHICS 

FDR 1 = 1536 TO 17£I0 

, A: CK=CK+A: NEXT I 

IF CK 1907 2 THEN "^ "Error In 

TA Statements. Check Typing. 

ND 

A=USR ( 1536) 

"^ :? "Automatic Proo-f reader Now 

Ac t i va t ed . " 



READ A: POKE I 



DA 

: E 



H6 COMPUTEI FebruorylPSS 



150 END 




1536 


DATfi 


104, 


1542 


DATA 


201 ,. 


154S 


DATA 


1 92. : 


1554 


DATA 


169, 


1560 


DATA 


169, , 


1566 


DATA 


0, 18' 


1572 


DATA 


6, 23, 


157B 


DATA 


169, 


1584 


DATA 


6, 14 


1590 


DATA 


4,22 


1596 


DATA 


6.17 


1602 


DATA 


141, 


160B 


DATA 


203, 


1614 


DATA 


93,6 


1620 


DATA 


124. 


1626 


DATA 


0,0, 


1632 


DATA 


246, 


1638 


DATA 


201 , 


1644 


DATA 


101, 


16S0 


DATA 


96, 7 


1656 


DATA 


160. 


1662 


DATA 


200, 


1668 


DATA 


203, 


1674 


DATA 


105, 


1680 


DATA 


165, 


1686 


DATA 


161 , 


1692 


DATA 


133, 


1698 


DATA 


104. 



160, 0, 185, 26, 3 

69, 240, 7, 200, 200 

34, 208, 243, 96, 200 

74, 153, 26, 3, 200 

6, 153, 26, 3, 162 

9,0, 228, 157, 74 

2, 224 ,16, 208, 245 

93, 14 1 , 78, 6, 169 

1 , 79, 6, 24, 173 

a, 1 05, 1 , 14 1 , 95 

3, 5, 228, 105, 

96, 6, 169,0, 133 

96, 247, 238, 125, 241 

, 244, 24 1 , 1 15, 24 1 

24 1 , 76, 205, 23S, 

0,0,32,62 

0, 201 , 155, 240, 13 

32,240,7,72,24 

20 3, 133, 203, 104, 40 

2, 152, 72, 138,72 

0, 169, 128, 145, 88 

192, 40, 208, 249, 165 

74 , 74, 74, 74, 24 

161 , 160, 3, 14 5, 88 

203, 41 , 15, 24, 105 

200, 145, 88, 169 , 

203, 104, 170, 104, 168 

40,96 



IBM Proofreader 

10 'Automatic Proo-f reader Version 2.00 (L 
ines 270,510,515,517,620,630 changed f 
rom VI. 0) 

100 DIM L« ( 500 ) ,LNUM( 500) : COLOR 0,7,7-.KEY 

OFF: CLS:MAX=0:LNUm0) =65536 ' ' 
110 ON ERROR GOTO 120: KEY 15.CHR* (4) +CHR* 

(70);ON KEY < 15) 60SUB 640:KEY (15) ON 

:GQTO 130 
120 RESUME 130 

130 DEF 5EB=S<H40:W=PEEK(S(H4A) 
140 ON ERROR GOTO 650; PRINT: PRINT"Proof re 

ader Ready. " 
150 LINE INPUT L*:Y=CSRLIN-INT<LEN<L«)/W) 

-1: LOCATE Y, 1 
160 DEF SEG=0;POKE 1050, 30; POKE 1052, 34: P 

OKE 1054,0:POKE 1055,79:POKE 1056,13: 

POKE 1057, 28 -.LINE INPUT L*:DEF SEG: IF 
L«="" THEN 150 
170 IF LEFT*CL«, 1)=" " THEN L*=M1D« <L*, 2) 

iGOTO 170 
180 IF VAL<LEFT4<L«,2) )=0 AND MID*(L«,3,1 

)=" " THEN L*=MiD*(L*,4> 
190 LNUM=VAL<Lt> :TEXT*=MID* (L«, LEN <STR» (L 

NUM) )+l) 
200 IF ASC(Lt>>57 THEN 260 'no line numbe 

r, there-fore command 
210 IF TEXT»="" THEN GOSUB 540: IF LNUM=LN 

UM(P) THEN GOSUB 560: GOTO 150 ELSE 15 


220 CKSUM=0:FOR 1=1 TO LEN(L«) :CKSUM= <CKS 

UM+ASC(MID«(L*, I) ) *I) AND 255: NEXT: LO 

CATE YjliPRINT CHR* <65+CKSUM/l&) +CHR* 
(65-KCKSUM AND 15))+" "+L* 
230 GOSUB 540: IF LNUM<P}=LNUM THEN L«CP)= 

TEXT«;GOTO 150 'replace line 
240 GOSUB 580: GOTO 150 'insert the line 
260 TEXT*="":FOR 1=1 TO LEN (L*) : A=ASC <MID 

4 (L», I > ) : TEXT«=TEXT«+CHR« ( A+32* (A>96 

AND A<123) ) sNEXT 



THEN 450 

FOR OUTPUT AS *1: 



270 DELIMITER=INSTR(TEXT*, " " ) ; COMMAND*=T 
EXT«tAR6*="'*:IF DELIMITER THEN COMMAN 
D*=LEFT« ( TE X T* , DEL I M I TER- 1 ) : ARG*=M I D« 
(TEXT«,DELIMITeR+l) ELSE DELIMITER=IN 
STR(TEXT«,CHR«(34} ) : IF DELIMITER THEN 
COMMAND*=LEFT« (TEXT*, DEL I M I TER- 1 > : AR 
G*=MID<(TeXT«, DELIMITER) 
280 IF COMHAND«<>"LIST" THEN 410 
290 OPEN "scrn:" FOR OUTPUT AS #1 
300 IF ARG*="" THEN FIRST=0: P=MAX-1 : GOTO 

340 
310 DELIMITER=1NSTR(ARG«,"-") : IF DELIMITE 
R=0 THEN LNUM=VAL(ARG*) : GOSUB 540:FIR 
ST=P;GOTO 340 
320 FIRST=VAL (LEFT* <ARG*, DELIMITER) ) : LAST 

=VAL<MID«(AR6*,DELIMiTER+i> ) 
330 LNUM=F1RST; GOSUB 540:FIRST=P: LNUM=LAS 

T:GOSUB 540: IF P=0 THEN P=MAX-1 
340 FOR X=FIRST TO P:N*=MID* (STR« <LNUM<X) 

),2)+" " 
350 IF CKFLAG=0 THEN A«="":GOTO 370 
360 CKSUM=0:A«=N«+L*<X> :FOR 1=1 TO LEN<A« 
) :CKSUM=(CK5UM+ASC(MID*CA«, I>)»I) AND 
255: NEXT: A*=CHR* <65+CKSUM/ 16) +CHR4 (6 
5+(CKSUM AND 15))+" " 
370 PRINT «1,A4+N«+L*<X) 
380 IF INKEy*<>"" THEN X=P 
390 NEXT : CLOSE #1:CKFLAG=0 
400 GOTO 130 
410 IF C0MMAND4="LLIST" THEN OPEN "iptl:" 

FOR OUTPUT AS «1:GOTO 300 
420 IF COMMAND«="CHECK" THEN CKFLAG=1:G0T 

O 290 
430 IF COMMAND*<>"SAVE' 
440 GOSUB 600: OPEN ARSt 

ARG«="":GOTO 300 
450 IF COMMAND* <>" LOAD" 
460 GOSUB 600: OPEN ARG» 

AX=0:P=0 
470 WHILE NOT E0F(1):LINE INPUT «1,L«:LNU 
M (P) =VAL (Lt) :L4 <P)=MID« (L«, LENCSTR* <V 
AL<L4) ) ) +1) :P=P+lsWEND 
480 MAX=P: CLOSE «1:G0T0 130 
490 IF COMMAND»="NEW" THEN INPUT "Erase p 
rogram - Are you sure";L4:IF LEFT«<L« 
,l)="y" OR LEFT*<L*, i>="Y" THEN MAX=0 
;GOTO 130: ELSE 130 

IF COMMAND*="BASIC" THEN COLOR 7,0,0: 
ON ERROR GOTO 0:CLS:END 
IF COMMAND* <>" FILES" THEN 520 
IF ARG*="" THEN ARG«="A: " ELSE SEL=1; 
GOSUB 600 

FILES ARG*:GOTO 130 
PRINT"Synta>; error" ;GOTO 130 
P=0: WHILE LNUM>LNUM(P) AND P<MAX:P=P+ 
1 1 WEND: RETURN 

MAX=MAX-1:F0R X=P TO MAX: LNUMtX) =LNUM 
(X:i>:L«(X)=L«(X+l):NEXT:RETURN 

MAX=MAX+i:FOR X=MAX TO P+1 STEP -1:LN 
UM(X)=LNUM<X-1):L*<X)=L»(X-1):NEXT:L* 
(P)=TEXT«:LNUM(P)=LNUM; RETURN 
IF LEFT*<ARG«. 1)<>CHR»(34) THEN 520 E 
LSE ARG*=MID*<ARG*,2> 
IF RIGHT* CARG*, 1)=CHR*( 34) 
LEFT* ( ARG* , LEN ( ARG* > - 1 ) 
IF SEL=0 AND INSTR(ARG*, ". 
RG«=AR6*+".BAS" 
SEL=0; RETURN 

CLOSE *l:CKFLAe=0:PRINT"Stopped. ";RET 
URN 150 
PRINT "Error #"; ERR: RESUME 150 



THEN 490 
FOR INPUT 



AS *1:M 



500 

510 
515 

517 
520 
540 

560 

580 

600 
610 

620 

630 

640 

650 



THEN ARG*= 



■)=0 THEN A 



February 1985 COMPUTEI 147 



I^JII 1^ Machine Language Entry Program 



For Commodore 64 And VIC-20 



uharies aronnon, KroarGr 



MIX is a labor-saving utilihf that allows almost 
fail-safe entry of machine language programs pub- 
lished in COMPUTE!. You need to know nothing 
about machine language to use MLX — it zoas de- 
signed for everyone. There are separate versions for 
the Commodore 64 and expanded VIC-20 (at least 
8K). 



MLX is a new way to enter long machine lan- 
guage (ML) programs with a minimum of fuss. 
MLX lets vou enter the numbers from a special 
list that looks similar to BASIC DATA state- 
ments. It checks your typing on a line-by-line 
basis. It won't let you enter illegal characters 
when you should be typing numbers. It won't let 
you enter numbers greater than 255 (forbidden in 
ML). It won't let you enter the wrong numbers 
on the wrong line, in addition, MLX creates a 
ready-to-use tape or disk file. 

Using MLX 

Type in and save the appropriate version of MLX 
(you'll want to use it in the future). When you're 
ready to type in an ML program, run MLX. MLX 
asks you for two numbers: the starting address 
and the ending address. These numbers are 
given in the article accompanying the ML 
program. 

When you run MLX, you'll see a prompt 
corresponding to the starting address. The 
prompt is the current line you are entering from 
the listing. It increases by six each time you enter 
a line. That's because each line has seven num- 
bers — six actual data numbers plus a checksum 
number. The checksum verifies that you typed 
the previous six numbers correctly. If you enter 
any of the six numbers wrong, or enter the 
checksum wrong, the computer rings a buzzer 
and prompts you to reenter the line. If you enter 
it correctly, a bell tone sounds and you co: tinue 
to the next line. 

MLX accepts only numbers as input. If you 
make a typing error, press the INST/DEL key; 
the entire number is deleted. You can press it as 
many times as necessary back to the start of the 
line. If you enter three-digit numbers as listed, 
the computer automatically prints the comma 
and goes on to accept the next number. If you 
enter less than three digits, you can press either 
the space bar or RETURN key to advance to the 
next number. The checksum automatically ap- 
pears in inverse video for emphasis. 

146 COMPUTEI February 1985 



To simplify your typing, MLX redefines part 
of the keyboard as a numeric kevpad (lines 
581-584): 



u 


I 


O 


7 


8 


9 


I 


K 


L become 


4 


5 


6 


M 


^ 


, 


1 


2 


3 



H 



MLX Commands 

When you finish typing an ML listing (assuming 
you type it all in one session), you can then save 
the completed program on tape or disk. Follow 
the screen instructions. If you get any errors 
while saving, you probably have a bad disk, or 
the disk is full, or you've made a typo when . 
entering the MLX program itselL 

You don't have to enter the whole ML pro- 
gram in one sitting. MLX lets you enter as much 
as you want, save it, and then reload the file 
from tape or disk later. MLX recognizes these 
commands: 

SHIFT-S: Save 
SHIFT-L: Load 
SHIFT-N: New Address 
SHIFT-D: Display 

When you enter a command, MLX jumps 
out of the line you've been typing, so we recom- 
mend you do it at a new prompt. Use the Save 
command to save what you've been working on. 
It will save on tape or disk, as if you've finished, 
but the tape or disk won't work, of course, until 
you finish the typing. Remember what address 
you stop at. The next time you run MLX, answer 
all the prompts as you did before, then insert the 
disk or tape. When you get to the entry prompt, 
press SHIFT-L to reload the partly completed file 
into memory. Then use the New Address com- 
mand to resume typing. 

To use the New Address command, press 
SHIFT-N and enter the address where you pre- 
viously stopped. The prompt will change, and 
you can then continue typing. Always enter a 
New Address that matches up with one of the 
line numbers in the special listing, or else the 
checksum won't work. The Display command 
lets you display a section of your typing. After 
you press SHIFT-D, enter two addresses within 
the line number range of the listing. You can 
abort the listing by pressing any key. 

64 MLX: Machine Language Entry 

10 REM LINES CHANGED FROM MLX VERSION 2.0 

ARE 750,765,770 AND 860 : rem 50 

20 REM LINE CHANGED FROM MLX VERSION 2.01 

IS 300 :rem 147 



100 PRINT"[CLR)E63";CHR5{142);CHR?(8); :P0 530 
KE53281,l!POKE532B0,l : rem 67 540 

101 POKE 788, 52: REM DISABLE RUN/STOP 

irem 119 550 
110 PRINT" {RVS} {39 SPACES}"; :rem 176 560 
120 PRINT" ErVSH14 SPACES } {RIGHT HOFF } g*§ 570 

f{ RVS) {RIGHT] {RIGHT] {2 SPACES ]§*§ 580 

T0FFJi*i£{RVS}£{RVS]{l4 SPACES]"; 581 
~ srem 250 582 

130 PRINT"{RVS]{14 SPACES] {right] EG3 

{RIGHT] {2 RIGHT] {0FF]£{ RVS}_£g*l 583 

{OFF}E*3{RVS]{14 SPACEST"; : rem 35 
140 PRINT" {RVS} {41 SPACES}" : rem 120 584 
200 PRINT" {2 DOWN }{ PUR ]{ BLK } MACHINE LANG 585 

UAGE EDITOR VERSION 2. 02 {5 DOWN]" 

: rem 238 590 
210 PRINT"i53{2 UP] STARTING ADDRESS? 600 

{8 SPACES] {9 LEFT]"; J rem 143 610 

215 INPUTS:F=l-F;C$=CHR$(31+119*F) 

srem 166 620 
220 IFS<256OR(S>40960ANDS<49152)ORS> 53247 530 

THENGOSUB3000:GOTO210 : rem 23 5 540 
225 PRINT: PRINT: PRINT trem 180 550 

230 PRINT"i53{2 UP]ENDING ADDRESS? 

{8 SPACES) {9 LEFT)"; :INPUTE:F=1-F:C?= 660 

CHR$(31+119*F) :rem 20 670 

240 IFE<256OR(E>40960ANDE<49152)ORE>53247 680 

THENGOSUB3000:GOTO230 : rem 183 690 
250 IFE<STHENPRINTC$;" {RVS} ENDING < START 

{2 SPACES] " :GOSUB1000:GOTO 230 691 

:rem 176 695 
260 PRINTtPRINTrPRINT srem 179 

300 PRINT" {CLR] "rCHR$(14) jAD=S srem 56 700 
310 A=1:PRINTRIGHT?{ "0000"+MID$(STR$(AD) , 

2) ,5] ;"'."; : rem 33 710 

315 F0RJ=AT06 ; rem 33 

3 20 GOSUB570:IFN=-1THENJ=J+N:GOTO320 715 

:rero 228 
390 IFN=~211THEN 710 : rem 62 720 

400 IFN=-204THEN 790 :rem 64 

410 IFN=-206THENPRINT : INPUT" {down] ENTER N 730 

EW ADDRESS "rZZ ; rem 44 

415 IFN=~206THENIFZZ<SORZZ>ETHENPRINT" 740 

{RVS] OUT OF RANGE" :GOSUB1000 :GOTO410 

irem 225 750 
417 IFN=-206THENAD=2Z: PRINT :GOTO310 

:rem 238 760 
420 IF NO -196 THEN 480 : rem 133 

430 PRINT: INPUT"DISPLAY;FR0M";F: PRINT, "TO 762 

"; rINPUTT trem 234 

440 iff<sorf>eort<sort>ethenprint"at leas 763 

T";S; "{left], NOT MORE THAN" ; EtG0T043 

jrem 159 765 

450 F0RI=FT0TSTEP6:PR1NT:PRINTRIGKT$( "000 
0"+MID$(STR$(I),2),5);":"; : rem 30 766 

451 FORK=0TO5:N=PEEK(I+K) : PRINTR1GHT${ "00 
"+MID5(STR5CN),2),3);"."; : rem 66 770 

460 GETA$ : IFA$ > " "THENPRINT: PRINT :GOTO310 

:rem 25 775 
470 NEXTK:PRINTCHR$(20); :NEXTI : PRINT : PRIN 

T:GOTO310 :rem 50 780 

480 IPN<0 THEN PRINT:GOTO310 :rem 168 
490 A(J)=N:NEXTJ :rem 199 781 

500 CKSUM=AD-lNT(AD/256 )*256:F0RI=1T06:CK 

SUM=(CKSUM+A(I) )AND255:NEXT :rem200 790 

510 PRINTCHR$(18) ; :GOSUB570: PRINTCHR? (146 

); :rem 94 795 

511 IFN=-lTHENA=5:GOT0315 : rem 254 

515 PRINTCHR? ( 20 ) :IFH=CKSUMTHEN530 800 

:rem 122 
520 PRINT: PRINT "LINE ENTERED WRONG : RE-E 810 
NTER ": PRINT :GOSUB1000:GOTO3 10 :rem~ 176 



GOSUB2000 :rem 218 

F0RI=1T06:P0KEAD+I-1,A(I) :NEXT:POKE54 
272,0:POKE54273,0 : rem 227 

AD=AD+6:IF AD<E THEN 310 : rem 212 
GOTO 710 :rem 108 

N=0:Z=0 ;rem 88 

PRINT" E£3"; ;rem 81 

GETA$:IFA$=""THEN581 : rem 95 

AV=-(A$="M")-2*(A?=",")-3*(A$=".")-4* 
( A$=" J" ) -5* (AS="K" ) -6* {AS="L" ) : rem 41 
AV=AV-7*(A$="U")~8*(A$="I")~9*(A$="0" 
) :IFA$="H"THENA?="0" : rem 134 

IFAV>0THENA5=CHR$C48+AV) : rem 134 
PRINTCHR? (20); :A=ASC(A$) : IFA=130RA=44 
ORA=32THEN670 : rem 229 

IFA>128THENN=-A: RETURN : rem 137 
IFAO20 THEN 630 : rem 10 

GOSUB690;IFI=1ANDT=44THENN=-1: PRINT" 
{OFF}{LEFT] {left}"; :GOTO690 : rem 62 
GOTO570 -rem 109 

IFA<48ORA>57THEN580 jrem 105 

PRINTA?; :N=N*10+A-48 : rem 106 

IFN>255 THEN A=20;GOSUB1000 :GOTO600 

; rem 229 
Z=Z+1:IFZ<3THEN580 : rem 71 

IFZ=0THENGOSUB1000:GOTO570 :rem 114 
PRINT", "; :RETURN trem 240 

S%=PEEK{ 209 )+256*PEEK( 210 )+PEEK( 211 ) 

srem 149 
F0RI=1T03:T=PEEK(S%-I) : rem 67 
IFT-044ANDT < > 58THENPOKES%- 1 , 32 :NEXT 

; rem 205 
PRINTLEPT$("{3 LEFT]",I-1); : RETURN 

: rem 7 
PRINT" {CLR} {RVS}*** SAVE ***{3 DOWN]" 

srem 236 
PRINT" {2 DOWN] (PRESS { RVS ] RETURN {OFF] 
ALONE TO CANCEL SAVE ) { DOWN i " : rem 106 
F$= " " : INPUT " { DOWN ] FILENAME " ; F$ : I FF ? = 
"" THENPRINT :PRINT:G0T03 10 srem 71 
PRINT; PRINT" (2 DOWN] { RVS }t{OFF }APE OR 
{RVS}D{0FF}ISK: (T/D) " srem 228 
GETA? : IFA? < > "T " ANDA? < > "D"THBN740 

srem 36 
DV=1~7* (A$="D" ) : IFDV=aTHENF$="0: "+F$ : 
OPEN15,8,15,"S"+F9:CL0SE15 : rem 212 
T$=F9 : ZK=PEEK( 53 ) +256*PEEK( 54) -LEN(TS 
):P0KE782,ZK/256 : rem 3 

P0KE7ai , ZK-PEEK( 782 ) *256 : POKE 780 , LEN ( 
T$):SYS65469 : rem 109 

POKE7B0, 1 s P0KE781 , DVs POKE782, 1 : SYS 6 54 
66 : rem 69 

K=S s P0KE2 54 , K/2 56 : POKE253 , K-PEEK ( 254 ) 
*256jPOKE780,253 srem 17 

K=E+1 : P0KE782, K/256 : P0KE781 , K-PEEK( 78 
2)*256:SYS65496 srem 235 

IF { PEEK ( 783 ) ANDl )0R( 1 91 ANDST ) THEN780 

srem 111 
PRINT "{down] DONE. {DOWN}" :GOTO310 

:rem H3 
PRINT" {down] ERROR ON SAVE. {2 SPACES }T 
RY AGAIN. ";IFDV=1THEN7 20 srem 171 
OPENl 5,8,15: INPUT#15 , El 5 , E2? : PRINTEl ? 
;E2$:CLOSE15:GOTO720 srem 103 

PRINT "{CLR] {RVS}*** LOAD ***{2 DOWN}" 

srem 212 
PRINT" {2 DOWN] (PRESS { RVS ] RETURN {OFF } 
ALONE TO CANCEL LOAD)" : rem 82 
F$="":INPUT"{2 DOWN] FILENAME" ; F? s IFF 
?=" "THENPRINT SGOTO310 srem 144 
PRINT: PRINT" {2 DOWN] {RVS }t{ OFF] APE OR 
{RVS]D{OFF]lSKs (T/D)" srem 227 

FebruQiY 1985 COMPUTEI 149 



820 GETA?:IPA$<>"T"ANDA$<>"D"THEN820 

:rem 34 
830 DV=1-7*(A$="D") :IFDV=8THENF?="0:"+F$ 

: rem 157 

840 T$=F$:ZK=PEEK(53)+256*PEEK(54)-LEN(T$ 
) :POKE782,ZK/256 : rem 2 

841 POKE781,ZK-PEEK(782)*256:POKE780,LEN( 
T$):SYS65469 : rem 107 

845 POKE780 , 1 : P0KE781 , DV : POKE782 , 1 : SYS654 
66 :rem 70 

850 POKE780,0:SYS65493 :rem 11 

860 IF{PEEK(783)AND1 )OR ( 191ANDST )THEN870 

. :rem 111 
865 PRINT" {down} DONE. ";G0T03 10 : rem 96 
870 PRINT "(down) ERROR ON LOAD . f 2 SPACES }T 
RY AGAIN . { DOWN] " : IFDV=1THEN800 

; rem 172 

880 OPENl 5,8,15: INPUT* 1 5 , El $ , E2 S : PRINTEl $ 

;E2?:CLOSE15:GOTO800 : rem 102 

1000 REM BUZZER :rem 135 

1001 POKE54296,15:POKE54277,45!POKE54278, 
165 :rem 207 

1002 POKE54276,33:POKE 54273 ,6:POKE54272 , 
5 :rem 42 

1003 FORT=1TO200 tNEXT; POKE542 76 , 32 : POKE54 
273, 0:POKE54272, s RETURN : rem 202 

2000 REM BELL SOUND : rem 78 

2001 POKE54296 , 15 : POKE54277 , s POKE542 78 , 2 
47 :rem 152 

2002 POKE 54276, 17!POKE54273,40:POKE54272 
f0 :rem 86 

2003 FORT=1TOX00:NEXT:POKE54276, 16:RETURN 

: rem 57 

3000 PRINTC$? " (RVSJnOT ZERO PAGE OR ROM": 

GOTO1000 :rem 89 

VIC MIX: Machine Language Entry 

100 PRINT" {CLR} {PUR}";CHR$(142) ;CHR$(8) r 

:rem 181 

101 POKE 788, 194: REM DISABLE RUN/STOP 

: rem 174 
110 PRINT" { RVS 1 f 14 SPACES]" : rem 117 
120 PRINT" [RVSJ (RIGHT) {OFF] i*3£{RVS] 

{RIGHT} {RIGHT} {2 SPACES ] E*I{OFF} E*3 

£{RVS}£{RVS] " :rem 191 

130 PRINT"TrVS3 {RIGHT] Eg3{ RIGHT] 

{2 RIGHT] {0FF}£{rvS}£^*3{0FF]^*3 

{RVSl " :rem 23 2 

140 PRINT" {RVS} {14 SPACES}" : rem 120 
200 PRINT" {2 DOWN] {PUR} {BLK}A FAILSAFE MA 

CHINE" :PRINT"LANGUAGE EDITOR (5 DOWN}" 

:rem 141 
210 PRINT"{BLK}{3 UP] STARTING ADDRESS": IN 

PUTS;F=1-F;C?=CHR$(31+119*F) : rem 97 
220 IFS<256ORS>32767THENGOSUB3000:GOTO210 

:rem 2 
225 PRINTrPRINT: PRINT: PRINT : rem 123 
230 PRINT"{bLK} {3 UP}ENDING ADDRESS " j INPU 

TE;F=1-F:C5=CHR$(31+H9*F) :rem 158 
240 IFE<256ORE>32767THENGOSUB3000:GOTO230 

: rem 234 
250 IFE<STHENPRINTC$; "{RVS}ENDING < START 

{2 SPACES }":GOSUB1000:GOTO 230 

;rem 176 
260 PRINT: PRINT: PRINT : rem 179 

300 PRINT" {CLR} ";CHR${ 14) 5AD=S : rem 56 
310 PRINTRIGHT$("0000"+MID$(STR${AD) ,2) ,5 

);";"; :F0RJ=1T06 :rem234 

320 GOSUB570:IFN=-1THENJ=J+N:GOTO320 

:rem 228 
390 IFK=-211THEN 710 : rem 62 

400 IFN=-204THEN 790 : rem 64 



410 
415 

417 

420 
430 

440 

450 

455 

457 

460 

470 

480 
490 
500 

510 

515 
520 



530 
540 
550 
560 

570 
580 
581 
585 

590 
600 
610 

620 

630 
640 
650 

660 

670 
680 
690 

692 
695 

700 

710 

720 
730 

740 

750 

760 



IPN=-206THENPRINT:INPUT"{DOWN}ENTER N 
EW ADDRESS" rZZ ; rem 44 

IFN=-206THENIFZZ < SORZZ > ETHENP RINT " 
{RVS]0UT of range ":GOSUB1000:GOTO410 

:rem 225 
IFN=-206THENAD=ZZ: PRINT :G0T03 10 

:rem 238 
IF No-196 THEN 480 :rem 133 

PRINT :INPUT"DISPLAY: FROM" ;F: PRINT, "TO 
"; :INPUTT ; rem 234 

IFF< SORF >E0RT< SORT > ETHENP RINT "AT LEAS 
T";S;"{lEFTJ, NOT MORE THAN" ; E :GOT043 
;rem 159 

F0RI=FT0TSTEP6 : PRINT : PRINTRIGHT? ( "000 
0"+MID$(STR$(I),2),5);":"; : rem 30 
FORK=0TO5 : N=PEEK ( I+K ) : I FK=3THENPRINTS 
PC(10) r :rem 34 

PRINTRIGHT$ ( "00"+MID$ ( STR$ (N) , 2 ) , 3 ) ; " 

:rem 157 
GETA? : IFAS > " "THENPRINT : PRINT : GOTO310 

; rem 25 
NEXTK;PRINTCHR$(20) ; sNEXTI :PRINT; PRIN 
T:GOTO310 :rera 50 

IPN<0 THEN PRINT:GOTO310 : rem 168 
A(J)=N:NEXTJ :rem 199 

CKSUM= AD-INT (AD/ 256 )*255;FORI=lT06:CK 
SOM=(CKSUM+A(I))AND255:NEXT :rem 200 
PRINTCHR? ( 18) ; ; GOSUB570 : PRINTCHR? ( 20 ) 

:rem 234 
IFN=CKSUMTHEN530 : rem 255 

PRINT: PRINT "LINE ENTERED WRONG": PRINT 
" RE-ENTER ":PRI NT :GOSUB1000:GOTO310 

:rem 129 
GOSUB2000 :rem 218 

F0RI=1T06:P0KEAD+I-1,A(1) : NEXT: rem 80 
AD=AD+6:IF AD<E THEN 310 :rem 212 
GOTO 710 :rem 108 

N=0:Z=0 :rem 88 

PRINT" g+g"; :rem 79 

GETA$:1FA$=""THEN581 ; rem 95 

PRINTCHR? (20) ; :A=ASC(A$) jIFA=130RA=44 



ORA=32THEN670 

IFA>128THENN=-A: RETURN 

IFAo-20 THEN 630 

GOSU B690 : 1 FI = 1 ANDT=44THENN=- 

{LEFT) {left]"; :GOTO690 

GOTO570 

IPA<480RA> 57THEN580 

PRINTA$; :N=N*10+A-48 

IFN>255 THEN A=20 ;GOSUB1000 : 



:rem 229 

:rem 13 7 

: rem 10 

1 : PRINT" 
rrem 172 
:rem 109 
; rem 105 
: rem 106 

GOTO600 



;rem 229 
Z=Z+1 :IFZ<3THEN580 : rem 71 

IFZ=0THENGOSUB1000:GOTO570 :rem 114 
PRINT", "r : RETURN : rem 240 

S%=PEEK(209)+2 56*PEEK(210)+PEEK(21i) 

:rem 149 
F0RI=1T03:T=PEEK(S%-I) : rem 68 
IFT<>44ANDT<>58THENP0KES%-I , 32 ;NEXT 

:rem 205 
PRINTLEFT5("{3 LEFT}",I-1); : RETURN 

: rem 7 
PRINT" {CLR] {RVS}*** SAVE ***{3 DOWN]" 

;rem 236 

INPUT" {DOWN) FILENAME ",-F$ rrem 228 

PRINT: PRINT" {2 DOWN} { RVS ]T{0FF}aPE OR 

{RVS}D{0FF]ISK: (T/D) " : rem 228 

GETA5 : IFA?<> "T"ANDA$<> "D"THEN740 

:rem 36 
DV=1-7* ( A?="D" ) ; IFDV=8THENF$="0 : "+F$ 

:rem 158 
T$=F$:ZK=PEEK(53)+2 56*PEEK(54)-LEN(T$ 
):POKE782,ZK/256 rrem 3 



150 COMPUTE) Februory 1985 



762 POKE781,ZK-PEEK(782)*256:POKE780,LEN( 
T$):SYS65469 : rem 109 

763 POKE780,l:POKE781,DV:POKE782,l:SyS654 
66 _ ; rem 69 

765 POKE254,S/256:POKE253,S-PEEK(254)*256 
:POKE730,253 : rem 12 

766 POKE782 , E/256 :POKE781 , E-PEEK( 782 ) *256 
:SYS65496 :rem 124 

770 IF(PEEK(783)AND1)0R(ST AND191 )THEN7a0 

:rem 111 
775 PRINT" {DOWN} DONE. ": END j rem 106 

780 PRINT" {DOWN j ERROR ON SAVE. {2 SPACES }T 
RY AGAIN. ";IFDV=1THEN7 20 : rem 171 

781 OPEN15,8,15:INPUT#15,E19,E2$;PRINTEl? 
rE25:CLOSE15:GOTO720 -.rem 103 

782 GOTO720 : rem 115 
790 PRINT" {CLR}{RVS}*** LOAD ***t2 DOWN}" 

:rem 212 

800 INPUT" {2 DOWN J FILENAME" ; F$ :rem 244 

810 PRINT: PRINT "{2- DOWN} ( RVS}t{ OFF} APE OR 

{RVS}d{0FF}ISK: (T/D)" : rem 227 

820 GETA? :IFA$<>"T"ANDA$<> "D"THEN820 

: rem 34 
830 DV=1-7*(A$="D") : IFDV=3THENF$="0: "+F$ 

:rem 157 

840 T$=F$!ZK=PEEK(53)+256*PEEK(54)-LEN(T5 
) :POKE782,ZK/256 : rem 2 

841 POKE781 , ZK-PEBK ( 782 ) * 256 : POKE780 , LEN ( 
T$):SYS65469 :rem 107 

845 POKE780,1:POKE781,DV:POKE782,1:SYS654 

66 :rem 70 

850 POKE780,0:SYS65493 -.rem 11 

860 lF(PEEK(783)ANDl)OR(ST AND191 )THEN870 

;rem 111 
86 5 PRINT" {DOWN} DONE. ":G0TO3 10 : rem 96 
870 PRINT" (DOWN) ERROR ON LOAD. I 2 SPACES }T 
RY AGAIN. {down} " :IFDV=1THEN800 

:rem 17 2 

880 OPEN15,8,15:lNPUT#15,El$,E2$sPRINTE19 

;E2$:CLOSE15:GOTO800 : rem 102 

1000 REM BUZZER -.rem 135 

1001 POKE36878,15:POKE36874,190 :rem 206 

1002 FORW=1TO300:NEXTW :rem 117 

1003 POKE36878 , :POKE36874, :RETURN 

: rem 74 

2000 REM BELL SOUND :rem 78 

2001 FORW=15TO0STEP-1 : P0KE36878,W: POKE368 
76,240:NEXTW : rem 22 

2002 POKE36876,0: RETURN : rem 119 
3000 PRINTC5,- " {RVS}N0T ZERO PAGE OR ROM": 

GOTO1000 :rem 89 



SOOSSiTf ''4p!>,""^ Copy Atari 400/SOO/XL Series Cartridges to Dijii 

f\'^'^/ end run tham from a Menu 

ATARI CARTRIDGE-TO-DISK COPY SYSTEM $69.95 

Stiue'cartifcts YOiiCQpv>5(';y'canfitJge tor :3ie Afa'i AM.800 XL Senro to diskette, and^fteieatie* (un it 
from vaur drsk drive. Enjay LKe convenience ol selecting yovr lavofrte games Jram m '■merfu scieen" 
rather ihan swapping tarttidges in and OUT Of ^H>ur comDiite'- E&ch cartridge copied by Supercan func ■ 
^<on% enacth I'ke th^ Qfigmal. Sdoercyrt inciudi^' 

• DISKETTE with: 

COPY FflOGRAiM - COD'es ihe Mrlndigo To a dishotlfl lup 10 9 carTfidges wll fit on on« disk- 1 
MENU PROGPIAM - Aulamali^allv runs and diSplfly* B menu prompiing usei for 3 ONS 
hevslitAe sel^ciior a\ any caruidue or The difii. 

• CARTRIDGE: 

"Tficks " Ihfl comcuter jmn ihnnking that the □nginat copy protected" cartridge das been 
insened 
To dote thers haue been no problems duplicating ar^d lunningi ell ol Ihe orotecied canrldges thai ^& 
know of. hawever, FflO^JTRU^INER earnoi gLiafanteo the operation of all future cartridges. Supercart is 
user-f nundly and simple 10 use and rK^uires no mcdif icatJOns cf ^Dur h^Triwaie. PIRATES TAKE NOTE: 
SUPERCART is not inwnded ■tof illegal copviny and/or i^istnliuticin ol copynghted saTware . SoirvM' 
SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS: 
Atari 400/800 or XL Series CooipulCi IBK Memory i One Disic Drive 
AvailnbkalvOurcompuieisiofe Of direct ![omfRONTRUNNER. DFAL'/n i\CUIRIES t^COURAGLD 
TOLL FREE ORDER LINE: 124 Mfs 1 l-W0-?4i-*7W/ln Wp^HiJe or for auMt'ons Call: (702) 7B8-46M 
PtFional checks aHov 2-3 wensks \o dear. fVl/C and: VJSA acceplt-d. 

Incltide i3.50 'i? 50 Fofsigi crdersl for shipping 
FRONTRUrVNER COMPUTER INDUSTRIES 
3^6 Califo-nia Avr?., Su^te «7J2. Reno. Nevada 83503 17021 TSS-ttDO 

Oiheis Make da'ms SJPERCAR" m^Ues ccr-fi'" 



CAPUTE! 

iVlodificctions Or Corrections lo Prev:Ous Articles 
Enhanced 64 DOS Support 

Author Stephen Melsheimer reports that a number 
of readers have uncovered a problem with the 
"LOAD and RUN" (T) command of this utihty 
{p. 163, November 1984), Occasionally a pro- 
gram — especially one with DATA statements — 
will fail to load and run properly. To correct this, 
he suggests that the following two lines be modi- 
fied as shown: 

1510 DATA 144, 255, 32, 89, 166, 76 
1630 DATA 76, 144, 205, -1, 9616 

Additionally, the article (p. 166) mentions that 
the wedge can be activated from within a pro- 
gram with SYS 52222. The correct value is SYS 

52224. 

64 Paintbox 

There are several errors in the article for this 
graphics utility from the December 1984 issue. It 
states (p. 118) that you should use the filename 
64 PAINTBOX if you want to use the loader pro- 
gram (Program 2). Actually, Program 2 looks for 
the filename PAINTBOX. You can either rename 
the saved file to PAINTBOX or change the string 
in line 230 of Program 2 to 64 PAINTBOX. Also, 
a line is missing in the first paragraph of the 
right column of that page. The sentence in paren- 
theses should read: "(If you're using tape. Pro- 
gram 2 should precede 64 Paintbox on the tape, 
and the 8 in line 230 should be changed to a 1.)" 

Apple Chess 

The Apple version of "Chess" from the December 
1984 issue (p. 102) works fine on the Apple Ik, 
but the program doesn't respond to keyboard 
commands when used on the 11+ or He. To cor- 
rect this, change the following lines: 

350 IF PEEK {-16384) < 128 THEN 350 
550 I = PEEK (-16384): POKE -16368,0 

Thanks to Gene and Brian Schmidt for discover- 
ing this oversight. 

Atari Reflection 

The Atari version (Program 1, p. 59) of this game 
from the November 1984 issue requires the two 
players to share one joystick. If you have two 
joysticks, reader William Q, Zapf suggests the 
following simple modifications to allow the pro- 
gram to read two joysticks: 

NJ 1240 POKE 77, NCi: Q = STICK (TURN-l ) : IF 

Q=10 OR Q=14 OR Q=N6 THEN IF 
YP>Ni THEN YP=YP-N1 

H1J1340 IF STRIG (TURN-1 > THEN 1240 © 

February 1985 COMPUTE! 151 



NEWS^PRODUCTS 



^ 




The Riteman LQ is a letfer-cjuality printer that retails for $299 and prints 20 
characters per second. 



New Printers 

Riteman Computer Printers has 
introduced a line of printers 
whicli is compatible with most 
home computers. Among the 
new printers are: 

The Riteman LQ ($299), a 
letter-quality printer which has 
a print speed of 20 characters 
per second (cps); the Riteman 
Plus ($399), a dot-matrix printer 
which can print at 120 cps; the 
Riteman Blue Plus ($499), a dot- 
matrix printer which prints at 
140 cps and can print graphics. 
Included are eight international 
character sets and 32 block 
graphic characters. The Riteman 
II ($549 with 2K RAM and $599 

152 COMPUTEI Februarv 1985 



with 8K RAM) is a dot-matrix 
printer with a print speed of 160 
cps. 

Riteman Computer Printers 
Airport Business Park 
431 Oak St. 
Inglewood, CA 90302 



Apple Home 
Applications 
Package 

Work Force II, a collection of six 
programs for home and office, 
has been introduced by Core 
Concepts for Apple II and III 
computers. 

Included in the package are 
a loan analyzer; a checkbook 



balancer; a calculator; the line 
writer, a line-at-a-time word 
processor for such small writing 

jobs as envelopes; the savings 
analyzer; and the wages 
analyzer. 

All six programs support 
printing, so hard copies can be 
made of data. Suggested retail 
price is $34.95. 

Core Concepts 
P.O. Box 24157 
Tempe, AZ 85282 



New Games For 
Commodore, Atari 

Microcomputer Games, a divi- 
sion of The Avalon Hill Game 
Company, has released a num- 
ber of new games for various 
computers. Among the new ti- 
tles are the following: 

Market Forces, a business 
game which simulates the buy- 
ing and selling of commodities 
($16 cassette; $21 disk, for 



jachf It if your buvins phut 



W»(r*KIIK«=Wi»a units 

.8COIV Ka.KaaE&a3Ufc«a pr.c. 

'■j._ KXaaUKttKJKKSJIprKt 

zmir s-MW9Kwmm.mimM f.-n* 



A screen shot from Market Forces, a 
new game from Microcomputer 
Games, Inc., for the Commodore 64 
and Atari computers. 



Commodore 64 and Atari com- 
puters); Culf Strike, a simulation 
of land, air, and naval combat in 
the Middle East {$30 disk, for 
Atari computers); and Clear for 
Action, a ship-to-ship combat 
game ($25 cassette, $30 disk, 
Atari computers). 

Microcomputer Games, Inc. 
The Avalon Hill Game Co. 
4517 Harford Rd. 
Baltimore, MD 21214 



Apple II Word 
Processor 

The Milliken Word Processor, a 
program designed to teach chil- 
dren the fundamentals of writ- 
ing on a computer, has been 
released for Apple II series com- 
puters by Milliken Publishing 
Company. 

It teaches how to use the 
computer for composing, struc- 
turing, editing, and filing writ- 
ten materia!, and has most basic 
word-processing functions, in- 
cluding graphics to ease under- 
standing of functions. 

Designed for children ages 
seven and older, the word pro- 
cessor retails for $69,95. 

Milliken Publishing Co. 
1100 Research Blvd. 
P.O. Box 21579 
St. Louis, MO 63132 



New Text 
Adventures 

Infocom has released two new 
text adventures for most home 
computers. Suspect and The 
Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy. 

In Suspect, the player takes 
the role of a newspaper reporter 
invited to a masquerade ball — 
who ends up being accused of 
murder. You must prove your 
innocence, and also find out 
who committed the crime and 
why. 

The Hitchhiker's Guide to the 



Galaxy is an adaptation of the 
novel of the same name by 
Douglas Adams. The player is 
protagonist Arthur Dent, who 
goes off on a journey through 
the universe with his friend. 
Ford Prefect. 

Suspect retails for $39.95 for 
the Atari and Commodore 64 
versions, and $44.95 for ver- 
sions on most other persona! 
computers. Hitchhiker's Guide to 
the Galaxy has a suggested retail 
price of $34.95 for the Commo- 
dore and Atari versions, with 
other versions retailing for 
$39.95. 

Infocom, Inc. 
55 Wheeler St. 
Cambridge, MA 02138 



Bridge For IBM, 

Apple, 

Commodore 

A bridge game for one or more 
plavers, BridgePro, has been re- 
leased for the IBM PC and PCjr, 
Apple II series, and Commodore 
64 computers by Computer 
Management Corporation. 

BridgePro allows one person 
to bid with all hands randomly 
dealt. Other options are two- 
player versions, a best hand op- 
tion, replay of hands, and 
separate instructions for begin- 
ning bridge players. 

Suggested retail price is 
$35. BridgePro is available on 
disk. 

Computer Management Corporation 
2424 Exbounw Ct. 
Walnut Creek, CA 94596 



Critical Thinking 
Program 

MaxThink, a program for the 
IBM PC and compatibles which 
provides commands for high- 
level thinking processes such as 
analysis, synthesis, and evalua- 
tion, has been introduced by 



MaxThink, Inc. 

The software uses com- 
mands for organizing, analyz- 
ing, evaluating, planning, and 
thinking about information. 

The suggested retail price is 
$60. It requires 192K of 
memory. 

MaxThink, Inc. 
230 Crocker Ave. 
Piedmont, CA 94610 



Personal 

Productivity 

Software 

Arrays, Inc. /Continental Soft- 
\vare has introduced several per- 
sona! productivity software 
packages for Apple and IBM 
computers, including: 

The Home Accountant Ex- 
panded, an accounting package 
for Apple lie and He computers 
($74.95 suggested retail price); 
and a new, compiled version of 
The Home Accountant Plus 
($149.95) for the IBM PC. 

Also, educational versions 
of Ultra-File, a filing, reporting, 
and graphics package; Property 
Management, a program to 
record transaction history for 
residential and/or commercial 
income property-related charges; 



MEMOREX 

FLEXIBLE DISCS 



WE WILL NOT BE UNDER- 
SOLCH! Call Free (800)235-4137 

for prices and information. Dealer 
incjuiries invited and C.O.D.'s 
accepted 




PACinc 

EXCHANGES 

100 Footfiill Blud 
San Luis Obispo. CA 
93401 In Cat cat! 
(800)592-5935 or 
:805)543-1037 



Febfuarv 1985 COMPUTil 153 



L^o Computer Marketing & Consultants 

TOLL FREE 800-233-8760 



gppicl [atari 



Scarborough 

Sonowriter $24.75 

Picturewril $24.7S 

Phi Beta F $32.75 

MBStertype $24.75 

Run f Money $24.75 

Net Wonh $52.75 

MIcroprosa 

Solo Flight $22,76 

NATO $22.76 

SoiHire $22.95 

F-15Stnke $22.75 

Air Rescue $22.75 

SSI 

Baseball $22.75 

Ouestron $26,75 

Germany 1985 $32.75 

SO Missions $21.75 

Spinnakor 

AlphatMt $18.75 

Story Machine $19.75 

Kids on Keys $18.75 

Grandma $19.75 

Snooper Troop $22.75 

Broderbund 

Bank SI Writer $42.75 

Bank Si Filer $42.75 

Bank St Mailer S42.75 

Bank St. Spell $42.75 

Mask of Sun $24.95 

Choplitter $22,95 

Lode Runner $22,95 

Graphics Tablet 

Supersketch $49,95 

Kofala -,- -■.$84,95 



800XL COMPUTER CALL 

1050 DRIVE CALL 

1010 RECORDER $55,00 

1020 PRINTER $59,00 

1025 PRINTER $189,00 

1 027 PRINTER $249,00 

1030 MODEM $59,00 

MONKEYWRENCH tl , , , $52,75 
HOME ACCOUNT D , , , , $44,75 
TAX ADVANTAGE $35,75 

SUB LOGIC 

Flight Si mulalor II C-64 ,,,, 32.75 
FlightSimulatorll Atari .,,32,75 
Flight Simulalorll Apple ,,,32,75 

Trillium 

Shadowkeep $26,75 

Fahrenheit 461 $26,75 

Amazon $26,75 

Synapse 

Synfile $48.95 

Syncalc $48.95 

Syncomm S29.9S 

Syntrend $48.95 

Graphics Tablet 

Supersketch $32,95 

Kolala $69,95 

THE ILLUSTRATOR , , $99,95 

SPIDER EATER $22,50 

SPEEICOPTER. .,, $27,75 

BUSINESS 

VISICALC $159 75 
LETTER PERFECT R 59 00 
DATA PERFECT , $89,75 
FILE MANAGER , $69.75 

HOME FILE MGR $69,75 



DEADLINE $34,75 

ENCHANTER $34,75 

INFIDEL $34,75 

PLANETFALL $34,75 

STAR CROSS $34,75 

SUSPENDED $34,75 

WITNESS $34,75 

ZORK I $34,75 

ZORK II $34,75 

Scarborough 

Songwriter $24,75 

Picturewril $24,75 

Mastertype $24,75 

Run f Money $24,75 

MIcroprose 

Solo Flight , $22,75 

NATO $22,75 

Spitlire $19,95 

F-15 Strike $22,75 

Air Rescue $22,75 

SSI 

Baseball $22,75 

Questron $26.75 

50 Missions $21,75 

Spinnaker 

Alphabet $18,76 

Story Machine $21,75 

Kids on Keys $18,75 

Grandma $i 9.75 

Snooper Troop $22,75 

Broderbund 

Bank St, Wnler $42 75 

Spellmaker $19 95 

Maskol Sun $24,95 

Choplilter $22,95 

Lode Runner $22,95 



|COMMODORE| 



COMMODORE 

C64 COMPUTER CALL 

SX 64 COMPUTER CALL 

C1541 DISK DRIVE,,, $239,00 

CI 526 PRINTER $269,00 

MPS80 1 PRINTER $2 1 5,00 

CI 702 MONITOR $249,00 

C64105 LOGO 64 $45,00 

C6410e PILOT 64 $35,00 

SIMON'S BASIC $29.00 

SSI 

Baseball $22,75 

Germany 1 984 $32,75 

50 Missions $21 75 

PERSMAL 
PERIPHEIALS 

Super Sketch-Atari 32,95 

Super Sketch-C-e4 37,95 

Super Sketch-TI99/4A , , , 37,95 

Super Sketch-Apple 52,95 

Super Sketch-IBM PC , , , 52,95 

Time works 

Invenlofy $32,75 

Sales $32,75 

Accts, Rec $32,75 

Accts, Rec $32,75 

G Ledger $39,75 

DaiaMgr • ■■$14,75 

Checkbook SI 4,75 

Star Battle $14,75 

Cave of Word $18,75 

Spinnaker 

Alphabet $1875 

Story Machine $21 75 

Kids on Keys $18,75 

Grandma $1975 

KitJwriter $19,75 

Snooper Troop $21,75 



TAXAN 

2iOCalor RGB 255 

100 Green 115 

5 05 Amber 125 

400 Color RGB 295 

410 Color RGB 349 

420 Color IBM , , . 449 

121 Green IBM 145 

122 Amber IBM 149 

ZENITH 

ZVM 122A Amber 86 

ZVM 1236 Green 82 

ZVM 1 24 Amber - IBM , , , , 1 29 

ZVM 131 Color 275 

ZVM 133 RGB 389 

ZVM 135 Composite 449 

ZVM 1 36 Hi Res Color , , 589 

GORILLA 

'2' Greer S 82 00 

' 2' Ar"be' S 88 00 



MONITORS ,„„,, 

300 Green 125 

300 Amber 145 

310 Amber- IBM 159 

Color 300-Audio 265 

Color 500-Composite 379 

Color 600 , 545 

Color 700 635 

Color 710 675 

NEC 

JB 1260 Green 99,00 

JB 1201 Green 135,00 

JB 1205 Amber 145,00 

JC 1215 Color 255,00 

JC 1216RGB 399,00 

JC 460 Color 349.00 

SAKATA 

SC-100 Color 229 

STSI Tinstand 29 

SG 1000 Green 99 

SA 1000 Amber 109 




MODEMS 



MICROBtTS 



MPP1000C 



Hayes 



NOVATION 



Smarimodem 300 
Srrarlmodem 1200 
Smartmodem 1200b 



$199 00 
$469 00 
$399 00 



J-Cal 

Cat 

Smari Cat 103/ 

Smarl Cat 103/212 


S89 00 
SI 29 00 
S169 00 
5389 00 


Uicromodem Me 
Micromodem 100 
Chronograph 


524900 
$289 00 
S 179 00 


AuloCat 
212 Auto Cat 


S209 00 
S539 00 


ANCHOR 


Apple Cal 11 


S239 00 


voiHsmoOeoi 


SS5 99 


212 Apple Cat 


$■439 00 


Mark VII 


$95 99 


Aople Cat 212 


S249 00 


(auto ans,'Oiaii 




lUpgradei 




Mark VII 


S259 00 


Smart Cal Plus 


S359 00 


I120O bandi 





CARDCO 

LIGHT PEN $29.75 

5 SLOT EXPAN. 64 $54.00 

64 WRITE NOW $39.00 

64 MAIL NOW $29.00 

20 WRITE NOW $29.00 

64 KEYPAD $84.00 

UNIV CASS INT $29,75 

PRINTER UTILITY $19,75 

6 SLOT EXPAN $79,96 

3 SLOT EXPAN $24,95 

Scarborough 

Songwriter $24,75 

Picturewnt $24,75 

Phi Beta F $24.75 

Mastertype $24.75 

Run I Money $24.75 

Net Worth , $24.75 

Batteries Included 

Paperclip $59.95 

Spelt Pak $34.96 

Consultant $64.95 

Paperclip with 

Spell Pak $79.95 

Home Pak $34.95 

BUS CARD $139.95 

80 Column Board $139 95 

MicroPro se 

Solo Flight ',.- $22.75 

NATO ....$22.75 

Spitfire $19.95 

F-15 Strike $22.75 

Atr Rescue $22.75 

ADVENTURE 

Diskey 32.95 

Ultra Disassembler 32.95 



HES 

HES Games 84 22.95 

Omni Writer/Spell 34.95 

HES Mon 64 23.95 

Microsoft Multiplan 55.00 

Type N Write 19,95 

Turtle Graphics II 23.95 

Cell Defense 22.95 

Paint Brush 12.95 

Tri Math 22.95 

Graphics Basic 27.95 

HES Kit 29.95 

Millionaire , 23.95 

64 Forth 24.95 

HES Writer 64 24.95 



Westridge C-64 ...Call 

Total 

Telecommunications 

C-64 Call 

Miley Mo C-64 ... Call 



AMERICA'S MAfL ORDER HEADQUARTERS 

LYCO COMPUTER 

WORLD'S LEADER IN SALES & SERVICE 



TO ORDER 
CALL TOLL FREE 

800-233-8760 

In PA 1 717-327-1824 

Lyco Compuier 

P.O. Box 5088 

Jersey Shore. PA 17740 



Li;co Computer Marketing & Consultants 

"PEOPLE WHO KNOW WHAT THEY WANT AND KNOW HOW TO USE IT RECEIVE THE LOWEST PRICES AT LYCO" 



ISAVE ^^ PRINTERSI 



MANNESMANN 
TALLY 

SPIRIT 80 S255.00 

S649.00 



Citoh 



MTL-160L 
MTL-1B0L 



JUKI 



Juki 6100 
Tractor Kit 



$369 

.S1 19 



Prowilef eStOA S2B9.00 

8510BC2 S399.00 

8510BP1 S349.00 

5739,00 8510SP S399.00 

8610SR $409.00 

8610SCP S419.00 

eStOSCR S499.00 

1 S50P S489.00 

1 550BCD S539.00 

A10-20P $469.00 

nX80 $229.00 F1040PU Of RDU $899.00 

RXBOFT $269,00 F1055PUof ROU SI 099.00 

";'°° ^^^Z PANASONIC 

F^80 S369.00.„gQ S21900 

«100 SSS5.00 °|° fzilZ 

LQ1500P includes KifS1 149.00^1^ •■■ '^^^^ 



BLUE CHIPS 

Ml 2010 $275.00 

M12010C-64 $275.00 

D4015 S1389.00 



OKI DATA 



Epson 



80 J1S9 ^* - -■* 

a2A $229.00 

83A $549.00 

84 $649.00 

92 $359.00 

93 $569.00 

LEGEND 

880 - $259.00 

1000 $279.00 

1200 CALL 

1500 CALL 

1081 -- CALL 




NEC 



NEC 8025 
NEC 8027 



$699.00 
$359,00 



STAR 
MICRONICS 

Gemini ICx $229.00 

Gemini 1 5x S3<t5.00 

Delta 10 S339.00 

Delta 15 $449.00 

Radix 10 $499.00 

Radix 15 $589.00 

Powertype $309.00 

Sweet o 100 $549.00 

GEMINI 10X 

$229* 



CARDCO 

LQ1 $449.00 

LQ3 $339-00 

PRINTER INTERFACE.. 139 75 
PRINTER INTERFACE W/ 

FULL GRAPHICS 165.75 



OVER 2000 SOFTWARE TITLES IN STOCK 



ICOMPUTERI 
CARE 



BIB 

DISK DRIVE 
CLEANER 
COMPUTERCAREKIT 



.$12,75 
$19.75 



NORTRONICS 

DISK DRIVE 

CLEANER 

with software for 

IBM-PC, Atari, Vic, 

DISK DRIVE CLEANER with 
soltware (or I8M-PC. Alan, Vic. 
Apple. Tl , $29.75 

DISK CLEANER 

REFILL $14 75 

CASSDftlVE CLEANER $9 95 
MEDIABULKERASER $46 75 



$429 



NEC 

PC8201 Portable 
NECBl 64K Computer 

Syslem $1049 

NECB2 128 K Computer 

System $1299 

PC8221 ThermalPnnter $ 139 
PCe2018KRAMChip 
PC82Q632KRAMCan 
PC300 Modem, 
PCBBOl MSDOS 

16 Bil Card 



99 

299 

65 



S 339 



PRINTINGI 
PAPER 

3000 SHEETS 

FANFOLD $42.75 

1000 SHEETS 

FANFOLD $19.75 

1000 SHEET LETTER $2195 
200 SHEETS LETTER $8.99 
150 RAG STATIONARY $10.99 
MAILING LABELS (1 in.)... $9.95 
14 » n 1000 

FANFOLD , . ..$24,75 

INNOVATIVE 
CONCEPTS 

FLIP-N-FILE 10 $375 

FLIP-N-FILE 15 $8.95 

FLIP-N-FILE 25 $18 95 

FLIP-N-FILE 50 $17 75 
FLIP-N-FILE 

IROK^ HOLDERl $17 75 

I drives! 

USD 

SD1 DRIVE $259.00 

SD? DRIVE S475.00 

INDUS 
GT Atari .... 269 

GT Atari: 269 

GT Commodore CALL 

GT Apple w/conlroller .... 219 
GT Apple 169 



I DISKETTES! 



SKC '^°"^°' 



SKC-SSSD 
SKC-SSDD 
SKC-OSDD 



$12.99 
$15.99 
SI 8.99 



ELEPHANT iBox 101 

5S"SSSD $14.99 

5'."SSDD . $16,99 

5'."DS0D . $21.99 

MAXELL^Boxio) 

5'VMD-l $17.95 

5'."MD-2 $23.95 

IBM-PC 

SOFT-WARE 



Scarborough 

Songwriter jgj 75 

Picturewrile $32 75 

Pf^' Se'a F $32^75 

Mastertype g^j 75 

Run f Money , j^g jc 

^le' Worth scALL 

Spinnaker 

Alphabet SI 8.75 

Kids on Keys $19.75 

Grandma $19.75 

Kindercomp $1 7.75 

Pacemaker S 1 9.75 

Kidwriler $19,75 



IBM-PC I 

COM RATABLE I 
CORONA 

PPC22A 

Portable 256K-Amber. $1995 
PPC22G 

Ponable 256K-Green $ 1 995 
PPCXTA 

PortabJe256K-10Meg $3295 
C0Rl2eK 128K RAM- $ 159 

Zenith 

z-150 Call 

Coiumbia Data 

1600 Call 

Televldeo 

TS1605 Call 

Leading Edge 

PC Compalable Call 

Microprose 

Solo Flight $22,75 

NATO $22. 75 

Spitfire $22 95 

Graphics Tablet 

Supersketcfi $49.95 

Kolala $99.95 

Illustrator 599.95 

Logo Design $27.95 

Grams Spell $27,95 



TOLL FREE 1-800-233-8760 






TO ORDER 



CALL TOLL FREE 

800-233-8760 



or send order to 
Lyco Computer 
P O Bo. 5088 
Customer Service 1 -71 7-327-1 825 Jersey Shore PA 17740 



RISK FREE POLICY 

In-stock item shipped within 24 hours of order. No deposit on C.O.D. 
orders. Free shipping on prepaid cash orders within the Conlinental U.S. 
PA residents add sales tai. APO. FPO, and International orders add $5.00 
plus 3»o for priohty mail service. Advertised prices show 4% discount for 
cash, add 4% tor Master Card or Visa. Personal checks require 4 weeks 
clearance before shipping. All items subject to change without notice. 



^fe^batim 

flexible disks 

Call Free (800) 235-4137 for 

prices and information. Dealer 
inquiries invited. C.O.D. and 
charge cards accepted. 




PACIFIC 
EXCHANGES 

100 Foothill Blud 
San Luis Obispo. CA 
93401. In Cat call 
(800) 592-5935 or 
(805) 543-1037. 



FREE^SSy/FREE 



...far fhit* who want Ch* moit i«pht(liict]t>d in 
■ducational itchnalegy... 

Antic. The Ator. Resou'ce ^0 6^ 
. .K'tH (SAJi.. fi you woflf to. o' hore ro, get the 
highviJ iCor^, rhtt ij ihe njit<^Or6 you i^ould buy 

Milwaukee Journal: f ?7/34 
...Kudoi-.to Kt*H for imOginOUon aid tdO't. 
7h* tilt of thtii (Lopa} tifFOi » bivathtakiitQ. 

SoiiaH^: 7.'S2 
Itoae Newton. . it o lint in tny book because it unttluthingly 

□iiri Iht uitn lo ittugglt. weep, rHnli, clt^^. hghf, 

hypoltteiitt cr«ar« Ond perhcp^ ^v^n diipan. AH the 

rngredierrfs o' becoming □ icjenlijf. 

PeeUn^j 1 a? 

SAT. ACT, NTE, GRE, GMAL LSAT, TOEFL. 
CBEST, GRAMMAR & VOCABULARY PREP 

THINKING SKILIS: loga. Language of Marh. 
Linear Equalioni, Isaac Newton, De%ZGrtc'J 
Deliglil, and mare 

SIMULATIONS: Black Death, Allegory =1 
Plolo'i Ca^e, Advenfures ;n Fle^h and more, 
* * * FOR AIL MAJOR MICROS * * * 



KRELL SOFTWARE CORP. 

1320 8T0NY BROOK ROAD 

STONY BROOK, NEW YORK 11^0 

(800) 245-7355or(S16) 751-5139 (In NY) 



SATISFACTION GUARANTEED on 
alt NAVARONE PRODUCTS lor your 
TI-99/4A and 064 



3 SLOT CARTRIDGE EXPANDER tor Tl and 064 . 
Increase console ide. reduce wear S39 95 

DISK FIXER - Canridge lor Tl. Unlock secrets 

ol Disk Recover lost tiles S39 95 

DATA BASE MANAGEMENT (carlriOgel Powerlul 

assembly code tor Tl only. Higti speed Disk 

sort. Custom report writer. S69.95 

HOMEWORK HELPER + (canndgel with 20000 
word spelling checker A word processor, (vtakes 
Homework Ijn & leacl^es computer use. S49,S5 

SUPER OUPER Icarlndge) (asi disk copier for 
single disks Reduces disk tiandling, S39,95 



SPEED PEADER (cartridge)- Improve your 
skills Complete course. 



-eading 
S49,95 



ASTROLOGY HOROSCOPE tulAKEH prints real 
chart wheel Very accurate Tl, C64 PCjr S49 96 



VIM S Master CircF OK 
ORDER 8Y PHONE or send 
Check or M. 0. Add S'.'. tor snip- 
ping (outside US jdd $10.00). 
CA resirients ADO 6.SV, ST. 



Form&ie Inlormalion; 
NAVARONE INDUSTRIES, INC. 
51C Lawrence E^pway. 
«S0O Sunnyvale. CA 94096 
(409} 985-3937 



156 COMPUTEi FebruaPj/ 1985 




The Fastext'80, a dot-matrix printer from Smith-Corona, prints 80 characters 

per second. 



and Learn to Type, a typing pro- 
gram, have been releasetd for 
the IBM PC and PCjr computers. 

Ultra-File retails for 
$195.00, Propertij Management 
for $495.00, and Learn to Type 
for $39.95. Educational versions 
of each program retail for $29.95. 

i4rra_i/s. Inc. /Continental Software 
11223 South Hindry Ave. 
Los Angeles, CA 90045 



Dot-Matrix Printer 

Smith-Corona has introduced 
the Fastext-80, a $259 dot- 
matrix printer which prints 80 
characters per second. 

Other features of the printer 
include bidirectional printing, 
six-pitch capability, full-line 
buffer, standard Centronics par- 
allel interface, friction feed, self- 
test switch, and true descenders. 

The printer, which prints 
ten characters per inch, uses a 
drop-in ribbon with a projected 
life span of one million 
characters. 

Smith-Corona 
65 Locust Ave. 
New Canaan, CT 06840 



Apple Word 

Processing 

Program 



Apple Computer, Inc. has an- 
nounced an enhanced version 
of its Apple Writer II word pro- 
cessing program. 

New features include: hori- 
zontal scrolling; text display 
that shows the page and line 
count without having to print 
the document; built-in terminal 
mode that allows access to 
information services such as 
CompuServe and The Source; 
and a utility that enables users 
who do not have a ProDOS us- 
er's disk to format a blank disk 
for use with the program. 

The enhanced version also 
includes a training disk, mail 
merge option, and built-in word 
processing language. 

Data files created with pre- 
vious DOS 3.3-based versions of 
Apple Writer can be converted to 
the ProDOS format by using a 
conversion utility on the 
ProDOS user's disk. 

Apple Writer II retails for 



AATARI 



600XL CALL 

800XL CALL 



Printers/Etc. COMMODORE 



© f 9S4 Atari, Inc.. All right! reserved. 



INTERFACES 

Axiom846 Call 

Ape Face Call 

Atari 350 linstock) .. $169 

Interfastl 1150 

MicrobilsllSO Call 

R-Verter Call 

DIRECT PRINTERS 

Axiom ATIOO J195 

Atari 1027 S269 

Axiom 550 AT 1259 

Axiom 700 AT J469 

Atari 1025 Call 

DIRECT MODEMS 

MicrobitslOOOC S109 



DISK DRIVES 

Hana 1000 S239 

Astra 2001 - , . S549 

Indus GT S296 

TrakAT-D2 S329 

TrahAT-l S319 

TrakAT-D4 Call 

Astra 1620 (Dual) ...£499 

Percom Call 

Atari 1050 $249 

MEMORIES 

Mlcroblls64K(XL) . . S115 
Mosaic 48K (400) . . . . S96 
Mosaic 64K (400/800) Call 

Mosaic 32K $68 

Atari 64K (600XL) .... Call 

OTHER ATARI 

4O0 Keyboard Call ATH-8000 (64K| S489 

Koala Pad S67 ATH-8000 (leK) S3S9 

Chalkboard Pad . ...175 Allen Voice Bon S98 

Blt-3 BO Column , .5226 101D Recorder $55 

ATARI SOFTWARE 



MISCELLANEOUS 

Syn Calc (D) S48 

Syn File (D) S48 

Syn Trend (D) . . 348 

Syn Com (D) S29 

Syn Chron (D) , . . , S29 

Decathlon (R| S29 

Drols (D) S23 

Gyruss (R) S31 

Heist (D) S23 

Bruce Lee (C/D) S27 

Universe (D| Call 

Queslron (D) S34 

Koala Coloring I . S20 

Koala Logo Design . S27 
Bumble Games (D) S27 
Miies Accounting . . Call 
World Gist. Basebaii , S23 

Gridrunner (R) S20 

Sargon II (C/D) S23 

Miiiionaire (D) S34 

CaslleWotfensteinlD) $20 

OdestaCne3S(D) S46 

Financial Wiiard ID) .. $41 
Ultima III (D) $39 

ADVENTURE INTL 

Ultra 0isa559mbler(D| $33 

Di5key(Dl $33 

Adv. 1-12 (each) (C) ... $18 
Saga 1-12 (each) (Dj . . $27 
ATARI 

Atari Writer (R) $68 

Paint (D) $30 

Microsoft Basic tllR) . $64 

VIsicalcID) S139 

Home File MQr(D| ... $36 
Assembler EditorjRl . $44 

Qix(R| $32 

Dig Dug (R) $32 

Atari Logo (Rl $72 

Ms. Pac Man (R) S33 

Jousi |fl) S33 

Donkey Kong Jr. |R) 535 
Computer Chess IR) S24 
AVALON HILL 
Telengard . (C|$16(D|S19 
Close Assault (C) 20(D) 23 

TAC(D1 SZ7 

BRODERBUNO 
Arcade Machine (D) . . $39 
BankSt.WriterlD) ... $43 
Oper. Wtiirlwind(D) ,. $27 
ChODlKler . (a)S23(R]$29 
CBS SOFTWARE . . Call 
CONTINENTAL 
HomeAccountanl(D) $44 
Tax Advantage (D) ...$45 
COUNTERPOINTSW Call 
DATASOFT 

Pooyan (C/D) $20 

TelEtaik(D) $33 

Graphic Mas!er(D) ... $23 
Micropainler(D) . , . . . $23 

Zaxi(on(C/D) $27 

EASTERN HOUSE 
Monkey Wrench II .. . $51 
EOUCATIONAL SW 

Tricky 1,2,3 or 4 $15 

Tricky5-13 $22 

Eprx 

Dragon Riders (C/D) . . $27 

Temple APS (C/Q) $27 

JumpmanfC/D) . $27 

FIRST STAR 

Boulder Dsh (C/D)20(R)27 

Bristles (C/D) S20 

Flip Fiop (C/D) $20 



GAMESTAR 

Football (C/D) $21 

Basebaii (C/D) $21 

INFOCOM 

Zorkf, IIOflll(D) $27 

DeadllnB(O) $34 

Starcross(D) $27 

Suspended (D) $34 

Witness (D) $34 

Planetfall(0] $34 

Enchanter (0) $34 

Infidel (D) $34 

KRELLSAT Call 

INTELL. STATEMENTS 

Prof. Blackjack (D) ... $46 

UK 

Letter Perfect (D) ... $58 

Data Perfect (D) $74 

Spell Perfect (Dl $56 

Letter Perfect (R) $74 

MICROPROSE 

Solo Flight (DJ $23 

Hellcat Ace (C/D) 520 

MONARCH 

ABCCompiler(D) $56 

OPTIMIZED SYSTEMS 

Action (R) $65 

BasicXL(R) $65 

Mac 65(D) $58 

065(D) $56 

Bug 65(0) $23 

PARKER BROS 

Astroohase(R) S33 

Death Star (R) S33 

Qeert(H) $33 

Popeye (R) $33 

QUALITY SW 

Return of Hercules (D) $22 

AllBaba(D) S22 

RESTON 

Movietnakef{D) 545 

SCARBOROUGH SYS. 

Mastertype(D/R| ='= 

Songwriter(D) .,-,,. S25 
SCHOOL WiZWARE . Call 
SIERRA ON-LINE 

Homeword (D) $46 

Ultima II (D) $39 

Dark Crystal (Dj $26 

Wiz. & Princess (0) ... $22 

SPINNAKER 

Snooper Troop 1,2 (D) . 530 

Most Amazing (D) S27 

Kids on Keys(O) $20 

Trains(D) $27 

Delta Drawing (R) ... $27 

Aerobics (D) $34 

STRATEGIC SIM. 

Broaasitfe5(D) $27 

Carrier Force(D) S39 

Combat LeaderlD) ... $27 

Rails West |D) $27 

Epidemic 10) $23 

Eagles (Dj $27 

Cosmic Ball orll|D) . . $27 

SUBL0Q1C 

Flight Simulator II (Dj . $36 

Pinball(ClOl $20 

SYNAPSE 

FiiBManager(R) $54 

Fort Apocaiypse(C/D) S23 
Dimension X (C/D) ... $23 

Blue Max (C/0) $23 

EncounlBr(D/R) $23 

Zepplln(C/D) $23 

Pharoah'sCurse(C/0) $23 
TRONIX 

S.A.M.{D) $39 

P.M. Animator |D) .... $29 

Juioe(C/D) $20 

Challerbee(D) $27 



DIABLO 




CITOH 




630 Letter Qual 


S1559 


Prowrlter .... 


$309 


SILVER REED 




Prov»riterll 


$498 


EXP 400 Lir Dual 


$288 


Slarwriter 


$909 


EXP SOQ Llr Dual 


$355 


Printmaster 


$1189 


EXP 550 LIf Qual 


$419 


OKIDATA 




EXP 770 Llr Qual 


$849 


e2A 


. $298 


STAR 

Gemini 10X 


$239 


64P 

92 

93 


$669 
$36B 
.$579 


Gemini 1SX 


$355 






Delta 10 
Delta 15 


$339 
$449 


OAlSYWfllTER 

2000 


$985 


Hadix 10 


$498 


MANNESMANN 




fladix IS 


$538 


160L 


$559 


Power Type 


$319 


Spirit 


$267 


TOSHIBA 




JUKI 




1340 


$739 


6100 


$389 


1351 


$1249 


6300 


Call 


NEC 








3510 


$1215 


PANASONIC 




3530 


$1215 


1090 , , , 


$228 


3550 


$1498 


1091 


$288 


7710/7730 


$1648 


1092 


$439 


MONITORS 




AMDEK 




SAKATA 




V300 G 


$119 


SCI 00 (Color) 


$239 


V300 A 


$139 


1000G (Green) 


$99 


V310 G (IBM) 


. $155 


TAXAN 




V310 A (IBM) 


$159 


100 Green 


$115 


Color 1 + 


$269 


106 Amber 


$125 


Color )l + . . 


$399 


210 RGB/Composite 


$259 


Color III 


- $349 


400 RGB Med-Res 


$296 


Color IV (IBM) 


$699 


415 RGB Hi-Res- - 


$429 


PRINCETON GRAPHICS 


420 RGB Hi-Res(IBM)$449 


MAX 12 (Amber) 


$178 


NEC 




HX 12 (RGB) 


$449 


JS 1260 (Grn) 


$99 


SR 12 (RGB) 


$595 


J8 1201 (Grn) 


$145 


SUPER 5 




JB 1205 (Amber) 


$145 


lOOA (Amber) 


$99 


ZENITH 




600G (I8fi« wilh lilt) 


$126 


Green 


185 


500A (IBM with lilt) 


$126 


Amber 


. . $9S 




MODEMS 




NOVATION 




HAYES 




J-Cat 


-, $99 


Smartmodem , , , , 


$199 


ApoleCal II 

D(Jat 


. $259 


Smartmodem 1200 


. $469 


. $149 


Micromodem II 


. $259 




K 


Micromodem lie . . 


, $225 


6^ 


A 


PROMETHIUS 




/ 


^Promodem 1200 


$329 


.cA , 


1 


V^ 


/ 



<i^ 



COSMIC 
COMPUTERS 

727 BREA CANYON RD., SUITE 16 
5 WALNUT, C A 91789 

i (800) 626-7642 



PLEASE FOR ORDERS ONLY 
SORRY, NO COD'S 

F.(714) 594-5204 



INTERFACES 

The Connection $85 

Bus Card $138 

CardcoG* !$e5 

CarCcoB Call 

MSD(IEEE) $98 

CardcoSSIot $48 

Gtappler C D Si09 

DIRECT MODEMS 

Hesmo<Jem $53 

ie50Automodem , $99 

1600 Modem Call 

WesiriOae Modem Call 

80 COLUMN BDS 

Batteries 80 Col . . $138 
Video Pak 80 $129 



IN 
CALI 
FOR TECHNICAL INFO, ORDER INQUIRIES, 

Aoa $2.50sl'isping per SOllware Oroer in cOnlir.BnIsi u S *dO 5b OD 
sriipping per iflfiwareoraer tor An mi FPO-APQ Add 510 00 or ^S% 
luNictiever IS greater) m' sollware order (or nonu S Ca" lor i;ost cl 
Hardware snioping Caiil residenis add 6'';% sales it> Castirers 
ciiecfcs or money orders filled witrtm 34 /lou'S for items in stock 
Personal cnecks reuuire 4 weeKS to tieir MssierCard and Visa OK lor 
software only wiinm conimeniai u S add 3". surctiarge include card 
no expiration oatean^ Signature (]ue to our low prices all sales are 
dnal All fleteclive relurns most na^e a returr^ autnori^atiOn nur^[>er 
Please caii Ic cDiain one Detore returning goods for repiacerrient or 
reoair Prices 4 avai:at!iiiiy suDiecl to cnange 



DISK DRIVES 

MSD(170K) $309 

MSD(Dual|(170Kl2} . $498 

IndusGT Call 

Laser (170K) $325 

Commodore 1541 . . . $239 
RECORDERS 

Cardco Recorder . $48 

1530 Commodore Call 

Cassette Interlace $29 

Phonemarh Hec $37 

DIRECT PRINTERS 

MPSSOl $219 

Commodore 1526 $288 
Cardco LQr| , . , . $498 

1520 Color Printer . $129 



64 



SOFTWARE 



64 



MISCELLANEOUS 

MAE Assembler (D) $47 
VIP Terminal (Dj . . $38 
Star Wars (H) - $33 
Super Base 64 (D) . $68 
Doodle City (Dj . . $27 
Summer Games (D) S27 

Pitfall II (Dj $25 

Decalhlon (Dj $25 

50 Mission Crush (D) $27 

IFR. (C/D) $20 

Master Composer (0) $27 
Donkey Kong (RJ .... $29 

Bruce Lee (D) $23 

Pro Football Stat- (0) $S6 
SeastalKer (D) , , . $27 
Koala Coloring I - , $20 
Koaia Logo Design $27 
RocKys Boots (Dj - $33 
Bumble Games (D) - $27 
Beyond Woltenstein . $23 
Paachtree Account . . Call 

Odesta Chess (D) $46 

Ultima Itl(D) $39 

Prof.BlaoKiach(O) . . , $46 

Homeword(D) $46 

Pers. Accountant (Dj . $23 

Karate Devils (Dj $27 

Final Flight (D) $22 

Dlsl(ey(D) $33 

Barrens Sat (Dj $59 

Millionaire (D) . $39 

Sargon 11(D) $23 

B-Graph(O) $59 

Castle Wolfenstein(O) $20 
ACCESS SOFTWARE 

Beached (D) $24 

Neutral Zone (C/D) - , . $24 

Sprilemastor(D) $25 

AVALON HILL 

NukeWar{C) $12 

Androm. Conquest iO $14 
Midway Campaign (C) $13 
Computer Football (Cl $13 
Telengard . (C)$16(Dl$19 

Flying Ace |C) $15 

Moon Patrol (Cj $17 

BATTERIES INCLUDED 

PapatClip(D| $59 

Consultant (D) $64 

Paper Clip w;Spell(D) $79 

Spell Pack (D) $34 

Organizer Series (Ea) . $22 
BLUE SKY 

Calc Result Adv $99 

Calc Result Easy $57 

BRODERBUNO 
BankSt.Wrlter(Dj ... $43 
Operat. Whrlwnfl (D) . . $27 

Choplifter(R) $27 

Lode Runner . (Dj23(R)27 
CBS SOFTWARE 
Success with Math (p) $17 
Wbsir Word Game (0) $20 
COMMODORE 
Simons Basic (R) $29 

Magic Desk (R) $46 

L090 (D) $50 

Assembler 64 (Dj $36 

Easy Script 64 [Dj $52 
CONTINENTAL 5.W, 
Home Accountant (D) $44 
Tax Advantage (Dj --$45 

FCM(D) $34 

COUNTER POINT SW 
Early Games (Eaj .... $20 
CREATIVE SOFTWARE 

Moondusl(R) $23 

Save New York (R) ... $23 

Pipes(Rj $23 

Househid Finance (C) $20 
DATASOFT 

Pooyan (C/D) $20 

Moon Shuttle (D) $20 

ENTECH 

Sludlo64(C/p) $28 

Database 64(0) $45 

EPrx 

Temple of APS (CID) ., $27 

Jumpman(C/D) $27 

DragonnderslC/D) ... $27 
Gateway In APS (R| , . $27 



FUTURE HOUSE 

Comp- Pers. Account. $56 
HES 

Omniwriler(D) $45 

Hesmon (D) $27 

64 Forth (R) $39 

Multiplan(Dj $65 

Turtle Graphics (R) ... $39 
INFOCOM 

Planet Fall (D) $34 

Enchanter (D) $34 

lnfidel(Dj $34 

JINSAM 

MinlJlnl(B) $75 

MICROSOFTWARE INTL 
pfaoiicalc64 , (C)34(Dj36 
Spreadsheet . (C) 49(D) 52 

Practlflle64ID) $36 

MIRAGE CONCEPTS 

Data Base (O) $68 

)«ord Processor (Dj .. $68 
MICROSPEC 

Database (D) $44 

Mailing List (D) $32 

Checkbook Mpr(Dj ... $47 

G/L(D) $44 

a;P(D) $47 

A;R(0) $47 

PARKER BROS 

QBert(R) $33 

Popeye(R) $33 

Frogger(R) $33 

PROFESSIONAL SW 
WordproW/SpelKD) . . $68 

Spellright(D) $45 

QUIKTEX 

Quick Br. Foi((R) $49 

RAINBOW 

File Assistant (D) .... $46 

Writers Assistant (D) . $46 

Spreadshi Assist. (Dj , $56 

SCARBOROUGH 

Mastertype(D;R) $27 

Song Writer (0) $27 

SOFTSMITH 

Touch Typing (C/D) ... $21 
SOUTHERN SOLUTIONS 
Businessman (D) .... $48 

BillPayer(Dj $48 

BillCollector(Dj $48 

Paymaster (D) $48 

SPINNAKER 

Snooper 1 or2|D) .... $27 

Aerobics (D) $34 

KidsonKe¥S(0) $20 

Most Amazing (Dj ... $27 
Kindercomp(D) , - . , $20 

Alphabet Zoo (D) 20 

Trains{D) $27 

Delta Drawing (R) $27 

SUBLOQIC 
FllghtSimulatorlKO) . $36 

Pinball(OD) $22 

SYNAPSE 

Ft. Apocalypse (C/D) . $23 

Necromancer (C/0) , . - $23 

Zaixon(D) $23 

Blue Mai ID) $23 

Pharoah's Curse (C/Dj $23 

SSI 

Combat Leader (C/D) .$27 

Computer Baseball (D) $27 

Eagles (Dl $27 

Ringside Seal (D) .... $27 
Tigers lnSnow(C/0] . . $27 
Battle Normandy (C/D) $27 
TIMEWORKS 

Dungeons ol Alg. |C/Dj $17 
Robbers Lost (C/D| ... $17 

Money Mgr. (OO) $17 

Wall Street (C/D) $17 

Data Manager (C/D) . . $17 

Elec, Checkbook (C/D) $17 

TOTL 

TotlText . . (C)$32(D)$34 

Label (C)$15(D)$17 

TimeMgr, . (C>$24(D)$27 
RsrchAssl. (C}$24(D)$27 
TRONIX 

S.A.M. (D) $39 

Juice(D) $23 

Chatterbee(D) $27 



GIVE TOUR PC 
THE PRIVACY 

IT DESERVES 

ENABLE YOUR 
I'EI^SO^AL COMPUTER 
TO PROTECT YOUR 
SENSITIVE RECORDS 
ELECTRONICALLY. 
THE TED 551 
DES CRYPTO MODULE 
[»LU(;S INTO ANY 
PERIPHERAL 
EXPANSION BOARD. 

ONLY 1499 

(PE) SYSTEMS. INC, 

S520 Cherokee Avenue. Alexandria, VA 22312 
1703)642-9300 TeJex 90-1860 



TAPE WORLD 

^ 1-800-245-6000 '^ 
maxell. ODx^j} 



MO 1 5'., SSDO 


169 


IM/IO ,S'.-.SSDO. 


119 


MD-2 ,5'..0SDi) 


.2.39 


104,20 , , 5'.". DSDO 


2 69 


fO-I 8'. SSOD . 


2.(9 


3740/10 .,J".SSOD. 


2S<) 


FD-? r.DSDD.. 


3.?9 


3740/21) ..!-,DSOD. 


3?<( 


TDK 




IBM 




S^SSDD 


.I-M 


S!'.-SSDO 


. 1.99 


S'VBSDD 


.2.59 


S",~ DSOD 


.2.S9 


BASF 




SCOTCH 




S'/.-SSBD 


1.79 


5'VSSOD 


1 79 


iV DSDD 


2.49 


51.-DSDD 


2,»9 


VERBATIM 




ELEPHANT 




S'.'SSDD 


1 79 


S'.'SSDD 


119 


5 .DSDD 


.2 49 


5'i"0SDD. 


2.19 



WEWILLBEATANYPRICEBY3% 

Sold in 10 Packs. Shipping 3.75 any size order. 
Pre-paid, COO. or credit card. COD add 1.65 
ALL ORDERS SHIPPED WITHIN ii HOURS. 
Also, TDK and Maiell audio and video cassettes. 
220 SPRING ST. BOX 361 BUTLER. PA 16001 
412-283-8621 M-F 8:30-5:00 



CORAL SEA 



teRin 




$149. Until February 1, 1985, 
Apple lie users can upgrade 
their software to version 2.0 by 
sending their master disk, manual 
cover, and $50 to: 

Apple Computer, Inc. 
Apple Writer II Upgrade 
P.O. Box 306 
Half Moon Bar, CA 94019. 



Test-Writing 
Programs For 
Apple, 64 

Southern Oregon Video Enter- 
prises, Inc. has introduced SOVE 
Test Writer and SOVE Tester, 
two test-writing programs for 
educators, for Apple and Com- 
modore 64 computers. 

Test Writer is menu-driven 
and allows teachers to format 
questions and store them in 
files. Up to 250 questions per 
file can be stored, and up to 
eight files per disk can be 
formatted. 

Files generated by Test 
Writer can be used by Tester, a 
program which allows the gen- 
eration of self-tests on a given 
topic with questions selected by 
the instructor. 

Suggested retail price for 
Test Writer is $99.95. Tester re- 
tails for $39.95. 

Computer Division 

Southern Oregon Video Enterprises, 

Inc. 
P.O. Box 400 
Ashland, OR 97520 



Atari 600XL 
Memory Expansion 

An expansion module which 
can add up to 64K of memory 
to Atari 600XL computers has 
been announced by RC Sys- 
tems, Inc. 

The module plugs directly 
into the back of the computer 
and will not interfere with pro- 



gram cartridges. The AM 64 is 
compatible with the Atari Trans- 
lator Disk. 

Model AM2 adds 32K of 
memory and retails for $79.95; 
the AMI adds 48K and has a 
suggested price of $99.95. The 
AM64, which increases the 
memory by 64K, retails for 
$119.95. 

RC Systmes, Inc. 
121 West Winesap Rd. 
Bothell, WA 98012 



Commodore 64 
Breoic Dancing 

Break Street, a break dancing 
computer game for the Commo- 
dore 64, has been introduced by 
Creative Software. 

As a break dancer, you 
compete against the Stingrays, a 
neighborhood gang, in head 
spins, moonwalks, snaking, and 
the tut dance moves. Each break 
dance has its own level of diffi- 
culty. For example, if you miss a 
key sequence move, your char- 
acter will fall, turning the action 
over to the Stingrays. Entire 
dance sequences may be strung 
together, recorded, and replayed 
later. 

The game is controlled by 
either the keyboard or a joystick 
and sells for a suggested $24.95 
on disk. 

Creative Software 
230 East Caribbean Dr. 
Sunnyvale, CA 94089 



Neiu Product releases are selected from sub- 
missions for reasons of titnelincss, available 
space, and general interest to our readers. 
We regret that we are unable to select all 
new product submissions for publication. 
Readers should be aware ttiat me present 
here some edited version of material submit- 
ted by vendors and are unable to vouch for 
its accuracy at time of publication. © 



COMPUTE! 

The Resource 



Now, the lowest 
prices ever on 

3M Scotch' 

7 DISKETTES 



$153 

I QTY.20 



S4SSD0 pOy6" 

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SOFT SECTOR ONLY! MINIMUM ORDER: 20 DISKETTES 
Thesp are taclOfy-ffESh 3M d iskeiies packed in boies of 1 D with 
Tyuek sleeres. reinlorced huOs. idenlilicalion labels and virile- 
Drolecl tabs ,„ „„ 

3.5-MICRO-DISKETTES— SS 135TPI — 52,89 ea 

lifetime warranto on all 3m scotch diskehes! 

for orders only: information & 

1-800-621-6827 inquiries: 

(In Illinois, 1-312-944-2786) 1-312-944-2788 

HOURS: 9AM-5PM CenlrsI Time. Monday-Friday 

WE WILL BEAT ANY NATIONALLY ADVERTISED PRICE 

ON THE SAME PRODUCTS AND QUANTITIES! 

DISK WORLD!, Inc. 

Suite 4805 .30 East Huron Slreet» Chicago. lllinoB 6061 1 



AuMioriad n«Tt«rt Of 

i>n>diicti 



FANTASTIC LOW PRICES ON 

^ BASF ^ 

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DISKETTES! 



$1411™ „$159 

PACKED IN PLASTIC LIBRARY CASES! 

BASF QUALIMETRIC DISKETTES have a LIFETWE WAR- 
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sleeves, reinforced hubs, user idenliticaiian labels and write- 
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SOFT SECTOR ONLY! MINIMUM ORDER 20DISKETTE5 
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HOURS- BAM-5PM Central Time, Monday-Friday 

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(]^ THE SAME PRODUCTS AND QUANTITIES! 



nixK Authorized Reseller _ 

UlOn Inlornwiion Processing^ RAQF 

WORLD!--' ^ 



Incredible valuel 



Nashua 

Diskettes 



OlUOSV.SSDD $ I 15 

I Qty. 50 5v,» DSDD I Qty. 50 

These are pdly-bagged diskettes packaged w^th Ty/ek sleeves, 
reinforced hubs, user idenlification iabels and ^nte protet;t tabs 

NASHUA Corporation «s a hal !■ bi 1 1 ion dollar corporahon and a 
recflgni/ed leader in rnagnetic media 

SOFT SECTOR ONLY! Sold in multiples Ol 50 Only' 

for orders only: information* 

1-800-621-6827 inquiries: 

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Suite 4806* 30 East Huron Street •Ctiicago. Illinos 60611 



DISK '<*»^ 

WORLD! 



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Or More 



On all your 
OFFICE & COMPUTER SUPPLIES! 

Nov*, you can enjoy DISK WORLD' savings on more than 
21 .000 otlice and computer supply prcducls' You name it. we got 
it...at tremendous savings 

Everything trom Scotch ' Tape to Post-It Notes " lo paper clips 
and tubtier bands and thousands ol cdmpuler products as well! 

Our catalog is huge, .more than 7C0 pages, listing r^ore than 
21,000 Items. 

We have to charge for it: S10.00 to be enact 

Bui we include a 550,00 worth of ijistount coupons that you 
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Now, It's DISK WORLD' for every oflice or computer suoply 
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This cfler supercedes all prior calalog otters 
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DISK 
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DISK WORLD! 

Ordering & Shipping 
Instructions 



Shipping: 5'/ 4 3 5' DISKETTES-Add S3 00 per each 100 or 
fewer diskettes Other Items: Add shipprng charges as shown in 
addition to other shipping charges Payment: VISA ini MASTER- 
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dling charge APO, FPO, AK, HI & PR Orders: IncludB shipping 
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Prices subject to change witiout notice. 
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minimum total order: s35 00 

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HOURS 8AM-5PMCen;ral Time 

Monday-Friday 

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ON THE SAME PRODUCTS AND QUANTITIES! 

DISK WORLD!, Inc. 

Suite 4806 • 3D East Huron Street . Chicago, Illinos 60611 



DISK 
WORLD! 



AmANA 

DISKETTES 
The great unknown! 



QQ0--SSO. $-109 

^ ^ Qty, 50 j,,^. ^gpjj , I Qty 50 

You've used these diskettes hundreds of 
limes... as copy-protected originals on some of 
the most popular software packages. They're 
packed in poly-bags of 25 with Tyvek sleeves, 
reinforced hubs, user identification labels and 
write-protect tabs 

LIFETIME WARRANTY! 

SOFT SECTOR ONLY! Sold in multiples 

of 50 only. 

FOR orders ONLY: INFORMATION* 

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iln Illinois l-312-944-278e) 1-312-944-2788 

HOURS: 8AM-5PM Central Time Moncay-Friday 

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ON THE SAME PRODUCTS AND QUANTITIES! 

DISK WORLD!, Inc. 

Suite 4806 . 30 East Huron Sliiid • ChicafiO, lilinos 60611 



DISK ATHANA 

__ _ AuBwriMdDlihlbutor MAGNETIC 

WORLD! '^ 



DISKETTE 
STORAGE CASES 



AMARAY MEDIA-MATE 50: A REVOLUTION 
^^ IN DISKETTE STORAGE 

^^^1 . Every once m a while someone takes the 

^HP^Py simple and makes it elegani' This unit holds 

■k 50 5'<' diskenes. has grooves lor easy 

f stacking, inside nipples to keep diskettes 

from slipping and several other features We 

like It' cm Qt; -52 00 

IU.3J es Shpng 

DISKETTE 70 STORAGE: STILL A GREAT BUY. 

^^■r Dust-free storage lor 70 5':r diskettes. 
^■^ Six dividers included. An cxcellen! value. 

•r-JSr 'vDISK CADDIES *'''''^^ ^"'^ 
J^^^^^ The original llip-up holder lor 10 SV 
^rV^^^diskettes. Beige or greyonlyCI CR 

*•' • SOeShpnq 

for orders only: informations 

1-800-621-6827 inquiries: 

(in Illinois 1-312-944-27681 1-312-944-2788 

HOURS 8AM-5PM Central T me Vonoaj-Friday 

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ON THE SAME PRODUCTS AND QUANTITIES! 

DISK WORLD!, Inc. 

Suite 4B06 .30 East Huron Street- Chicago, Illinos 60611 



DISK 
WORLD! 



PRINTER 
RIBBONS: 



at 

extraordinary 
prices! 

Brand new ribbons, manufactured to Original Equipment 
Manulacturer s specdicabons. in housings. [Not re-inked or 
spools only ]■ 

LIFETIIVIE WARRANTY! 

Epson MX-70/80 . . S3.58 ea. + 25il Shpng. 

Epson MX-100 S4.95 ea. + 25c Sfipng. 

Okidata Micro83 , . S1.48 ea. + 25c Shpng. 

Okidala Mlcro84 . . S3.66 ea. - 25c Shpng. 
foh orders only: information i 

1-800-621-6827 inquiries: 

(In Illinois 1-312-944-2788) 1-312-944-2788 

HOUI^S eAf.l-5PM Cental Time. Monday-Froay 

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ON THE SAME PRODUCTS AND QUANTITIES! 

DISK WORLD!, Inc. 

Suite 4806 .30 East Huron Street. Chicago. Illinos 60611 



Tlwnhwlewlerln H DISK 

^^!S^!^^ I WORLD! 



PAPER: 
Save 50% or more! 



We buy paper by the TRUCKLOAD from ttie 
two biggest fnills in the country. 

Therefore, we charge a lot less than you've 
been paying! 

For the complete DISK WORLD paper 
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write us. (Please do not use the "800" line for 
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Don t spend more than you have to for top- 
quality computer printer paper. Call DISK 
WORLD! today. 

INFORIVIATION & INQUIRIES: 
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DISK 
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Where paper 
Costs leMl 



Advertisers Index 



Reoder Service Number/ Advertiser 



Page Reader Service Number/ Adverilser 



102 Abacus Software 91 

103 Abacus Software 93 

104 Abacus Software 95 

AB Computers 67 

105 American PEOPLE/LINK 87 

106 Apropos Technology 4 

Batteries inciuded 21 

Batteries inciuded 57 

107 Cardco, inc iBC 

108 CodeWriter 46 

Commodore BC 

109 CompuServe 27 

ComputAbiiity 64 

1 10 Computer Maii Order 80,81 

1 1 1 Computer Noveity Corp 142 

1 12 Cosmic Computers 157 

1 1 3 Davidson & Associates 1 

1 14 Discwasher 7 

nSDisk Worid! 159 

Eastman Kodak Company 2,3 

Eiectronic Arts 41 

Epyx : 51 

Epyx 53 

Epyx 55 

Fidelity Investors Xpress 1 08 

Frontrunner Computer Industries 151 

Happy Computers, Inc 104 

1 16 Harmony Video & Computers 142 

IBM 14,15 

1 1 7 Indus Systems 59 

Infocom, Inc 22,23 

118 Inforunner Corporation IPC 

Jason-Ranheim 28 

Jesse Jones Ind 116 

1 19 John Wiley & Sons, Inc 54 

1 20 J & R Music World 1 22 

121 Krell Software Corp 156 

1 22 Legend Peripheral Products 1 07 

123 Lyco Computer Marketing 8(, Consultants 

154,155 



Maxell Corporation of America 

1 24 MegaSoft Limited 

125 Micro-W Distributing, Inc. 

126 Micro-W Distributing, Inc. 

127 Micro World Electronix, Inc 

128 Micro World Electronix, Inc 

129 Mimic Systems, inc 

130 Mindscape, Inc 

131 Mindscape, Inc 

Navarone Industries, Inc. 

132 Nibble Notch Computer Products 
NRI Schools 

133 0kidata 

134 Pacific Exchanges 

134 Pacific Exchanges 

135 PE Systems, Inc. , . 

136 Practical Programs 

137 Protecto Enterprizes 

137 Protecto Enterprizes 

138 Quinsept, Inc 

139 Scarborough Systems 

140 Sega Enterprises, Inc. 

141 Smart Data Inc. , , . 
Spinnaker 

142 Strategic Simulations, Inc 

143 subLOGIC Corporation . 

144 Tope World 

Terin Software 

145 Timeworks, Inc 



Page 

n 

89 

128 

133 

122 

142 

35 

25 

43 

156 

122 

83 

19 

153 

156 

158 

133 

74,75 

76,77 

46 

49 

47 

83 

. 9 

29 

37 

158 

158 

13 



COMP^^^Bcs New Releases 31 

COMPUTERS First, Second 8c Third Book 

of Commodore 64 61 

COMPUTEI's Home Computer Wars 33 

COMPUTERS Machine Language for Beginners 

& Second Book of Machine Language ... 63 
COMPUTE! Subscription . . 17 



160 COMPUTEI February 1985 



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PLEASE CHECK IF YOU OWN A oiDAPPLE ojDATARI 03 D COMMODORE 64 

04nVIC-20 05 □ IBM a6DTI-99/4A mD OTHER 

D DON'T YET HAVE ONE 

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I'd like to order my copy of The Home Computer Wars. 

Please send . copies in hardback at $16.95 per copy $ . 

Add $2.00 per book stnipping + tiandling 

copies in paperback at $9.95 per copy 

Add $2.00 per book shipping + handling 

Sub-total 
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Total payment 
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All orders must be prepaid (check, charge or money order). 
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FREE Reader Information Service 

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Only one card should be used per person. Circle the numbers that 
correspond to the key number appearing in the advertisers index. 

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Please use these cards only for subscribing or for requesting product 
information. Editorial and customer service inquiries should be ad- 
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Use these cards and this address only for computers Reader infor- 
mation Service. Do not send with payment In any form. 

COMPUTE! 



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My Computer Is: 

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04 D VIC-20 05 D IBM 06 D TI-99/4A 

w n other D Don't yet hove one. 



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COMPUTE! 

P.O. Box 914 
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"The Complete CARDCO Une" 

... and still growing! 






e^T^'; 



CARDCO provides "Commodore-ready" 
computer accessories that will enhance your 
utilization of Commodore-64 and VIC-20 Computers, 
increase ttieir capability, and add to your enjoyment 
and skill. AND, they're available for use with other 
personal computers, too. 

Designed with the user in mind, CARDCO offers fine 
accessories including Printer Interfaces with and 
without graphics. Expansion Intertoces. Memory 
Exfxjnslons, Cassette Interfaces, Numeric Keypads 
PLUS "NOW" Software for your VIC-20 and C-64. 
These programs include the "WRITE NOW Word 
Processor, "IVIAIL NOW" IVIoiling List, PRINTER UTILnY 
PROGRAIVIS on Tape and on Di^ "SPEli NOW" Spell 
Checker, "GRAPH NOW including "PAINT NOW, 
and 'TILE NOW. 

CARDCO has three new Letter QualHy 
PRIIMTERS with your choice of drumhead 
design (8 1/2" carriage), Daisy Wheel 
Design (13 inch carriage) and Daisy 



Wheel Design (11 inch carriage) . "Commodore- 
ready" . . . plus; with compatible input for PC, PC jr., 
TRS-80 and many more p>ersonal computers. 
CARDCO's NEW "DATA CASSETTE RECORDER/PLAYER" 
ts also "Commodore- ready" and ready tor instant - 
shipment atprlcesthatwill amazeyou. — 

CARDCO wllJ conslantty increase its line with 
unique and new products to enhance the enjoyment 
of computer ovmers. 

Write for illustrated literature and prices or see ' 
CAraXX) Computer Accessories and Software 
wtierever Computers are scrfd. 



i^ 



m:' 







'^'-'Memory «I^fsgE*^ i.™™, *^ -Expansion "Jg^SBfc^ 
Expansion ^^Expansion I nterface a-'-^ ^' Light Pten 



^^-'Cossette ■^ ^P°.™on . wtxpansK 



fitiyrtm- 



Numeric " ^^feer jH ^^Pmter 
Keypad jVI. - Interface H^a- Z^ fnterfiace? 



't^-^Expansfon 
fnterfoce cV; - 








cardco, inc. 



300S,Topeka Wichita, Kansas 67202 (316)267-6525 
"The world's largest monufacturer of Commodore accessories." 

Corivn<xtoe' Is a regislofed tradetnart ol CwnmodofO Business Svstsms, Inc. 




IT'S NOT HOW MUCH YOU PAY. 





IT'S HOW MUCH YOU GET. 



The computer at the top 
has a 64K memory. 

It has the initials I, B, and 
M, And you pay for those 
initials— about $669. 

The Commodore 64™ has 
a 64K memory 

But you don't pay for the 
initials, you just pay for the 
computer: $215. About one 
third the price of the IBM PCjr™ 

The Commodore 64 
also has a typewriter-type 



keyboard with 66 typewriter- 
type keys. (Not rubber chicklet 
keys like the IBM PCjr.) 

It has high resolution 
graphics with 320 x 200 pixel 
resolution, 16 available colors 
and eight 3-dimensional sprites. 

It has 9-octave high fidelity 
sound. 

The Commodore 64 is 
capable of running thousands 
of programs for home and 
office. And if you add a printer 



or color monitor, disk drive and 
a modem— all together it just 
about equals the price of the 
IBM PCjr all alone. With no 
peripherals. 

So you can buy a computer 
for a lot of money. 

Or buy a lot of computer 
for the money. 

COMMODORE 64' 

IT'S NOT HOW LIHLE IT COSTS, 
IT'S HOW MUCH you GET